MV Rena was a 3,351 TEU container ship owned by the Greek shipping company Costamare Inc. through one of its subsidiaries, Daina Shipping Co. The ship was built in 1990 as ZIM America for the Israeli shipping company Zim by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG in Kiel, Germany, she was renamed Andaman Sea in 2007 and had sailed under her current name and owner since 2010. On 5 October 2011, due to navigation errors near the Astrolabe Reef, the Rena ran aground near Tauranga, New Zealand, resulting in an oil spill. Over the span of several months, she had been battered by consistent heavy winds and rough seas and on 8 January 2012 the Rena broke in two after a harsh night of bad weather. By 10 January the stern section had slipped off of the reef bank and sunk completely; the Rena was a 236-metre Panamax container ship with a container capacity of 3,351 twenty-foot equivalent units in seven holds. Her breadth was 32.2 metres, laden she had a draught of 12 metres. Her gross tonnage was net tonnage 16,454 and deadweight tonnage 47,231 tonnes.
The Rena was served by a crew of 20. The ship was propelled by a single eight-cylinder Cegielski-Sulzer 8RTA76 two-stroke low-speed diesel engine directly coupled to a fixed-pitch propeller; the main engine, which had a maximum output of 21,996 kW at 98 rpm, burned 90 tons of heavy fuel oil per day while giving the ship a service speed of 21 knots. For maneuvering at ports the ship was equipped with a bow thruster. Shipboard power was generated by two 1,240-kilowatt auxiliary generating sets. In the late 1980s the Israeli shipping company Zim launched a major renovation and fleet expansion project, which included ordering 15 new ships. One of the new ships was ZIM America, laid down on 4 October 1989 at the Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG shipyard in Kiel, Germany. Delivered on 1 April 1990 and registered in Haifa, the new 3351 TEU container ship enabled Zim to offer a weekly fixed-day sailing schedule for its customers; the ZIM America was re-registered under the Maltese flag of convenience in 2004 with Valletta as her home port, in 2007 she was renamed Andaman Sea.
In 2010 the Andaman Sea was sold to Daina Shipping Co. a subsidiary of the Greek shipping company Costamare Inc. She was registered in the port of Monrovia in Liberia. In 2011 the shipping company signed a five-year charter for Rena with the Mediterranean Shipping Company. On Wednesday, 5 October 2011, at 2:20 AM while sailing from Napier to Tauranga, the Rena ran aground on the Astrolabe Reef off the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand; the ship was carrying 1,368 containers, eight of which contained hazardous materials, as well as 1,700 tonnes of heavy fuel oil and 200 tonnes of marine diesel. By Sunday, 9 October, a 5-kilometre oil slick threatened wildlife and the area's rich fishing waters. Oil from the Rena began washing ashore at Mount Maunganui beach on 10 October. Bad weather that night caused the ship to shift on the reef, the crew were evacuated; the shifting of the ship caused further damage, resulting in a further 130–350 tonnes of oil leaking. On 11 October the spill was declared New Zealand's worst maritime environmental disaster by Environment Minister Nick Smith.
By 13 October the ship was listing by 20°, 88 of her 1368 containers had fallen into the sea. Due to increased pressure to her hull, Rena was expected at any point to split in two, furthering the environmental impact of the disaster, it was reported on 14 October 2011, that Rena had cracked in two, held together only by her internal structure and the reef itself. On 8 January 2012, it was reported that the Rena had broken in two, while the bow section remained grounded on the reef, the split had caused both sections to slew away from each other and settle lower in the water; this caused further oil to be released into the sea. By 10 January the stern section had been submerged completely, on 4 April it slipped further down the reef and disappeared from the surface. By June 2014, the wreck has been salvaged of 77% of the initial containers. Major pieces of the wreck have been removed, those include: the entire bow section being leveled one metre below the low tide mark, removal of the 350 tonne accommodation block and a major piece of port side.
All fuel and oils have been removed, except for about 1 tonne of clingage. There is an ongoing search for the last container of plastic beads. During the whole salvage, more than 850 tonnes of debris has been removed from the area. In a report by the ship's owner it was noted that the anti-fouling paint on the wreck contains zinc, diuron and tributyltin; the same report noted that there is "localised contamination of TBT in on-reef sediments at Astrolabe". The Sediment Quality Report submitted by the ship's owners as part of their resource consent application to leave the wreck on Astrolabe noted, "Sediment contaminant concentrations on Astrolabe Reef adjacent to the wreck indicates adverse effects on organisms are to be occurring due to elevated concentrations of copper, zinc, TBT, PAHs." List of oil spills
Te Puni Kōkiri
Te Puni Kōkiri, the Ministry of Māori Development, is the public service department charged with advising the government on policies and issues affecting the Māori community. The name means "a group moving forward together". Te Puni Kōkiri or the Ministry of Māori Development traces its origins to back to the missionary–influenced Protectorate Department, which existed between 1840 and 1846; the Department was headed by the missionary and civil servant George Clarke, who held the position of Chief Protector. Its goal was to protect the rights of the Māori people in accordance with the Treaty of Waitangi; the Protectorate was tasked with advising the Governor on matters relating to Māori and acting as an interpreter for the courts, colonial officials, the military. Clarke's determination to protect those rights led Governor George Grey to abolish the Protectorate Department in 1846. Grey was opposed to the legal recognition of Māori customs and Māori participation in the judicial system; the Protectorate Department was succeeded by the Native Department, created in 1861 to manage the growing tensions between Māori and European settlers which culminated in the New Zealand Land Wars.
The Native Department was tasked with delivering services to Māori in the areas of education and policing, to assimilate Māori into European society. Under the purview of the Native Department, Governor Grey established a system of elected Māori committees or Rūnanga and recruited Māori into the civil service. After the abolition of the Rūnanga system, Native Department conducted its activities through a network of resident magistrates, assessors and mail carriers. In addition, the native schooling system was established and Māori electorates were created in the New Zealand House of Representatives to ensure Māori representation and participation in the country's governance. In 1893, the Native Department was disbanded and its health and policing functions were reallocated to other government departments. In 1906, the Native Department was established under the leadership of Native Affairs Minister James Carroll with an initial focus on land management and Māori healthcare. One early priority of the Department was developing Māori land in order to boost Māori economic development and to stem the loss of Māori to Europeans.
These policies were continued by his successors including Āpirana Ngata. Under the First Labour Government, the Native Department's priorities shifted to promoting economic equality and employment for the Māori population. Housing and land development continued and both Māori and Pakeha benefited from the government's welfare state policies. In 1947, the Department was renamed the "Department of Maori Affairs" at the initiative of Prime Minister Peter Fraser, who introduced legislation substituting the word'Native' to'Māori' government-wide. Between 1906 and 1989, the Department of Māori Affairs' portfolio was expanded to include the office of the Māori Trustee. By the late 1970s, the Māori Affairs Department had under a thousand permanent staff across several regions. Between 1986 and 1987, the Department was embroiled in the Māori loan affair, which involved the Department attempting to raise overseas funds for Māori development purposes in an unauthorised way. In response to the Māori loan affair, the Department of Māori Affairs was dissolved in 1989 and replaced by two new agencies: the Ministry of Māori Affairs and the Iwi Transition Agency.
The Ministry of Māori Affairs was tasked with advising the government on policies of interest to Māori and monitoring the responsiveness of government agencies to issues facing Māori. The Iwi Transition Agency was tasked with helping Māori tribes to develop new capacities to expand their role in society. Following the Ka Awatea report published by the Fourth National Government's Māori Affairs Minister Winston Peters, the two agencies were replaced in 1992 by the current Ministry of Māori Development. Under the terms of the Ka Awatea report, Te Puni Kōkiri was to focus on policy advise and monitoring roles, supported by a network of regional offices; the Ministry was tasked with advising and monitoring mainstream government departments on the provision of services to the Māori community. After 1992, the Ministry's focus shifted from welfare provision towards stimulating economic growth, paid employment, education as a means of eliminating poverty. In August 2014, it was announced that TPK would be undergoing a restructure effective by 3 November 2014, with 80 staff losing their jobs.
On 1 June 2018, it was announced that Te Puni Kōkiri would be partnering with the Māori service provider He Korowai Trust to provide affordable "rent–to–own" housing for the Māori community. According to the 2013 New Zealand census, only 29% of Māori adults owned their own homes, compared to 50% of the total population; the Labour–led coalition government announced that $15 million had been set aside in the 2018 Budget to provide assistance and resources to Māori housing providers with the aim of combating homelessness and increasing Māori housing ownership. Te Puni Kōkiri or the Ministry of Māori Development deals with public policy involving the Māori community, advises the New Zealand Government on relations and polici
The sweet potato is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae. Its large, sweet-tasting, tuberous roots are a root vegetable; the young leaves and shoots are sometimes eaten as greens. The sweet potato is only distantly related to the potato and does not belong to the nightshade family, but both families belong to the same taxonomic order, the Solanales; the plant is a herbaceous perennial vine, bearing alternate heart-shaped or palmately lobed leaves and medium-sized sympetalous flowers. The edible tuberous root is long and tapered, with a smooth skin whose color ranges between yellow, red, brown and beige, its flesh ranges from beige through white, pink, yellow and purple. Sweet potato cultivars with white or pale yellow flesh are less sweet and moist than those with red, pink or orange flesh. Ipomoea batatas is native to the tropical regions in the Americas. Of the 50 genera and more than 1,000 species of Convolvulaceae, I. batatas is the only crop plant of major importance—some others are used locally, but many are poisonous.
The genus Ipomoea that contains the sweet potato includes several garden flowers called morning glories, though that term is not extended to Ipomoea batatas. Some cultivars of Ipomoea batatas are grown as ornamental plants under the name tuberous morning glory, used in a horticultural context; the sweet potato is called a "yam" in parts of North America, but is botanically distinct from the botanical yams. Although the soft, orange sweet potato is called a "yam" in parts of North America, the sweet potato is distinct from the botanical yams, native to Africa and Asia and belongs to the monocot family Dioscoreaceae. To add to the confusion, a different crop plant, the oca, is called a "yam" in many parts of Polynesia, including New Zealand. Although the sweet potato is not related botanically to the common potato, they have a shared etymology; the first Europeans to taste sweet potatoes were members of Christopher Columbus's expedition in 1492. Explorers found many cultivars under an assortment of local names, but the name which stayed was the indigenous Taino name of batata.
The Spanish combined this with the Quechua word for potato, papa, to create the word patata for the common potato. In Argentina, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic the sweet potato is called batata. In Mexico, Chile, Central America, the Philippines, the sweet potato is known as camote, derived from the Nahuatl word camotli. In Peru, the Quechua name for a type of sweet potato is kumar, strikingly similar to the Polynesian name kumara and its regional Oceanic cognates, which has led some scholars to suspect an instance of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. In New Zealand, the original Māori varieties bore elongated tubers with white skin and a whitish flesh. Kumara is popular as a roasted food served with sour cream and sweet chili sauce. In Australia, shops will label purple cultivars as "purple sweet potato" to denote the difference to the other cultivars. About 95% of Australia's production is of the orange cultivar named'Beauregard' from North America, known as "sweet potato". A reddish-purple cultivar,'Northern Star', is 4% of production and is sold as "kumara".
The origin and domestication of sweet potato occurred in either South America. In Central America, domesticated sweet potatoes were present at least 5,000 years ago, with the origin of I. batatas between the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico and the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. The cultigen was most spread by local people to the Caribbean and South America by 2500 BCE; the sweet potato was grown in Polynesia before western exploration as the Ipomoea batatas, spread by vine cuttings rather than by seeds. Sweet potato has been radiocarbon-dated in the Cook Islands to 1400 CE. A common hypothesis is that a vine cutting was brought to central Polynesia by Polynesians who had traveled to South America and back, spread from there across Polynesia to Easter Island and New Zealand. Divergence time estimates suggest that sweet potatoes might have been present in Polynesia thousands of years before humans arrived there, although other reports dispute this. In response to a major crop failure, sweet potatoes were introduced to Fujian province of China in about 1594 from Luzon.
The growing of sweet potatoes was encouraged by the Governor Chin Hsüeh-tseng. The sweet potato was introduced to Japan, in the early 1600s. Sweet potatoes became a staple in Japan because they were important in preventing famine when rice harvests were poor. Sweet potatoes were planted in Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshimune's private garden, it was introduced to Korea in 1764. The sweet potato arrived in Europe with the Columbian exchange, it is recorded, for example, in Elinor Fettiplace's Receipt Book, compiled in England in 1604. The genome of cultivated sweet potatoes contains sequences of DNA from Agrobacterium, with genes expressed by the plants. Transgenes were observed both in related wild relatives of the sweet potato, in more distantly related wild species. Studies indicated that the sweet potato genome evolved over millennia, with eventual domestication of the crop taking advantage of natural genetic modific
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Bay of Plenty
The Bay of Plenty is a bight in the northern coast of New Zealand's North Island. It stretches 260 km from the Coromandel Peninsula in the west to Cape Runaway in the east; the Bay of Plenty Region is situated around this body of water incorporating several large islands in the bay. The bay was named by James Cook after he noticed the abundant food supplies at several Māori villages there, in stark contrast to the earlier observations he had made in Poverty Bay. According to local Māori traditions, the Bay of Plenty was the landing point of several migration canoes that brought Māori settlers to New Zealand; these include the Mataatua, Nukutere, Tākitimu and Tainui canoes. Many of the descendent iwi maintain their traditional homelands in the region, including Te Whānau-ā-Apanui, Te Whakatōhea, Ngāi Tai, Ngāi Tūhoe, Ngāti Awa, Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki Kawerau, Te Arawa, Ngāi Te Rangi, Ngāti Ranginui and Ngāti Pūkenga. Early Māori settlement gave rise to many of the city names used today; the first recorded European contact came when James Cook sailed through the Bay of Plenty in 1769.
Cook noted the abundance of food supplies, in comparison to Poverty Bay further back along the eastern coast of the North Island. Further reports of European contact are scarce prior to the arrival of missionary Samuel Marsden to the Tauranga area in 1820. During the 1820s and 1830s, northern iwi including Ngā Puhi invaded the Bay of Plenty during their campaign throughout the North Island, fighting local Māori tribes in what became known as the Musket Wars. However, the 1830s and 1840s saw increased contact between Bay of Plenty Māori and Europeans through trade, although few Europeans settled in the region. Missionary activity in the region increased during this time. In 1853, New Zealand was subdivided into provinces, with the Bay of Plenty incorporated into Auckland Province. Conflict returned to the Bay of Plenty during the 1860s with the New Zealand Land Wars; this stemmed from Tauranga iwi supporting the Waikato iwi in their conflict with the government. In retaliation, British Crown and government-allied Māori forces attacked the Tauranga iwi, including at the famous Battle of Gate Pā in 1864.
Further conflict with the government arose in 1865 when German missionary Carl Völkner and interpreter James Fulloon were killed by local Māori at Opotiki and Whakatane, respectively. The ensuing conflict resulted in the confiscation of considerable land from several Bay of Plenty iwi by the government. Confiscation of Māori land deprived local iwi of economic resources, provided land for expanding European settlement; the government established fortified positions, including at Tauranga and Opotiki. European settlers arrived throughout the latter half of the 19th century, establishing settlements in Katikati, Te Puke and the Rangitaiki area. In 1876, settlements were incorporated into counties following the nationwide dissolution of the provincial system. Initial settlements in the region struggled: the climate was ill-suited to sheep farming and the geography was inaccessible, further hindered by a lack of infrastructure. By the end of the century the population had started to dwindle, but after experimenting with different crops, settlers found success with dairy production.
Dairy factories sprang up across the Bay of Plenty in the 1900s, with butter and cheese feeding economic prosperity throughout the early 20th century. Timber became a major export in the 1950s, as kiwifruit did later; the present Bay of Plenty region was formed in 1989 after a nationwide review and shakeup of top-level local government in New Zealand. The new region incorporated the former counties of Tauranga, Rotorua and Opotiki. On 5 October 2011, the MV Rena ran aground on the Astrolabe Reef in the bay causing a large oil spill, described as New Zealand's worst environmental disaster; the region is subdivided into territorial authorities, which include the Western Bay of Plenty District, Tauranga City, Whakatane District, Kawerau District and Opotiki District, as well as parts of Rotorua District and the town of Rangitaiki in Taupo District. The Bay of Plenty Regional Council, which used the brand name Environment Bay of Plenty for a number of years, is the administrative body responsible for overseeing regional land use, environmental management and civil defence in the region.
It oversees local-tier governing councils for each of the territorial authorities. In 1989, Whakatane was selected as the seat for the regional council, as a compromise between the two dominant cities of Tauranga and Rotorua. Public health in New Zealand is broken into regions; the Bay of Plenty and Lakes district health boards have public health provided by Toi Te Ora - Public Health. The Bay of Plenty region covers 9,500 km ² of coastal marine area, it extends along the eastern coast of the North Island, from the base of the Coromandel Peninsula in the west to Cape Runaway in the east. The region extends 12 nautical miles from the mainland coastline, extends from the coastlines of several islands in the bay, notably Mayor Island/Tuhua, Motiti Island, Whale Island and the active volcano of Whakaari/White Island, it extends inland to the sparsely populated forest lands around Murupara. The geographical bay is defined by 259 km of open coastline used for economic and cultural purposes; the coastline from Waihi Beach in the west to Opape is defined as sandy coast, while the coast from Opape to Cape Runaway is rocky shore.
Sizeable harbours are located at Tauranga and Ohiwa. Major estuaries include Maketu, Little Waihi, Whakatane and Waioeka/Otara. Eight major rivers empty into the bay from inland
The Kaituna River is in the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand. It is the outflow from Lakes Rotorua and Rotoiti, flows northwards for 45 kilometres, emptying into the Bay of Plenty near Te Puke, it was the subject of a claim concerning the effluent flowing down the river from Lake Rotorua, which resulted in movement to a land treatment system. The upper section of the Kaituna referred to as Okere River, offers some of the best whitewater kayaking and rafting in the world, with the Okere Falls area containing the highest commercially rafted waterfall, 7 metres, in the world, it is famous for its trout fishing. During the 1970s Lake Rotorua was becoming eutrophic under heavy nutrient loadings, leading the Ministry of Works to propose diverting some sewage flow into the Kaituna River. Local iwi objected however, filed a claim with the Waitangi Tribunal, their objections included the insult to other iwi and destruction of the rivers mauri which they believed would destroy its ability to sustain aquatic life.
The Ministry of Works report however stated that the mauri concept was religious in nature and not scientifically verifiable, while on the other hand diluting the waste would help prevent excess pollution and keep costs at a reasonable level. In Māori culture religion and science are not treated separately as they tend to be in Western culture. In 1990 however, the Rotorua Land Treatment Scheme saw an upgrade to treatment facilities to remove 80% of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, land application to reduce eutrophication and satisfy Māori cultural wishes; this has led to better environmental and cultural outcomes for all parties. The upper reaches of the Kaituna river was the site of a small power station, in operation from 1901 to 1936, the first generating plant built by the New Zealand government. Several proposals for a larger power station have been considered, however the high cost of these projects has meant that none have been built to date. In 2008 there was a consultation regarding the installation of a new 13.5 megawatts hydro electric power dam below the river at the end of Trout Pool Road.
This would involve the creation of a man made dam and the flooding of some land, destroying a section of river known as "Awesome Gorge" and leaving the section known as "Gnarly Gorge" with a reduced flow. Kayaking and rafting groups and local iwi raised objections; the Kaituna River is a world-famous white-water destination. The river has been run by rafting and kayak since 1991, it is used for recreational kayaking, commercial tandem kayaking and sledging. It is a winter destination for paddlers from the northern hemisphere; the entrance to the upper gorge contains a slalom course, used by international teams for their off-season training prior to world championships and Olympic competition. The upper gorge contains a number of play features, including the famous "bottom hole"; the entire river has been run. The temperate rainforest, warm water, its unusual character means the river is well known in international whitewater kayak videos. Notable waterfalls in the upper gorge are Okere Falls, Tutea Falls, Trout Pool Falls, all of which are accessible via the Okere Falls track.
Rafting on Kaituna River
Wiremu Kīngi Maketū
Wiremu Kīngi Maketū was the first person executed in New Zealand under British rule. Maketū was the first New Zealand Māori to be tried and punished based on British sovereignty over New Zealand. Maketū was the son of Ruhe of a chief of the Ngāpuhi. Maketū was accused of the murder of 5 people on 20 November 1841 on Motuarohia Island in the Bay of Islands, he was accused of killing Thomas Bull with an adze. The explanation for this killing was that Thomas Bull had been mistreating Maketū. Maketū was accused of killing his employer Elizabeth Roberton, her two children and Isabella Brind, the granddaughter of Rewa, a chief of the Ngai Tawake hapū of the Ngāpuhi iwi of Kerikeri. Isabella's parents were Captain William Darby Brind, he was accused of setting Mrs Roberton's house on fire. At first the Ngāpuhi refused to surrender Maketū to the colonial authorities for trial. Ruhe, the father, consented, it may be assumed that the death of Rewa's grandchild, for which utu was due, had much to do with this decision.
Hōne Heke had been absent from the Bay of Islands, on his return he advocated among the Ngāpuhi for confrontation against the Government. A meeting of the Ngāpuhi was arranged by the Rev. Henry Williams at Paihia at the request of Tāmati Wāka Nene; the meeting took place on 16 December 1841 and including Ngāpuhi from Whangaroa and Hokianga, with upwards of a thousand being present. The meeting was turbulent with Heke expressing his opposition to the surrender of Maketū; when he rose to speak, he interrupted Paerau, speaking and flourishing his hatchet at him. Upon this Whiria left the meeting as he did not want to be involved in fighting between the different hapū of the Ngāpuhi, which had occurred in 1830 in the so-called Girls' War. Heke did not persuade the Ngāpuhi to accept his position; the meeting ended with Heke and his supporters conducting a Haka on the beach at Paihia, firing their muskets, which were loaded with ball. Henry Williams prepared a statement of resolutions made by the Ngāpuhi who dissociated themselves from Maketū's action, signed by Tāmati Wāka Nene, Pomare II, Waikato and Ruhe.
This message was sent to George Clarke, appointed by Lieutenant-Governor William Hobson as the'Protector of Aborigines'. The message was published in The New Zealand Auckland Gazette. Ruhe seems to have been over-borne by the Ngāpuhi chiefs that supported the surrender of Maketū, as afterwards Ruhe appeared to regret his decision as he threatened to shoot George Clarke's cattle because he had taken his son prisoner to Auckland. Beginning on 1 March 1842, Maketū was tried in the Supreme Court in Auckland with Chief Justice William Martin presiding, it was a first time. C. B. Brewer was only retained to appear as Maketū's legal counsel. Brewer argued that the court did not have jurisdiction over Maketū, on the ground of the prisoner's ignorance of the crime of murder, in the penal law of the colony, of his having no possible means or opportunity of understanding the penal law of the colony. William Swainson, the prosecuting counsel, argued that there should be one rule for all people, whether Māori or Pākehā.
Martin CJ ruled that Maketū could be punished by the court. Maketū pleaded not guilty; the jury heard evidence of Maketū's confessions to the killings and he was convicted of murder by a jury and was sentenced to death. He was hanged at the corner of Victoria Streets in Auckland. On the morning of his execution, he requested to be baptised in the Anglican rite and took the Christian names "Wiremu Kīngi". Just prior to his execution, Maketū dictated a statement whereby he said it his execution was just because "it is my own doing" and that he had prayed to God to "wash my sins away". Maketū was 16 when the crimes were committed, he was executed in Auckland on 7 March 1842. In 1842, the attorney general, wrote to the Colonial Office, giving his legal opinion that the proceedings was usurpation of Māori sovereignty and went beyond the provisions of the Treaty of Waitangi; the response by James Stephen of the Colonial Office concluded "Mr Swainson may think this is unjust or impolitic or inconsistent with former Acts, but still it is done".
Moon comments that "what made this extension of British law into Maori communities possible in the manner in which it happened was the 16 December 1841 resolution which the twenty chiefs signed."These events were considered a turning point in the history of the Colony, as Hōne Heke became an antagonist to the colonial administration and began gathering support among the Ngāpuhi for a rebellion against the colonial administration, which occurred in 1845 with the Flagstaff War. Paul Moon. New Zealand Birth Certificates: 50 of New Zealand's Founding Documents pp 68–69. "Maketū Wharetotara", NZ History online, nzhistory.net.nz