Australia national cricket team
The Australia national cricket team is the joint oldest team in Test cricket history, having played in the first Test match in 1877. The team plays One-Day International and Twenty20 International cricket, participating in both the first ODI, against England in the 1970–71 season and the first T20I, against New Zealand in the 2004–05 season, winning both games; the team draws its players from teams playing in the Australian domestic competitions – the Sheffield Shield, the Australian domestic limited-overs cricket tournament and the Big Bash League. The national team has played 820 Test matches, winning 386, losing 222, drawing 210 and tying 2; as of March 2019, Australia is ranked fourth in the ICC Test Championship on 104 rating points. Australia is the most successful team in Test cricket history, in terms of overall wins, win-loss ratio and wins percentage; the Australian cricket team has played 932 ODI matches, winning 566, losing 323, tying 9 and with 34 ending in a no-result. As of March 2019, Australia is ranked fifth in the ICC ODI Championship on 102 rating points, though have been ranked first for 141 of 185 months since its introduction in 2002.
Australia have made a record seven World Cup final appearances and have won the World Cup a record five times in total. Australia is the first team to appear in four consecutive World Cup finals, surpassing the old record of three consecutive World Cup appearances by the West Indies and the first team to win 3 consecutive World Cups; the team was undefeated in 34 consecutive World Cup matches until 19 March at the 2011 Cricket World Cup where Pakistan beat them by 4 wickets. It is the second team to win a World Cup on home soil, after India. Australia have won the ICC Champions Trophy twice making them the first and the only team to become back to back winners in the Champions Trophy tournaments; the national team has played 116 Twenty20 International matches, winning 60, losing 52, tying 2 and with 2 ending in a no-result. As of March 2019, Australia is ranked third in the ICC T20I Championship on 120 rating points. Additionally, the team made the final of the 2010 ICC World Twenty20. On 12 January 2019, Australia won the first ODI against India at the Sydney Cricket Ground by 34 runs, to record their 1,000th win in international cricket.
The Australian cricket team participated in the first Test match at the MCG in 1877, defeating an English team by 45 runs, with Charles Bannerman making the first Test century, a score of 165 retired hurt. Test cricket, which only occurred between Australia and England at the time, was limited by the long distance between the two countries, which would take several months by sea. Despite Australia's much smaller population, the team was competitive in early games, producing stars such as Jack Blackham, Billy Murdoch, Fred "The Demon" Spofforth, George Bonnor, Percy McDonnell, George Giffen and Charles "The Terror" Turner. Most cricketers at the time were either from New South Wales or Victoria, with the notable exception of George Giffen, the star South Australian all-rounder. A highlight of Australia's early history was the 1882 Test match against England at The Oval. In this match, Fred Spofforth took 7/44 in the game's fourth innings to save the match by preventing England from making their 85-run target.
After this match The Sporting Times, a major newspaper in London at the time, printed a mock obituary in which the death of English cricket was proclaimed and the announcement made that "the body was cremated and the ashes taken to Australia." This was the start of the famous Ashes series in which Australia and England play a series of Test matches to decide the holder of the Ashes. To this day, the contest is one of the fiercest rivalries in sport; the so-called'Golden Age' of Australian Test cricket occurred around the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, with the team under the captaincy of Joe Darling, Monty Noble and Clem Hill winning eight of ten tours. It is considered to have lasted from the 1897–98 English tour of Australia and the 1910–11 South African tour of Australia. Outstanding batsmen such as Joe Darling, Clem Hill, Reggie Duff, Syd Gregory, Warren Bardsley and Victor Trumper, brilliant all-rounders including Monty Noble, George Giffen, Harry Trott and Warwick Armstrong and excellent bowlers including Ernie Jones, Hugh Trumble, Tibby Cotter, Bill Howell, Jack Saunders and Bill Whitty, all helped Australia to become the dominant cricketing nation for most of this period.
Victor Trumper became one of Australia's first sporting heroes, was considered Australia's greatest batsman before Bradman and one of the most popular players. He played a record number of Tests at 49 and scored 3163 runs at a high for the time average of 39.04. His early death in 1915 at the age of 37 from kidney disease caused national mourning; the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, in its obituary for him, called him Australia's greatest batsman: "Of all the great Australian batsmen Victor Trumper was by general consent the best and most brilliant."The years leading up to the start of World War I were marred by conflict between the players, led by Clem Hill, Victor Trumper and Frank Laver, the Australian Board of Control for International Cricket, led by Peter McAlister, attempting to gain more control of tours from the players. This led to six leading players walking out on the 1912 Triangular Tournament in England, with Australia fielding what was considered a second-rate side; this was the last series before the war, no more cricket was played by A
Fast bowling is one of two main approaches to bowling in the sport of cricket, the other being spin bowling. Practitioners of pace bowling are known as fast bowlers, quicks, or pacemen, they can be referred to as a seam bowler or a'fast bowler who can swing it' to reflect the predominant characteristic of their deliveries. Speaking, a pure swing bowler does not need to have a high degree of pace, though dedicated medium-pace swing bowlers are seen at Test level these days; the aim of fast bowling is to deliver the ball in such a fashion as to cause the batsman to make a mistake. The bowler achieves this by making the hard cricket ball deviate from a predictable, linear trajectory at a speed that limits the time the batsman has to compensate for it. For deviation caused by the ball's stitching, the ball bounces off the pitch and deflects either away from the batsman's body, or inwards towards them. Swing bowlers on the other hand use the seam of the ball but in a different way. To'bowl swing' is to induce a curved trajectory of the cricket ball through the air.
Swing bowlers use a combination of seam orientation, body position at the point of release, asymmetric ball polishing, variations in delivery speed to affect an aerodynamic influence on the ball. The ability of a bowler to induce lateral deviation or'sideways movement' make it difficult for the batsman to address the flight of the ball accurately. Beyond this ability to create an unpredictable path of ball trajectory, the fastest bowlers can be potent by delivering a ball at such a rate that a batsman fails to react either or at all. A typical fast delivery has a speed in the range of 137–153 km/h, it is possible for a bowler to concentrate on speed when young, but as fast bowlers mature they pick up new skills and tend to rely more on swing bowling or seam bowling techniques. Most fast bowlers specialise in one of these two areas and are sometimes categorised as swing or seam bowler. However, this classification is not satisfactory because the categories are not mutually exclusive and a skilled bowler bowls a mixture of fast, swinging and cutting balls—even if he prefers one style to the others.
For simplicity, it is common to subdivide fast bowlers according to the average speed of their deliveries, as follows. There is a degree of subjectivity in the usage of these terms. For comparison, most spin bowlers in professional cricket bowl at average speeds of 70 to 90 km/h. Shoaib Akhtar, Brett Lee, Shaun Tait, Jeff Thomson and Mitchell Starc have clocked over 160 km/h and are categorised as "Ultra Fast" bowlers although bowling at speeds lower than this mark. While Steven Finn is classified as a fast-medium bowler by Cricinfo, he can bowl at around 145 km/h, with his fastest clocked at 151.9 km/h, making him the 10th fastest amongst active bowlers as of 3 January 2015 The first thing a fast bowler needs to do is to grip the ball correctly. The basic fast bowling grip to achieve maximum speed is to hold the ball with the seam upright and to place the index and middle fingers close together at the top of the seam with the thumb gripping the ball at the bottom of the seam; the image to the right shows the correct grip.
The first two fingers and the thumb should hold the ball forward of the rest of the hand, the other two fingers should be tucked into the palm. The ball is held quite loosely so. Other grips are possible, result in different balls – see swing and seam bowling below; the bowler holds their other hand over the hand gripping the ball until the latest possible moment so that the batsman cannot see what type of ball is being bowled. A fast bowler needs to take a longer run-up toward the wicket than a spinner, due to the need to generate the momentum and rhythm required to bowl a fast delivery. Fast bowlers measure their preferred run up in strides, mark the distance from the wicket, it is important for the bowler to know how long the run-up is because it must terminate behind the popping crease. A bowler who steps on or beyond this has bowled a no-ball, which affords the batsman immunity from dismissal, adds one run to the batting team's score, forces the bowler to bowl another ball in the over. At the end of the run-up the bowler brings his lead foot down on the pitch with the knee as straight as possible.
This can be dangerous due to the pressure it places on the joint. Knee injuries are not uncommon amongst fast bowlers: for example, the English pace bowler David Lawrence was sidelined for many months after splitting his kneecap in two; the pressure on the leading foot is such that some fast bowlers cut the front off their shoes to stop their toes from being injured as they are pressed against the inside of the shoe. The bowler brings the bowling arm up over their head and releases the ball at the height appropriate to where they want the ball to pitch. Again, the arm must be straight though this is a stipulation of the laws of cricket rather than an aid to speed. Bending the elbow and "chucking" the ball would make it too easy for the bowler to aim at the batsman's wicket and get them out. Fast bowlers tend to have an action that leaves them either side-on or chest-on at the end of the run up. A chest-on bowler has chest and hips aligned towards the batsman at the instant of back foot contact, while a side-on bowler has chest and hips aligned at ninety degrees to the batsman at the instant of back foot contact.
West Indian bowler Malcolm Marshall was a c
In sports, a coach is a person involved in the direction and training of the operations of a sports team or of individual sportspeople. A coach may be a teacher; the original sense of the word coach is that of a horse-drawn carriage, deriving from the Hungarian city of Kocs where such vehicles were first made. Students at the University of Oxford in the early nineteenth century used the slang word to refer to a private tutor who would drive a less able student through his examinations just like horse driving. Britain took the lead in upgrading the status of sports in the 19th century. For sports to become professionalized, "coacher" had to become established, it professionalized in the Victorian era and the role was well established by 1914. In the First World War, military units sought out the coaches to supervise physical conditioning and develop morale-building teams. A coach in a professional league, is supported by one or more assistant coaches and specialist support staff; the staff may include coordinators and fitness specialists, trainers.
In elite sport, the role of nutritionists and physiotherapists will all become critical to the overall long-term success of a coach and athlete. They work on the over all responsibility of their athletes. In association football, the duties of a coach can vary depending on the level they are coaching at and the country they are coaching in, amongst others. In youth football, the primary objective of a coach is to aid players in the development of their technical skills, with emphasis on the enjoyment and fair play of the game rather than physical or tactical development. In recent decades, efforts have been made by governing bodies in various countries to overhaul their coaching structures at youth level with the aim of encouraging coaches to put player development and enjoyment ahead of winning matches. In professional football, the role of the coach or trainer is limited to the training and development of a club's "first team" in most countries; the coach is aided by a number of assistant coaches, one of which carries the responsibility for the training and preparation of the goalkeepers.
The coach is assisted by medical staff and athletic trainers. The medium to long term strategy of a football club, with regard to transfer policies, youth development and other sporting matters, is not the business of a coach in most football countries; the presence of a sporting director is designed to give the medium term development of a club the full attention of one professional, allowing the coach to focus on improving and producing performances from the players under their charge. The system provides a certain level of protection against overspending on players in search of instant success. In football, the director of a professional football team is more awarded the position of manager, a role that combines the duties of coach and sporting director; the responsibilities of a European football manager tend to be divided up in North American professional sports, where the teams have a separate general manager and head coach, although a person may fill both roles of general manager and head coach.
While the first team coach in football is an assistant to the manager who holds the real power, the American style general manager and head coach have distinct areas of responsibilities. For example, a typical European football manager would have the final say on player lineups and contract negotiations, while in American sports these duties would be handled separately by the head coach and general manager, respectively. In baseball, at least at the professional level in North America, the individual who heads the coaching staff does not use the title of "head coach", but is instead called the field manager. Baseball "coaches" at that level are members of the coaching staff under the overall supervision of the manager, with each coach having a specialized role; the baseball field manager is equivalent a head coach in other American professional sports leagues. The term manager used without qualification always refers to the field manager, while the general manager is called the GM. At amateur levels, the terminology is more similar to that of other sports.
The person known as the "manager" in professional leagues is called the "head coach" in amateur leagues. S. college baseball. In American football, like many other sports, there are assistant coaches. American football includes a head coach, an assistant head coach, an offensive coordinator, a defensive coordinator, a special teams coordinator and defensive line coaches, coaches for every position, a strength and conditioning coach, among other positions; the Guardian describes the social conservatism that has defined American football coaches for decades: Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the enemies of football were civil rights, the campus protest movement, anti-war activism, long hair, other offenses against grooming. In August 1969 Sports Illustrated devoted a cover story to the plight of “the desperate coach,” adrift in a world unmoored from its old verities and tasked with managing a generation of hirsute, anti-authoritarian “free thinkers”. There was, no struggle to get coaches to go on the record.
Dallas Cowboys coach Tom Landry lamented in the late 1960s that without football, “society would lose on the great strongholds – paying the price. There’s not much discipline left in this country.” Around the same time University of Southern California assistant coach Marv Goux, surveying the alarming growth of his charges’ hair, groused: “The bums eat the
Black people is a term used in certain countries in based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations. As such, the meaning of the expression varies both between and within societies, depends on context. For many other individuals and countries, "black" is perceived as a derogatory, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, as a result is neither used nor defined. Different societies apply differing criteria regarding, classified as "black", these social constructs have changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, the social criteria for "blackness" vary. In the United Kingdom, "black" was equivalent with "person of color", a general term for non-European peoples. In South Africa and Latin America, mixed-race people are not classified as "black". In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term "black" or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds.
The Romans interacted with and conquered parts of Mauretania, an early state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria, the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla during the classical period. The people of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, subsequently rendered as Moors in English. Numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa, some dating from prehistoric communities. Others are descendants of the historical Trans-Saharan trade in peoples and/or, after the Arab invasions of North Africa in the 7th century, descendants of slaves from the Arab Slave Trade in North Africa. In the 18th century, the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Warrior King" raised a corps of 150,000 black soldiers, called his Black Guard. According to Carlos Moore, resident scholar at Brazil's University of the State of Bahia, in the 21st century Afro-multiracials in the Arab world, including Arabs in North Africa, self-identify in ways that resemble multi-racials in Latin America.
He claims that black-looking Arabs, much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother, a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese woman and a father, a lighter-skinned Egyptian. In response to an advertisement for an acting position, as a young man he said, "I am not white but I am not black either. My blackness is tending to reddish". Due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the slave trade in North Africa, enslaved more black women than men, they used more black female slaves in domestic agriculture than males. The men interpreted the Qur'an to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage, leading to many mixed-race children; when an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab master's child, she was considered as umm walad or "mother of a child", a status that granted her privileged rights. The child was given rights of inheritance to the father's property, so mixed-race children could share in any wealth of the father.
Because the society was patrilineal, the children took their fathers' social status at birth and were born free. Some succeeded their fathers as rulers, such as Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, who ruled Morocco from 1578 to 1608, he was not technically considered as a mixed-race child of a slave. In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, segregating Arabs and non-Arabs. Sudanese Arabs, who controlled the government, were referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudan's non-Arab citizens; the government was accused of "deftly manipulat Arab solidarity" to carry out policies of apartheid and ethnic cleansing. American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens. According to Ayittey, "In Sudan... the Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid." Many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheid.
In the Sahara, the native Tuareg Berber populations kept "Negro" slaves. Most of these captives were of Nilotic extraction, were either purchased by the Tuareg nobles from slave markets in the Western Sudan or taken during raids, their origin is denoted via the Ahaggar Berber word Ibenheren, which alludes to slaves that only speak a Nilo-Saharan language. These slaves were sometimes known by the borrowed Songhay term Bella; the Sahrawi autochthones of the Western Sahara observed a class system consisting of high castes and low castes. Outside of these traditional tribal boundaries were "Negro" slaves, who were drawn from the surrounding areas. In parts of the Horn of Africa, the local Afroasiatic speaking populations have long adhered to a construct similar to that of the Sahara and Maghreb. In Ethiopia and Somalia, the slave classes consisted of individuals of Nilotic and Bantu origin who were collectively known as Shanqella and Adone; these captives and others of analogous morphology were distinguished as tsalim barya in contrast with the Afroasiatic-speaking nobles or saba qayh.
The earliest representation of this tradition dates from a seventh or eighth century BC inscription belonging to the Kingdom of Damat. In South Africa, the period of colonization resulted in many unions and marriages between European men and Bantu and Kho
King William's Town
King William's Town is a town in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa along the banks of the Buffalo River. The town is about 60 kilometres North West of the Indian Ocean port of East London; the town is part of the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality in the Eastern Cape. King, as the town is locally called, stands 389 m above the sea at the foot of the Amatola Mountains and in the midst of a densely populated agricultural district. King William's Town is the second most populous city in the Buffalo City Municipality, with a population near 100,000 inhabitants; the town has one of the oldest post offices in the country developed by missionaries led by Brownlee. Founded by Sir Benjamin d'Urban in May 1835 during the Xhosa War of that year, the town is named after William IV, it was abandoned in December 1836, but was reoccupied in 1846 and was the capital of British Kaffraria from its creation in 1847 to its incorporation in 1865 with the Cape Colony. Many of the colonists in the neighboring districts are descendants of members of the British German Legion disbanded after the Crimean War and provided with homes in Cape Colony.
King William's Town was declared the provincial capital of the surrounding Adelaide District in the 1830s. On 5 May 1877, the Cape Government of Prime Minister John Molteno opened the first railway, connecting the town to East London on the coast and to the Xhosa lands inland and further east. With its direct railway communication, the town became an important entrepot for trade with the Xhosa people throughout "Kaffraria"; the area's economy depended on cattle and sheep ranching, the town itself has a large industrial base producing textiles, candles, sweets and clothing. In recent years, its proximity to the new provincial capital city of Bhisho has brought much development to the area since the end of apartheid in 1994; the provincial government announced that they plan to rename the town with a traditional African name, as the current name bears colonial connotations. The town is home to "Huberta," one of the farthest-travelling hippopotami in South Africa, it is preserved in the Amathole Museum in the King Williams Town CBD.
Steve Biko, anti-apartheid Black Consciousness Movement leader was born here Charles Patrick John Coghlan, first premier of Rhodesia was born here Buster Farrer, former international cricket and hockey player Garry Pagel, former South African rugby union player was born here John Tengo Jabavu, founder of the first Xhosa-language newspaper in South Africa Griffiths Mxenge, anti-apartheid activist Victoria Mxenge, anti-apartheid activist Steve Tshwete, anti-apatheid activist Makhaya Ntini, former South African Test cricketer This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "King William's Town". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. P. 822. History of King William's Town
Glossary of cricket terms
This is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of cricket. Where words in a sentence are defined elsewhere in this article, they appear in italics. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cricket statistics and the naming of fielding positions is explained at fielding. Cricket is known for its rich terminology; some terms are thought to be arcane and humorous by those not familiar with the game. Across the line A batsman plays across the line when he moves his bat in a direction lateral to the direction of the incoming ball. Agricultural shot A swing across the line of the ball played without much technique. One that results in a chunk of the pitch being dug up by the bat, or that winds up with the ball going to cow corner. A type of a slog. Air When a spin bowler delivers a ball with a more looping trajectory than usual, he is said to be giving the ball some air. In combination with top spin, the objective is to lure the batsman into misreading the length of the ball.
In combination with off spin or leg spin, the objective is to give the ball more time to drift. All out When an innings ends due to ten of the eleven batsmen on the batting side being either dismissed or unable to bat because of injury or illness. All-rounder Traditionally, a player adept at both bowling. Good all-rounders in the modern game include Shane Watson, Ben Stokes, Shakib Al Hasan; some recent sources regard a wicket-keeper/batsman as another type of all-rounder, but this usage is not universal. Anchor A top-order batsman capable of batting for a long time. Batsmen at numbers 3 or 4 play such a role if there is a batting collapse. An anchor plays defensively, is the top scorer in the innings. Angler A type of late-swing delivery used by Bart King in the early 1900s. King, a right-arm fast bowler, delivered his inswinger with the right arm raised over the left ear, concealed the seam of the ball by starting his action with the ball held in both hands, in the manner of baseball pitchers.
It is unclear whether angler referred to his outswinger. Appeal A bowler or fielder shouting at the umpire to ask if his last ball took the batsman's wicket. Phrased in the form of howzat Common variations include'Howzee?', or turning to the umpire and shouting. The umpire cannot give a batsman out unless the fielding side appeals if the criteria for a dismissal have otherwise been met. However, batsmen who are out will leave the field without waiting for an appeal. Approach The motion of the bowler before bowling the ball, it is known as the run-up. The ground a bowler runs on during his run up. Arm ball A deceptive delivery bowled by an off spin bowler, not spun, so that, it travels straight on. A good bowler's arm ball might swing away from the batsman in the air. Around the wicket or round the wicket A right-handed bowler passing to the right of the non-striker's stumps in his run-up, vice versa for a left-handed bowler. Compare with over the wicket; the Ashes The perpetual prize in England v Australia Test match series.
The Ashes originated as a result of a satirical obituary published in a British newspaper, The Sporting Times, in 1882 after a match at The Oval in which Australia beat England on an English ground for the first time. The obituary stated that English cricket had died, the body would be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia; the English press dubbed the next English tour to Australia as the quest to regain The Ashes. During that tour a small terracotta urn was presented to England captain Ivo Bligh by a group of Melbourne women; the contents of the urn are reputed to be the ashes of an item of a bail. Asking rate The run rate at which the team batting second needs to score to catch the opponents' score in a limited overs game. Same as'required run rate'. Attacking field A fielding configuration in which more fielders are close in to the pitch so as to take catches and dismiss batsmen more at the risk of allowing more runs to be scored should the ball get past them. Attacking shot An strong hit by the batsman designed to score runs.
Average A bowler's bowling average is defined as the total number of runs conceded by the bowler divided by the number of wickets taken by the bowler. A batsman's batting average is defined as the total number of runs scored by the batsman divided by the number of times he has been dismissed. Away swing see out swing Back foot In a batsman's stance, the back foot is the foot, closest to the stumps. A bowler's front foot is the last foot to contact the ground. Unless the bowler is bowling off the wrong foot, the bowling foot is the back foot. Back foot contact The position of the bowler at the moment when his back foot lands on the ground just before releasing the ball Back foot shot A shot played with the batsman's weight on his back foot. Back spin A delivery with a backward spin, so that after pitching the ball slows down, or bounces lower and skids on to the batsman. Backing up 1; the non-striking batsman leaving his crease during the delivery in order to shorten the distance to complete one run.
A batsman "backing up" too far runs the risk of being run out, either by a fielder in a conventional run out, or – in a "Mankad" – by the bowler. 2. A fielder w
The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. Its capital is its two largest cities are Port Elizabeth and East London, it was formed in 1994 out of the Xhosa homelands or bantustans of Transkei and Ciskei, together with the eastern portion of the Cape Province. It is the landing home of the 1820 Settlers; the central and eastern part of the province is the traditional home of the Xhosa people. The Eastern Cape as a South African Province came into existence in 1994 and incorporated areas from the former Xhosa homelands of the Transkei and Ciskei, together with what was part of the Cape Province; this resulted in several anomalies including the fact that the Province has four supreme courts and enclaves of KwaZulu-Natal in the province. The latter anomaly has fallen away with amendments to provincial boundaries; the province is made of Mpondo tribe, which primitively descended from Xhosa clan. Some of the Mpondo tribe went to this province. Mpondo people are more related to Xhosa, as they use Xhosa as their main home language.
There are other tribes that erroneously referred to as Xhosa people such as: AmaMpondo, AbaThembu, AmaMpondomise, AmaHlubi, AmaBhaca, AmaXesibe, AmaBomvana and other tribes. The first premier was Raymond Mhlaba and the current premier is Phumulo Masualle, both of the African National Congress This region is the birthplace of many prominent South African politicians, such as Nelson Mandela, Steve Biko, Fort Calata, James Calata, Charles Coghlan, Matthew Goniwe, Chris Hani, Bantu Holomisa, Govan Mbeki, his two sons Moeletsi Mbeki and Thabo Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Vuyisile Mini, Wilton Mkwayi, Oscar Mpetha, Griffiths Mxenge, Robert Resha, Walter Rubusana, Walter Sisulu, Robert Sobukwe, David Stuurman, Oliver Tambo; the Eastern Cape gets progressively wetter from west to east. The west is semiarid Karoo, except in the far south, temperate rainforest in the Tsitsikamma region; the coast is rugged with interspersed beaches. Most of the province is hilly to mountainous between Graaff-Reinet and Rhodes including the Sneeuberge, Stormberge and Drakensberg.
The highest point in the province is Ben Macdhui at 3001 m. The east from East London and Queenstown towards the KwaZulu-Natal border – a region known as Transkei – is lush grassland on rolling hills, punctuated by deep gorges with intermittent forest. Eastern Cape has a coast on its east which lines southward, creating shores leading to the south Indian Ocean. In the northeast, it borders the following districts of Lesotho: Mohale's Hoek District – west of Quthing Quthing District – between Mohale and Qacha's Nek Qacha's Nek District – east of QuthingDomestically, it borders the following provinces: Western Cape – west Northern Cape – northwest Free State – north KwaZulu-Natal – far northeast Climate is varied; the west is dry with sparse rain with frosty winters and hot summers. The area Tsitsikamma to Grahamstown receives more precipitation, relatively evenly distributed and temperatures are mild. Further east, rainfall becomes more plentiful and humidity increases, becoming more subtropical along the coast with summer rainfall.
The interior can become cold in winter, with heavy snowfalls occurring in the mountainous regions between Molteno and Rhodes. Port Elizabeth: Jan Max: 25 °C, Min: 18 °C; the western interior is arid Karoo, while the east is well-watered and green. The Eastern Cape offers a wide array of attractions, including 800 km of untouched and pristine coastline along with some splendid beaches, "big-five" viewing in a malaria-free environment; the Addo Elephant National Park, situated 73 km from Port Elizabeth, was proclaimed in 1931. Its 743 km² offers sanctuary to 170 elephants, 400 Cape buffalo and 21 black rhino of the scarce Kenyan sub-species; the province is the location of South Africa's only Snow skiing resort, situated near the hamlet of Rhodes in the Southern Drakensberg on the slopes of Ben Macdhui, the highest mountain peak in the Eastern Cape. The National Arts Festival, held annually in Grahamstown, is Africa's largest and most colourful cultural event, offering a choice of the best of both indigenous and imported talent.
Every year for 11 days the town's population doubles, as over 50,000 people flock to the region for a feast of arts and sheer entertainment. The Tsitsikamma National Park is an 80 km long coastal strip between Nature's Valley and the mouth of the Storms River. In the park the visitor finds an untouched natural landscape. Near the park is the Bloukrans Bridge and Bloukrans Bridge Bungy, the world's third highest bungee jump, Jeffreys Bay is an area with some of the country's wildest coastline, backed by some of Africa's most spectacular sub-tropical rainforest. Famous for its "supertubes" South Africa's longest and most good wave, it's charged with a surf vibe as relaxed as it is friendly, this tends to soften the effect of the wealthy set who have made this part of the coast their own. Aliwal North, lying on an agricultural plateau on the southern bank of the Orange River, is one of the country's most popular inland resorts and is known for its hot springs; the rugged and unspoilt Wild Coast is a place of spectacular scenery, a graveyard for many vessels.
Whittlesea, Eastern Cape, situated in the Amatola