Indo-Islamic architecture is the architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced for Islamic patrons and purposes. Despite an earlier Muslim presence in Sindh in modern Pakistan, its main history begins when Muhammad of Ghor made Delhi a Muslim capital in 1193. Both the Delhi Sultans and the Mughal dynasty that succeeded them came from Central Asia via Afghanistan, were used to a Central Asian style of Islamic architecture that derived from Iran; the types and forms of large buildings required by Muslim elites, with mosques and tombs much the most common, were different from those built in India. The exteriors of both were often topped by large domes, made extensive use of arches. Both of these features were hardly used in other native Indian styles. Both types of building consisted of a single large space under a high dome, avoided the figurative sculpture so important to Hindu temples. Islamic buildings had to adapt the skills of a workforce trained in earlier Indian traditions to their own designs.
Unlike most of the Islamic world, where brick tended to predominate, India had skilled builders well used to producing stone masonry of high quality. As well as the main style developed in Delhi and Mughal centres, a variety of regional styles grew up where there were local Muslim rulers. By the Mughal period agreed to represent the peak of the style, aspects of Islamic style began to influence architecture made for Hindus, with temples using scalloped arches, domes; this was the case in palace architecture. Indo-Islamic architecture has left influences on modern Indian and Bangladeshi architecture, was the main influence on the so-called Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture introduced in the last century of the British Raj. Both secular and religious buildings are influenced by Indo-Islamic architecture; the style includes influences from Indian, Persian, Central Asian and Ottoman Turkish architecture. The best-preserved example of a mosque from the days of the infancy of Islam in South Asia is the ruined mosque at Banbhore in Sindh, from the year 727, from which only the plan can be deduced.
The start of the Delhi Sultanate in 1206 under Qutb al-Din Aibak introduced a large Islamic state to India, using Central Asian styles. The important Qutb Complex in Delhi was begun under Muhammad of Ghor, by 1199, continued under Qutb al-Din Aibak and sultans; the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque, now a ruin, was the first structure. Like other early Islamic buildings it re-used elements such as columns from destroyed Hindu and Jain temples, including one on the same site whose platform was reused; the style was Iranian. Beside it is the tall Qutb Minar, a minaret or victory column, whose original four stages reach 73 meters, its closest comparator is the 62-metre all-brick Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan, of around 1190, a decade or so before the probable start of the Delhi tower. The surfaces of both are elaborately decorated with inscriptions and geometric patterns; the Tomb of Iltutmish was added by 1236. Other elements were added to the complex over the next two centuries. Another early mosque, begun in the 1190s, is the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra in Ajmer, built for the same Delhi rulers, again with corbelled arches and domes.
Here Hindu temple columns are piled up in threes to achieve extra height. Both mosques had large detached screens with pointed corbelled arches added in front of them under Iltutmish a couple of decades later. In these the central arch is taller, in imitation of an iwan. At Ajmer the smaller screen arches are tentatively cusped, for the first time in India. By around 1300 true domes and arches with voussoirs were being built; the Alai Darwaza gatehouse at the Qutb complex, from 1311, still shows a cautious approach to the new technology, with thick walls and a shallow dome, only visible from a certain distance or height. Bold contrasting colours of masonry, with red sandstone and white marble, introduce what was to become a common feature of Indo-Islamic architecture, substituting for the polychrome tiles used in Persia and Central Asia; the pointed arches come together at their base, giving a mild horseshoe arch effect, their internal edges are not cusped but lined with conventionalized "spearhead" projections representing lotus buds.
Jali, stone openwork screens, are introduced here. The tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam in Multan, Pakistan is a large octagonal brick-built mausoleum with polychrome glazed decoration that remains much closer to the styles of Iran and Afghanistan. Timber is used internally; this was the earliest major monument of the Tughlaq dynasty, built during the initial huge expansion of its territory, which could not be maintained. It was built for a Sufi saint rather than sultan, most of the many Tughlaq tombs are much less exuberant; the tomb of the founder of the dynasty, Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq is impressive. Unlike the earlier buildings mentioned above
History of Hyderabad
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana. It is a historic city noted for its many monuments, temples and bazaars. A multitude of influences has shaped the character of the city in the last 400 years; the city of Hyderabad was founded by the Qutb Shahi sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah in 1591 CE. It was built around the Charminar. Hyderabad became an important trading center for diamonds and pearls, a center for culture. After a brief period of Mughal rule, the first Nizam of Hyderabad conquered the city in 1724; the Nizams signed a subsidiary alliance with the British, their territory became Hyderabad State, the largest princely state in British India with the city of Hyderabad as it's capital. During this period, railways, modern education, airways developed in Hyderabad. After India's independence in 1947, the Nizam did not wish to accede his state to the newly formed nation. By his power had weakened due to the Telangana movement and rise of a radical Muslim militia known as the Razakars.
In 1948, the Indian Army invaded and annexed Hyderabad State, the Nizam was forced to surrender. In 1956, the Hyderabad State was divided on the basis of linguistic differences, the city of Hyderabad became the capital of Andhra Pradesh. In 2014, the state of Telangana was carved out from Andhra Pradesh and Hyderabad became it's new capital. Archaeologists excavating near the city have unearthed Iron Age sites that can be dated to 500 BCE; the area around Hyderabad was ruled by the Mauryan Empire in the third century B. C during the reign of Ashoka the Great. After the death of Ashoka, as the Maurya Empire began to weaken and decline, the Sātavāhanas who started out as feudatories to the Mauryan dynasty, declared independence and established their empire in this region; the Sātavāhana Empire was a royal Indian dynasty based from Kotilingala in Telangana as well as Junnar and Prathisthan in Maharashtra. The territory of the empire covered much of the Deccan plateau & central India for 450 years,i.e.
From 230 BCE onward until around 220 CE. After the decline of the Satavahana Empire in 210 AD, the region came under the rule of the Ikshvaku dynasty, the successors of the Satavahanas in eastern Deccan; the capital of Ikshvaku dynasty was the town of Nagarjunakonda in modern-day Guntur district and named after Nagarjuna, a southern Indian master of Mahayana Buddhism who lived in the 2nd century AD, believed to have been responsible for the Buddhist activity in the area. Various Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms ruled the area during the subsequent centuries; the area was ruled by the Kalyani branch of the Chalukya kings. When the Chalukya kingdom became weaker, who were feudal chieftains of Chalukya, declared independence and set up their kingdom around Warangal; the Kakatiyas build the Golkonda Fort in the vicinity of Hyderabad as part of their western defenses along the lines of the Kondapalli Fort. The city and the fortress were built on a granite hill, 120 metres high, surrounded by massive battlements.
The fort was strengthened by Rani Rudrama Devi and her successor Prataparudra. The fall of Warangal to Muhammad bin Tughluq's forces from the Delhi Sultanate in 1321 AD brought anarchy to the region; the Golkonda fort came under the control of the Musunuri Nayaks, who defeated the Tughlaqi army occupying Warangal. For the next few decades, the Bahmani Sultanate of the Deccan fought the Musunuri Nayakas on the north and the Vijayanagara Rayas on the south for control of the region; the Golkonda fort was ceded by the Musunuri Kapaya Nayak to the Bahmani Sultanate as part of a treaty in 1364. By the middle of the 15th century, the region was under the firm control of the Bahmani Sultanate which controlled the Deccan north of the Krishna River from coast to of sultanate. Under the Bahmani Sultanate, Golkonda rose to prominence. Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, sent as a governor of Telangana, established it as the seat of his government around 1501. Bahmani rule weakened during this period, Sultan Quli formally became independent in 1538, establishing the Qutb Shahi dynasty based in Golkonda.
Over a period of 62 years, the mud fort was expanded by the first three Qutb Shahi sultans into the present structure, a massive fortification of granite extending around 5 km in circumference. It remained the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1590 when the capital was shifted to the present city of Hyderabad. In 1463, Sultan Muhammad Shah Bahmani II dispatched Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk to the Telangana region to quell disturbances. Sultan Quli was rewarded as the administrator of the region, he established a base at Kakatiya hill fortress of Golconda which he strengthened and expanded considerably. By the end of the century, Quli ruled from Golconda as the subedar of the Telangana region. Quli enjoyed virtual independence from Bidar, where the Bahmani sultanate was based. In 1518, when the Bahmani Sultanate disintegrated into five different kingdoms, with the others based in Ahmednagar, Berar and Bijapur. Sultan Quli declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Golconda Sultanate under the title "Sultan Quli Qutub Shah", he rebuilt the mud-fort of Golconda and named the city Muhammad Nagar.
The Hussain Sagar lake was built during the reign of Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah, the fourth Sultan of the dynasty, in 1563. It was named after Hussain Shah Wali. In 1589, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, selected the present site of the city and established the city of Hyderabad at the banks of the Musi river to overcome water shortages experienced at Golconda; the Purana P
Mir Osman Ali Khan
His Exalted Highness Nawab Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi, Asaf Jah VII, was the last Nizam of the princely state of Hyderabad, the largest princely state in British India. He ruled Hyderabad State between 1948, until it was annexed by India, he was styled as His Exalted Highness the Nizam of Hyderabad. In many accounts, the Nizam is held to have been a benevolent ruler who patronized education and development. During his 37-year rule, electricity was introduced, railways and airways were developed, he is credited with the establishment numerous public institutions in the city of Hyderabad, including the Osmania University, Osmania General Hospital, State Bank of Hyderabad, Begumpet Airport, Hyderabad High Court. Two reservoirs, namely Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar were built during his reign, to prevent another great flood in the city; the Nizam was one of the wealthiest people of all time. In 1937, he was featured on the cover of Time magazine, labelled as the 5th richest man in history, he was a philanthropist, donating millions of rupees to various educational and religious institutions all over India.
Apart from his wealth, he was known for his eccentricities, as he used to knit his own socks, borrow cigarettes from guests. After India's independence in 1947, the Nizam did not wish to accede his state to the newly formed nation. By his power had weakened due to the Telangana movement and rise of a radical Muslim militia known as the Razakars. In 1948, the Indian Army invaded and annexed Hyderabad State, the Nizam was forced to surrender, he was made the Rajpramukh of Hyderabad State between 1950 and 1956, after which the state was partitioned and became part of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The Nizam died in 1967; the famous Golconda mines was the major source of wealth for the Nizam's apart from land revenue. Hyderabad State in British India was the only supplier of Diamonds for the global market in the 18th century, he acceded as the Nizam of Hyderabad upon the death of his father in 1911. The state of Hyderabad was the largest of the princely states in pre-independence India. With an area of 86,000 square miles, it was the size of the present-day United Kingdom.
The Nizam was the highest-ranking prince in India, was one of only five princes entitled to a 21-gun salute, held the unique title of "Nizam", was titled "His Exalted Highness" and "Faithful Ally of the British Crown" In 1908, three years before the Nizam's coronation, the city of Hyderabad was struck by a major flood that resulted in the death of thousands. The Nizam, on the advice of Sir Visvesvaraya, ordered the construction of two large reservoirs, namely the Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar to prevent another flood, he was given the title of "Faithful Ally of the British Crown" after World War One due to his financial contribution to the British Empire's war effort. He paid for a Royal Navy vessel, the N-class destroyer, HMAS Nizam commissioned in 1940 and transferred to the Royal Australian Navy. In 1918, the Nizam issued a firman that brought into existence the Osmania University, the first university to have Urdu as a medium of instruction; the present campus was completed in 1934. In 1919, the Nizam ordered the formation of the Executive Council of Hyderabad, presided by Sir Sayyid Ali Imam, with eight other members, each in charge of one or more departments.
The President of the Executive Council would be the Prime Minister of Hyderabad. The Begumpet Airport was established in the 1930s with formation of Hyderabad Aero Club by the Nizam, it was used as a domestic and international airport for the Nizam's Deccan Airways, the earliest airline in British India. The terminal building was created in 1937, he arranged a matrimonial alliance between his son Azam Jah and Princess Durrushehvar of the Ottoman Empire. It was believed at that time that the matrimonial alliance between the Nizam and the deposed Caliph would lead to the emergence of a Muslim ruler who could be acceptable to the world powers in place of the Ottoman Sultans. After India's Independence, the Nizam made vain attempts to declare his sovereignty over the state of Hyderabad, either as a protectorate of the British Empire, or as a sovereign monarchy. However, his power weakened due to the Telangana rebellion and rise of the Razakars, a radical Muslim militia who wanted Hyderabad to remain under Muslim rule.
In 1948, India invaded and annexed Hyderabad State, the rule of the Nizam ended. Nearly all the major public buildings and institutions in Hyderabad city, such as Osmania General Hospital, Hyderabad High Court, Jubilee Hall, Nizamia Observatory, Nizamia Hospital, Moazzam Jahi Market, Kachiguda Railway Station, Asafiya Library now known as the State Central Library, Town Hall now known as the Assembly Hall, Hyderabad Museum now known as the State Museum and many other monuments were built under his reign, he built the Hyderabad House in Delhi, now used for diplomatic meetings by the Government of India. Apart from giving donations to major educational institutions throughout India, he introduced many educational reforms during his reign. 11% of the Nizam's budget was spent on education. He made large donations to many institutions in India and abroad with special emphasis given to educational institutions such as the Jamia Nizamia and the Darul Uloom Deoband; the foundation of agricultural research in Marathwada region of erstwhile Hyderabad state was laid by the Nizam with the commencement of the Main Experimental Farm in 1918 in Parbhani.
During the Nizam's ru
Nizam of Hyderabad
The Nizam of Hyderabad was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, the title of the rulers of Hyderabad State, was the premier Prince of India, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jahi dynasty; the Asaf Jahi dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal Empire from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently governed the region after Aurangzeb's death in 1707. In 1724, Mughal control weakened, Asaf Jah became independent of them; when the British achieved paramountcy over India, the Nizams were allowed to continue to rule their princely states as client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over Hyderabad State until the 17 September 1948 when Hyderabad was integrated into the new Indian Union; the Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers. They were never recognised as rulers; the seventh and last Nizam was Mir Osman Ali Khan, who fell from power when Hyderabad was annexed by India in 1948.
By the time of its annexation, Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous one among all the princely states. It covered 82,698 square miles of homogeneous territory and had a population of 16.34 million people, of which a majority was Hindu. Hyderabad State had its own army, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system and radio broadcasting service. Hindus were under-represented in government and the military. Of 1765 officers in the State Army, 1268 were Muslims, 421 were Hindus, 121 others were Christians and Sikhs. Of the upper level government officials, 59 were Muslims, 5 were Hindus and 38 were of other religions; the Nizam and his nobles, who were Muslims, owned 40% of the total land in the state. All kotwals, police commissioners, were Muslims; the name Nizam spelled as Nezam, comes from Urdu /nɪˈzɑːm/, which itself is derived from the ancient Arabic language niẓām which means "order" or "arrangement". Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in Urdu around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy for the whole Empire.
The word is derived from the Arabic language, as in Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi, better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk. According to Sir Roper Lethbridge in "The Golden Book of India"—, the Nizams are lineally descended from the First Caliph Abu Bakr, the successor of the Prophet Muhammed; the family of Nizams in India is descended from Abid Khan, a Turkoman from Samarkand, whose lineage is traced to Sufi Shihab-ud-Din Suhrawardi of Central Asia. In the early 1650s, on his way to hajj, Abid Khan stopped in Deccan, where the young prince Aurangzeb Governor of Deccan, cultivated him. Abid Khan returned to the service of Aurangzeb to fight in the succession wars of 1657–58. After Aurangzeb's enthronement, Abid Khan was richly rewarded and became Aurangzeb's favourite nobleman, his son Ghazi Uddin Khan received in marriage, Safiya Khanum, the daughter of the former imperial prime minister Sa‘dullah Khan. Mir Qamaruddin Khan, the founder of the line of Nizams, was born of the couple, thus descending from two prominent families of the Mughal court.
Ghazi Uddin Khan rose to become a General of the Emperor Aurangzeb and played a vital role in conquering Bijapur and Golconda Sultanates of Southern India in 1686. He played a key role in thwarting the rebellion by Prince Akbar and alleged rebellion by Prince Mu`azzam.. After Aurangzeb's death and during the war of succession and his father remained neutral thus escaping the risk of being on the losing side, their successor Farrukhsiyar appointed Qamaruddin the governor of Deccan in 1713, awarding him the title Nizam-ul-Mulk. However, the governorship was taken away two years and Qamaruddin withdrew to his estate in Moradabad. Under the next emperor, Muhammad Shah, Qamaruddin accepted the governorship of Deccan for the second time in 1721; the next year, following the death of his uncle Muhammad Amin Khan, a power-broker in the Mughal Court, Qamaruddin returned to the Delhi and was made the wazir. According to historian Faruqui, his tenure as prime minister was undermined by his opponents and a rebellion in Deccan was engineered against him.
In 1724, the Nizam returned to Deccan to reclaim his base, in the process making a transition to a semi-independent ruler. In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, named the region Hyderabad Deccan, started what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad. Nizam I never formally declared independence from the Mughals. In Friday prayers, the sermon would be conducted in the name of Aurangzeb, this tradition would continue until the end of Hyderabad State in 1948; the death of Asif Jah I in 1748 resulted in a period of political unrest as his sons, backed by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces, contended for the throne. The accession of Asif Jah II, who reigned
Great Mosque of Mecca
The Great Mosque of Mecca is a mosque that surrounds the Kaaba in the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is a site of pilgrimage for the Hajj, which every Muslim must do at least once in their lives if able, the rites of which includes circumambulating the Kaaba within the mosque, it is the main phase for the ‘Umrah, the lesser pilgrimage that can be undertaken any time of the year. The Great Mosque includes other important significant sites, including the Black Stone, the Zamzam Well, Maqam Ibrahim, the hills Safa and Marwa, it is open, regardless of time. The Great Mosque is the largest mosque in the world and has undergone major renovations and expansions through the years, it has passed through the control of various caliphs and kings, is now under the control of the King of Saudi Arabia, titled the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. It is located in front of the Abraj Al Bait, the tallest clock tower in the world, the construction of, surrounded by controversy concerning the destruction of early Islamic heritage sites by the Saudi government.
The Great Mosque contends with the Mosque of the Companions in the Eritrea city of Massawa and Quba Mosque in Medina as the oldest mosque. According to one set of views, Islam as a religion preceded Prophet Muhammad, representing previous prophets such as Abraham. Abraham is credited with having built the Kaaba in Mecca, its sanctuary, which according to this view is seen as the first mosque that existed. According to another set of views, Islam started during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century CE, so did architectural components such as the mosque. In that case, either the Mosque of the Companions or Quba Mosque would be the first mosque, built in the history of Islam. According to the Quran, Abraham together with his son Ishmael raised the foundations of a house, identified by commentators as the Kaaba. God showed Abraham the exact site near to what is now the Well of Zamzam, where Abraham and Ishmael began work on the construction of the Kaaba. After Abraham had built the Kaaba, an angel brought to him the Black Stone, a celestial stone that, according to tradition, had fallen from Heaven on the nearby hill Abu Qubays.
The Black Stone is believed to be the only remnant of the original structure made by Abraham. After placing the Black Stone in the Eastern corner of the Kaaba, Abraham received a revelation, in which God told the aged prophet that he should now go and proclaim the pilgrimage to mankind, so that men may come both from Arabia and from lands far away, on camel and on foot. Upon Muhammad's victorious return to Mecca in 630 CE, he and his cousin, Ali Ibn Abi Talib, broke the idols in and around the Kaaba, similar to what, according to the Quran, Abraham did in his homeland, thus ended polytheistic use of the Kaaba, re-began monotheistic rule over it and its sanctuary. The first major renovation to the mosque took place in 692 on the orders of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. Before this renovation, which included the mosque's outer walls being raised and decoration added to the ceiling, the mosque was a small open area with the Kaaba at the center. By the end of the 8th century, the mosque's old wooden columns had been replaced with marble columns and the wings of the prayer hall had been extended on both sides along with the addition of a minaret on the orders of Al-Walid I.
The spread of Islam in the Middle East and the influx of pilgrims required an complete rebuilding of the site which included adding more marble and three more minarets. In 1570, Sultan Selim II commissioned the chief architect Mimar Sinan to renovate the mosque; this renovation resulted in the replacement of the flat roof with domes decorated with calligraphy internally, the placement of new support columns which are acknowledged as the earliest architectural features of the present mosque. These features are the oldest surviving parts of the building. During heavy rains and flash floods in 1621 and 1629, the walls of the Kaaba and the mosque suffered extensive damage. In 1629, during the reign of Sultan Murad IV, the mosque was renovated. In the renovation of the mosque, a new stone arcade was added, three more minarets were built, the marble flooring was retiled; this was the unaltered state of the mosque for nearly three centuries. The first major renovation under the Saudi kings was done between 1955 and 1973.
In this renovation, four more minarets were added, the ceiling was refurnished, the floor was replaced with artificial stone and marble. The Mas'a gallery is included in the Mosque, via roofing and enclosures. During this renovation many of the historical features built by the Ottomans the support columns, were demolished. On 20 November 1979, the Great Mosque was seized by extremist insurgents who called for the overthrow of the Saudi dynasty, they took hostages and in the ensuing siege hundreds were killed. These events came as a shock to the Islamic world, as violence is forbidden within the mosque; the second Saudi renovations under King Fahd, added a new wing and an outdoor prayer area to the mosque. The new wing, for prayers, is reached through the King Fahd Gate; this extension was performed between 1982 and 1988.1988 to 2005 saw the building of more minarets, the erecting of a King's residence overlooking the mosque and more prayer area in and around the mosque itself. These developments took place with those in Arafat and Muzdalifah.
This extension added 18 more gates, three domes corresponding in position to each gate and the installation of nearly 500 marble columns. Other modern developments added hea
Lala Deen Dayal
Lala Deen Dayal was an Indian photographer. His career began in the mid-1870s as a commissioned photographer, he became the court photographer to the sixth Nizam of Hyderabad, Mahbub Ali Khan, Asif Jah VI, who awarded him the title Musawwir Jung Raja Bahadur, he was appointed as the photographer to the Viceroy of India in 1885. He received the Royal Warrant from Queen Victoria in 1897. Deen Dayal was born in Uttar Pradesh, near Meerut in a family of jewellers, he received technical training at Thompson College of Civil Engineering at Roorkee in 1866 as an engineer in lower subbordinate class. In 1866, Deen Dayal entered government service as head estimator and draughtsman in the Department of Works Secretariat Office in Indore. Meanwhile, he took up photography, his first patron in Indore was Maharaja Tukoji Rao II of Indore state, who in turn introduced him to Sir Henry Daly, agent to the Governor General for Central India and the founder of Daly College, who encouraged his work, along with the Maharaja himself who encouraged him to set up his studio in Indore.
Soon he was getting commissions from the British Raj. The following year he was commissioned to photograph the governor general's tour of Central India. In 1868, Deen Dayal founded his studio – Lala Deen Dayal & Sons – and was subsequently commissioned to photograph temples and palaces of India, he established studios in Secunderabad and Indore in the 1870s. In 1875 -- 76, Deen Dayal photographed the Royal Tour of the Princess of Wales. In the early 1880s he travelled with Sir Lepel Griffin through Bundelkhand, photographing the ancient architecture of the region. Griffin commissioned him to do archaeological photographs: The result was a portfolio of 86 photographs, known as "Famous Monuments of Central India"; the next year he retired from government service and concentrated on his career as a professional photographer. Deen Dayal became the court photographer to the sixth Nizam of Hyderabad in 1885. Soon afterward he moved from Indore to Hyderabad. In the same year he was appointed as the photographer to the Viceroy of India.
In time, the Nizam of Hyderabad conferred the honorary title of Raja upon him. It was at this time. Deen Dayal was appointed photographer to Queen Victoria in 1887. In 1905 -- 1906, Raja Deen Dayal accompanied the Royal Tour of the Princess of Wales; the Lala Deen Dayal studios' collection of 2,857 glass plate negatives was bought by the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi in 1989. Today it is the largest repository of his work. A large collection including celebrated images of the 1870s' famine are with the Peabody Essex Museum, US and the Alkazi collection in Delhi. In 2010, a retrospective exhibition of his work was held at IGNCA, curated by Jyotindra Jain. In 2006, a curated collection of Raja Deen Dayal's photographs was exhibited at the Salar Jung Museum during the Times Hyderabad Festival. Photographs taken by Deen Dayal in the 1880s, sourced from the British Library, George Curzon's Collection: Views of HH the Nizam's Dominions, Deccan, 1892. Princely India: Photographs by Raja Deen Dayal, 1884–1910, by Deen Dayal, Clark Worswick.
Knopf, 1980. ISBN 0-394-50772-X. Raja Deen Dayal: Prince of Photographers, by Narendra Luther, Sureshchand Deendayal. Hyderabadi, 2003. ISBN 81-901752-0-3. Lala Deen Dayal: the eminent Indian photographer, 1844–1910, Deen Dayal, London Borough of Camden. Libraries & Arts Dept. 2002. Raja Deen Dayal Collection at Alkazi Foundation Raja Deen Dayal, official website Lala Deen Dayal, resource website Documentary
Qutb Shahi dynasty
The Qutb Shahi dynasty was a territory in south India. It was a Persianate Muslim Turkmen dynasty established in the 16th century that adopted the regional culture of the Deccan, its members were collectively called the Qutub Shahis and were the ruling family of the kingdom of Golkonda, in and near the modern-day states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. The Golconda sultanate was in conflict with the Adil Shahis and Nizam Shahis. In 1636, Shah Jahan forced the Qutb Shahis to recognize Mughal suzerainty, which lasted until 1687 when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Golcondan sultanate; the dynasty's founder, Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, migrated to Delhi from Iran, with his uncle, Allah-Quli, some of his relatives and friends in the beginning of the 16th century. He migrated south, to the Deccan and served the Bahmani sultan, Mohammad Shah, he conquered Golconda, after the disintegration of the Bahmani Kingdom into the five Deccan sultanates. Soon after, he declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate, took the title Qutub Shah, established the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda.
He was assassinated in 1543 by his son, who assumed the sultanate. Jamsheed died in 1550 from cancer. Jamsheed's young son reigned for a year, at which time the nobility brought back and installed Ibrahim Quli as sultan. During the reign of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, relations between Hindus and Muslims were strengthened to the point of Hindus resuming their religious festivals like Diwali and Holi; some Hindus rose to prominence in the Qutb Shahi state, the most important example being the ministers Madanna and Akkanna. Golconda, with the construction of the Char Minar Hyderabad, served as capitals of the sultanate, both cities were embellished by the Qutb Shahi sultans; the dynasty ruled Golconda for 171 years, until the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Deccan in 1687. The Qutub Shahi rulers were great builders, whose structures included the Char Minar, as well as patrons of learning. Quli Qutb Mulk's court became a haven for Persian literature. Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah wrote poems in Dakhini Urdu and Telugu and left a huge poetry collection.
Subsequent poets and writers, however wrote in Urdu, while using vocabulary from Persian and Telugu languages. By 1535, the Qutb Shahis were using Telugu for their revenue and judicial areas within the sultanate; the Qutub Shahi rulers patronized Persianate culture, but adopted the regional culture of the Deccan, symbolized by the Telugu language and the newly developed Deccani idiom of Urdu became prominent. Although Telugu was not their mother tongue, the Golconda rulers spoke and wrote Telugu, patronized Telugu so they were termed the "Telugu Sultans". In 1543, fearing for his life, Prince Ibrahim Quli fled to the Vijayanagar court, which lavishly patronized the Telugu language. Upon his enthronement as sultan in 1550, Ibrahim Quli was acquainted with Telugu aesthetics; the Qutb Shahi rulers were much more liberal than their other Muslim counterparts. During the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah in 1634 CE, the ancient Indian sex manual Koka Shastra was translated into Persian named Lazzat-un-Nisa.
The Qutb Shahi architecture was Indo-Islamic, a culmination of Indian and Persian architectural styles. Their style was similar to that of the other Deccan Sultanates; some examples of Qutb Shahi Indo-Islamic architecture are the Golconda Fort, tombs of the Qutb Shahis, Char Minar and the Char Kaman, Mecca Masjid, Khairtabad Mosque, Hayat Bakshi Mosque, Taramati Baradari and the Toli Mosque. The Qutb Shahi Kingdom was like the other Deccan kingdoms, a centralized state; the sultan enjoyed military powers. When expediency demanded, the post of regent was created to carry on the administration on behalf of the king; the Peshwa was the highest official of the sultanate. He was assisted by a number of ministers, including Mir Jumla and Khazanadar; the Qutb Shahi dynasty has been considered a "composite" of Hindu-Muslim religio-social culture. The eight sultans in the dynasty were: Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah Subhan Quli Qutb Shah Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah Abdullah Qutb Shah Abul Hasan Tana Shah The tombs of the Qutb Shahi sultans lie about one kilometer north of Golkonda's outer wall.
These structures are made of beautifully carved stonework, surrounded by landscaped gardens. They are receive many visitors. Hyderabad Deccan Battle of Talikota For FURTHER READING: Chopra, R. M; the Rise, Growth And Decline of Indo-Persian Literature, 2012, Iran Culture House, New Delhi. Jawed Vashisht, Ghizal-e Raana Jawed Vashisht, Roop Ras Jawed Vashisht, Mohammed Quli aur Nabi ka Sadka Jawed Vashisht, Dakhni Darpan Telugu Literature and Culture of Qutub Shahi Dynasty