SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Makalu

Makalu is the fifth highest mountain in the world at 8,485 metres. It is located in the Mahalangur Himalayas 19 km southeast of Mount Everest, on the border between Nepal and Tibet Autonomous Region, China. One of the eight-thousanders, Makalu is an isolated peak. Makalu has two notable subsidiary peaks. Kangchungtse, or Makalu II lies about 3 kilometres north-northwest of the main summit. Rising about 5 km north-northeast of the main summit across a broad plateau, connected to Kangchungtse by a narrow, 7,200 m saddle, is Chomo Lonzo; the first climb on Makalu was made by an American team led by Riley Keegan in the spring of 1954. The expedition was composed of Sierra Club members including Allen Steck, was called the California Himalayan Expedition to Makalu, they attempted the southeast ridge but were turned back at 7,100 metres by a constant barrage of storms. A New Zealand team including Sir Edmund Hillary was active in the spring, but did not get high due to injury and illness. In the fall of 1954, a French reconnaissance expedition made the first ascents of the subsidiary summits Kangchungtse and Chomo Lonzo.

Makalu was first summited on May 15, 1955 by Lionel Terray and Jean Couzy of a French expedition led by Jean Franco. Franco, Guido Magnone and Gyalzen Norbu Sherpa summitted the next day, followed by Jean Bouvier, Serge Coupé, Pierre Leroux and André Vialatte on the 17th; this was an amazing achievement at the time, to have the vast majority of expedition members summit on such a difficult peak. Prior to this time, summits were reached by one to two expedition members at most, with the rest of teams providing logistical support before turning around and heading home; the French team climbed Makalu by the north face and northeast ridge, via the saddle between Makalu and Kangchungtse, establishing the standard route. 1955 North Face to Northeast Ridge FA by Jean Couzy of France. 1970: Southeast Ridge FA of ridge attempted by the Americans in 1954, was made by Y. Ozaki and A. Tanaka from Japan on May 23. 1971: The technical West Pillar route was climbed in May by Frenchmen B. Mellet and Y. Seigneur.

1975: South Face – an expedition led by Aleš Kunaver reached the top of Makalu up its steep southern side, becoming the first Slovenes to summit an eight-thousander. The first amongst; this was the third ascent of an eight-thousand meter peak by a great mountain face and the highest peak summitted without supplementary oxygen. 1976 – South pillar route completed by Czechoslovak expedition. Route goes via south buttress to Makalu South and via southeast ridge. Makalu South was climbed by 11 expedition members. Two of them – Karel Schubert and Milan Kriššák summited main summit together with Jorge Camprubi from Spanish expedition which climbed southeast ridge. Karel Schubert died after bivouac near the summit; the route wasn't repeated till today. 1980: The second ascent of the West Pillar was completed in May by John Roskelley, Chris Kopczynski, James States and Kim Momb, without Sherpa support and without bottled oxygen. 1981: On 15 October renowned Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka ascended Makalu via a new route up the north-western side and north crest.

Kukuczka climbed solo, without supplemental oxygen. 1982: On 10 October Polish climber Andrzej Czok ascended Makalu via West face till 8000m and north-western ridge. Camp IV was reached by two more climbers, Janusz Skorek and Andrzej Machnik, but when their first summit attempt failed, Czok decided to try one more time solo. 1988: Frenchman Marc Batard climbed in one day to the summit via the West Buttress on April 27. 1989: Direct South Face, solo new start by Frenchman Pierre Beghin to 1975 Yugoslav route. 1990: First female ascent, Kitty Calhoun via the West Pillar route. 1994: On May 15, the anniversary of the first summit, Anatoli Boukreev made a speed ascent in 46 hours. 1997: After seven failed attempts between 1977 and 1996, the West face was conquered. A Russian expedition led by Sergey Efimov brought Alexei Bolotov, Yuri Ermachek, Dmitri Pavlenko, Igor Bugachevski and Nikolai Jiline to the summit; this ascent won the 1998 Piolet d'Or. 2006: On or about January 27 the French mountaineer Jean-Christophe Lafaille disappeared on Makalu while trying to make the first winter ascent.

2008: Brazilian Waldemar Niclevicz and Irivan Burda arrived on May 11, 2008 to the top of Makalu 2009: Makalu was first climbed in winter on February 9, 2009 by Italian Simone Moro and Kazakh Denis Urubko. It was the final Nepali eight-thousander to be climbed in winter conditions. Moro had made the first winter ascent of Shishapangma in winter 2005 with Pole Piotr Morawski. Makalu is one of the more difficult eight-thousanders, is considered one of the most difficult mountains in the world to climb; the mountain is notorious for its steep pitches and knife-edged ridges that are open to the elements. The final ascent of the summit pyramid involves technical rock/ice climbing. Makalu-Barun Valley is a Himalayan glacier valley situated at the base of Makalu in the Sankhuwasabha district of Nepal; this valley lies inside the Makalu Barun National Park. Barun Valley provides stunning contrasts, where high waterfalls cascade into deep gorges, craggy rocks rise from lush green forests, colorful flowers bloom beneath white snow peaks.

This unique landscape shelters some of the last pristine mountain ecosystems on Ea

Uthrapathiswaraswamy Temple

Uthrapathiswaraswamy Temple is a Hindu temple in Tiruchenkattankudi in Nagapattinam district in the Tamil Nadu state of India. Though it is dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva, it is more famous for its Ganesha icons; the main Ganesha shrine depicts him with a human head, instead of the elephant head he is depicted with. Vatapi Ganapati, the other Ganesha icon, was installed in a smaller shrine at a date; the Shiva temple was known as Siruthonda Ganapatishvara, named over Siruthondar. The name "Ganapatishvara", which gives the town his alternate name "Ganapatishvaram", denotes Shiva as "Lord of Ganesha" and alludes to the legend that Ganesha killed a demon called Gajamukhasura and worshipped his father Shiva here. According to another legend, A king ruling Rameswaram region prayed to Lord Shiva for child boon and performed a yajna. Through His voice, Lord assured the king; when the king set out on hunting, he found four female children, brought up them as his own daughters. When they attained age, king got married them to Lord Shiva.

These are the Ambicas in four places – Sarivar Kuzhali in Rameswaram temple, Vaaitha Tirukuzshal Nayaki in Tiruchengattangudi, Karundhar Kuzhali in Tirupugalur and Vandar Kuzhali in Tirumarugal. They bear the common name Shoolikambal, the ones who help women through pregnancy and delivery. In all these four places Shrines of Ambika are hosted in separate shrines; the icon of Vatapi Ganapati is enshrined in a secondary shrine in the temple complex of Uthrapathiswaraswamy Temple. As per oral tradition, the icon of Vatapi Ganapati was brought booty from the Chalukyan capital of Vatapi by Paranjothi, the commander-in-chief of the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I, following the conquest of Pallavas over the Chalukyas; the icon was placed in Paranjothi's birthplace Tiruchenkattankudi. Paranjothi renounced his violent ways and became a Shaiva monk known as Siruthondar, is venerated as a Nayanar saint today. However, no written records substantiate the oral tradition; the famous Vatapi Ganapatim hymn is dedicated to this icon.

Brown, Robert L.. Ganesh: studies of an Asian god. New York: State University of New York Press. Pp. 143–162. ISBN 978-0-7914-0656-4. Retrieved 2 August 2009. Ayyar, P. V. Jagadisa. South Indian Shrines. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. Pp. 402–404. ISBN 978-81-206-0151-2. Retrieved 2 August 2009. Tourist Guide to South India. Chennai: Sura Books. 2006. Pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-81-7478-175-8. Retrieved 2 August 2009

Josephine Connolly

Josephine Olivia Connolly is a businesswoman and an elected member of the Turks and Caicos islands House of Assembly. In December 2016 she won her all island seat for the second time and was appointed Minister Of Education, Youth and Library Services. Connolly was born in Turks & Caicos on the island of Salt Cay in 1959, she is the daughter of Alexander “Shorty” Smith, the elected representative of Salt Cay and one of the founders of the PNO which became the PNP. In 1998, Connolly was a partner in the real estate consulting firm Connolly-Zahm Properties. In 2010, Connolly was awarded a master's degree from the University of Central Lancashire. In 2010, Connolly was the reigning "Mrs. Turks and Caicos", representing her country in the Mrs. World Pageant. In July 2012, Connolly became an at-large candidate in the upcoming general election. On November 9, she was voted in as one of the five at-large members of the parliament. At the first sitting of the house on November 28, Connolly was unanimously voted in as Deputy Speaker.

In 2013, the Attorney General began an investigation, alleging that Connolly had failed to declare contracts with the Turks and Caicos Islands Government on her declaration of candidacy. The investigation against Connolly and her political colleagues was subsequently dropped. In the December 2016 election, Connolly retained her seat as an all island member and became part of the new PDM government as Minister of Education, Youth and Library Services