Vizhinjam is an area and natural port located close to international shipping routes in Thiruvananthapuram in the Indian state of Kerala. Kovalam beach lies 3 kilometres from Vizhinjam while the area is known for its Ayurvedic treatment centers and internationally acclaimed beach resorts; as of 2001, the population was 18,566. Vizhinjam International Seaport is an international deepwater multi-purpose shipping hub in its initial stages of development; the total project expenditure is pegged at Rs 6000 crores over three phases and is proposed to be developed on the landlord model with a view to catering to passenger and other clean cargo. The Kerala cabinet has decided to award the multi-thousand crore Vizhinjam international port and deep-water container transshipment terminal to Adani Ports and SEZ. Vizhinjam harbour is the site of a unique demonstration plant that converts energy from waves to electricity using Oscillating Water Columns; the electricity generated is fed into the local grid.
A caisson was constructed on the site in December 1990 and two generations of power modules have so far been tested. The plant was first commissioned in October 1991; the physical processes involved in the energy conversion are now much better understood, which has led to a threefold increase in power output from the plant. At present, more than 80% of the cost of the wave energy plant has been in the construction of concrete caissons. Considerable cost savings can be obtained using the concept of multi-functional breakwaters wherein a power module forms an incremental addition to a caisson breakwater, it is proposed to demonstrate the utility of this concept with the design and construction of a breakwater with a number of power modules. Vizhinjam dates back to the rule of the Ay dynasty. Circa 850 AD – 1400 AD, the region was the scene of many battles between the Chera dynasty and the Cholas, Vizhinjam, the capital, was sacked by the Cholas; when the kings of the Ay dynasty shifted their capital to Vizhinjam, they built a fort dating to the eighth or ninth century.
A preliminary investigation by a team of archaeologist under Dr. Ajit Kumar, University of Kerala, has revealed the fort might have been 800 m² in area; the fort's wall can be found on the northern and western parts and has been constructed using large boulders set in mud mortar. The wall, with a wide base, tapers on its way up. Now this part of Vizhinjam is known as Kottapuram, ("Kotta" in Malayalam means Fort. According to Dr. Ajit, one important clue in dating the fort is that the walls have no battlements or `loop holes'; this is typical of early forts, he says. Another complex of walls, near the present Our Lady of Good Voyage Church relates to the Portuguese period; the team was able to trace literary and epigraphical references - of 9 AD to 12 AD vintage - to a fort and port at Vizhinjam. Sangam literature such as `Pandikkovai', `Iraiyanar Ahapporul Urai', `Kalingattup-parani', of Jayamkondar, `Vikrama-solan-ula' are said to have numerous references to the existence of a fort, port and a mansion at Vizhinjam.
Moreover, the Srivaramangalam copper plates of Pandyan King Nedum Chadayan have clear reference to Vizhinjam and its fort. "Here, the fort is described as surrounded by waters of three seas, protected by a wide moat, high walls which the sun's rays do not touch and so on. Leaving aside the hyperbole typical of such inscriptions, the ground evidence at Vizhinjam that fits this description of the old fort. In fact the port at Vizhinjam has been mentioned in the work `The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea', a work of the first century AD. Here Vizhinjam has been called as Balita," said Dr. Ajit. Recent excavations carried out by Dr. Ajit Kumar and Dr. Robert Harding at Vizhinjam have brought to light archaeological evidences of international maritime trade flourishing from here; the discovery of possible amphora potsherds indicate that Vizhinjam had maritime trade with the Red Sea Coast during the early Christian Era. It would support the identification of the port with Balita or Blinca of the Greco-Roman records.
A large number of sherds of the Torpedo Jar and Turquoise Glazed Pottery types indicate trade relations with the Persian Gulf region from the 8th century onwards. East Asian trade connections are indicated by Chinese and Thai ceramics, ranging in date from the 9th century to the colonial period; the Portuguese and the Dutch had commercial establishments here. The Portuguese have built a church in Vizhinjam near to the sea shore, still functional and is referred as the Old Vizhinjam Church, it is located in the Vizhinjam fishing harbour area. Kerala cave temples, of which ten exist, are distributed accordingly in three groups; the southernmost group consists of those at Tirunandikara, Vizhinjam and Bhutapandi. All the cave temples in the southern group are examples of one called shrines enshrining a lingam; the best example of this group is the niche cave on a boulder at Vizhinjam, the capital of Ay rulers, a sea port and the scene of battles between Pandyas and Ay Kings. This cave has unfinished reliefs of Siva Kirata Siva dancing with Parvati.
Some scholars hold the view that the bas-reliefs of Vizhinjam with their slender forms and rhythmic lines, show Pallava affinities. Regular buses operate in Vizhinjam from the City Bus Stand at East Fort, as well as from the Central Bus Stand at Thampanoor. Taxis and auto rickshaws can be hired at the bus stations. At the 2001 India census, Vizhinjam had a population of 18566 with 9288 females. Vizhinjam International Seaport Vizhinjam rock caves
Maharashtra is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan plateau. It is third-largest state by area in India. Spread over 307,713 km2, it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south and Chhattisgarh to the east and Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the north west, Madhya Pradesh to the north, it is the world's second-most populous subnational entity. It was formed by merging the western and south-western parts of the Bombay State and Vidarbha, the north-western parts of the Hyderabad State and splitting Saurashtra by the States Reorganisation Act, it has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, has a population around 18 million making it the most populous urban area in India. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Pune is known as'Oxford of the East' due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions; the Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state.
The Narmada and Tapi Rivers flow near Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third-most urbanized state of India. Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates and Marathas, the British. Ruins, tombs and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state, they include the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Ellora caves. The numerous forts are associated with the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Maharashtra is the wealthiest state by all major economic parameters and the most industrialized state in India; the state continues to be the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 15% in the country's gross domestic product. Maharashtra accounts for 17% of the industrial output of the country and 16% of the country's service sector output; the economy of Maharashtra is the largest state economy in India with ₹27.96 lakh crore in GDP and a per capita GDP of ₹180,000.
The modern Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri Prakrit, the word Marhatta is found in the Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra, Maharashtri and Maratha may have derived from the same root. However, their exact etymology is uncertain; the most accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra derived from a combination of Maha and rashtrika, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. Another theory is that the term is derived from Maha and ratha / rathi, which refers to a skilful northern fighting force that migrated southward into the area. An alternative theory states that the term derives from Rashtra. However, this theory is somewhat controversial among modern scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritised interpretation of writers. Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture have been discovered throughout the state. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the fourth and third centuries BCE.
Around 230 BCE, Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. In 90 CE, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, 30 miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom; the state was ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Western Chalukya before the Yadava rule. The Buddhist Ajanta Caves in present-day Aurangabad display influences from the Satavahana and Vakataka style; the caves were excavated during this period. The Chalukya dynasty ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries CE, the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha, Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the eighth century; the Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the eighth to the tenth century. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty as "one of the four great kings of the world".
Shilahara dynasty began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the eighth and tenth centuries. From the early 11th century to the 12th century, the Deccan Plateau, which includes a significant part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I, Vikramaditya VI. In the early 14th century, the Yadava Dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughluqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate in 1518, Maharashtra split into five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Elichpur.
These kingdoms fought with each other. United, they decisively defeated the
The term Anglo-Indian can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent. The latter sense is now historical, but confusions can arise; the Oxford English Dictionary, for example, gives three possibilities: "Of mixed British and Indian parentage, of Indian descent but born or living in Britain or of British descent or birth but living or having lived long in India". People fitting the middle definition are more known as British Asian or British Indian; this article focuses on the modern definition, a distinct minority community of mixed Eurasian ancestry, whose native language is English. During the centuries that Britain was in India, the children born to the British and Indians began to form a new community; these Anglo-Indians formed a small but significant portion of the population during the British Raj, were well represented in certain administrative roles. The Anglo-Indian population dwindled from two million at the time of independence in 1947 to 300,000 - 1,000,000 by 2010.
Many have adapted to local communities or emigrated to the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States and New Zealand. This process was replicated in many other meetings of European traders and colonisers across the subcontinent, creating the Anglo-Burmese people in Myammar and the Burgher people in Sri Lanka; the first use of "Anglo-Indian" was to describe all British people living in India. People of mixed British and Indian descent were referred to as "Eurasians". Terminology has changed, the latter group are now called "Anglo-Indians", the term that will be used throughout this article. During the British East India Company's rule in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it was common for British officers and soldiers to take local wives and have Eurasian children, owing to a lack of British women in India. By the mid-19th century, there were around 40,000 British soldiers, but fewer than 2,000 British officials present in India. Under Regulation VIII of 1813, they were excluded from the British legal system and in Bengal became subject to the rule of Islamic law outside Calcutta – and yet found themselves without any caste or status amongst those who were to judge them.
In 1821, a pamphlet entitled "Thoughts on how to better the condition of Indo-Britons" by a "Practical Reformer," was written to promote the removal of prejudices existing in the minds of young Eurasians against engaging in trades. This was followed up by another pamphlet, entitled "An Appeal on behalf of Indo-Britons." Prominent Eurasians in Calcutta formed the "East Indian Committee" with a view to send a petition to the British Parliament for the redress of their grievances. John William Ricketts, a pioneer in the Eurasian cause, volunteered to proceed to England, his mission was successful, on his return to India, by way of Madras, he received quite an ovation from his countrymen in that presidency. In April 1834, in obedience to an Act of Parliament passed in August 1833, the Indian Government was forced to grant government jobs to Anglo-Indians; as British women began arriving in India in large numbers around the early to mid-19th century as family members of officers and soldiers, British men became less to marry Indian women.
Intermarriage declined after the events of the Rebellion of 1857, after which several anti-miscegenation laws were implemented. As a result, Eurasians were neglected by both the Indian populations in India. Over generations, Anglo-Indians intermarried with other Anglo-Indians to form a community that developed a culture of its own, their cuisine, dress and religion all served to further segregate them from the native population. A number of factors fostered a strong sense of community among Anglo-Indians, their English language school system, their Anglo-centric culture, their Christian beliefs in particular helped bind them together. They formed social clubs and associations to run functions, including regular dances on occasions such as Christmas and Easter. Indeed, their Christmas balls, held in most major cities, still form a distinctive part of Indian Christian culture. Over time Anglo-Indians were recruited into the Customs and Excise and Telegraphs, Forestry Department, the railways and teaching professions – but they were employed in many other fields as well.
The Anglo-Indian community had a role as go-betweens in the introduction of Western musical styles and instruments in post-Independence India. During the colonial era, genres including ragtime and jazz were played by bands for the social elites, these bands contained Anglo-Indian members. During the independence movement, many Anglo-Indians identified with British rule, therefore, incurred the distrust and hostility of Indian nationalists, their position at independence was difficult. They felt a loyalty to a British "home" that most had never seen and where they would gain little social acceptance, they felt insecure in an India that put a premium on participation in the independence movement as a prerequisite for important government positions. Many Anglo-Indians left the country in 1947, hoping to make a new life in the United Kingdom or elsewhere in the Commonwealth of Nations, such as Australia or Canada; the exodus continued through the 1950s and 1960s and by the late 1990s most had left with many of th
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe. Spices such as cinnamon, cardamom, ginger and turmeric were known and used in antiquity for commerce in the Eastern World; these spices found their way into the Middle East before the beginning of the Christian era, where the true sources of these spices were withheld by the traders and associated with fantastic tales. Early writings and stone age carvings of neolithic age obtained indicates that India's southwest coastal port Muziris, in Kerala, had established itself as a major spice trade centre from as early as 3000 BC, which marked the beginning of the spice trade. Kerala, referred to as the land of spices or as the "Spice Garden of India", was the place traders and explorers wanted to reach, including Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, others; the Greco-Roman world followed by trading along the Roman-India routes. During the first millennium, the sea routes to Sri Lanka and India were controlled by the Ethiopians who became the maritime trading power of the Red Sea and the Indians.
The Kingdom of Axum had pioneered the Red Sea route before the 1st century AD. By mid-7th century AD after the rise of Islam, Arab traders started dominating the maritime routes. Arab traders took over conveying goods via the Levant and Venetian merchants to Europe until the rise of the Ottoman Turks cut the route again by 1453. Overland routes helped the spice trade but maritime trade routes led to tremendous growth in commercial activities. During the high and late medieval periods Muslim traders dominated maritime spice trading routes throughout the Indian Ocean, tapping source regions in East Asia and shipping spices from trading emporiums in India westward to the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, from which overland routes led to Europe; the trade was changed by the European Age of Discovery, during which the spice trade in black pepper, became an influential activity for European traders. The Cape Route from Europe to the Indian Ocean via the Cape of Good Hope was pioneered by the Portuguese explorer navigator Vasco da Gama in 1498, resulting in new maritime routes for trade.
This trade, which drove the world economy from the end of the Middle Ages well into the modern times, ushered in an age of European domination in the East. Channels, such as the Bay of Bengal, served as bridges for cultural and commercial exchanges between diverse cultures as nations struggled to gain control of the trade along the many spice routes. European dominance was slow to develop; the Portuguese trade routes were restricted and limited by the use of ancient routes and nations that were difficult to dominate. The Dutch were able to bypass many of these problems by pioneering a direct ocean route from the Cape of Good Hope to the Sunda Strait in Indonesia; the Egyptians had traded in the Red Sea, spices from Arabia. Luxury goods traded along the Incense Route included Indian spices, ebony and fine textiles; the spice trade was associated with overland routes early on but maritime routes proved to be the factor which helped the trade grow. The Ptolemaic dynasty had developed trade with India using the Red Sea ports.
People from the Neolithic period traded in spices, sea shells, precious stones and other high-value materials as early as the 10th millennium BC. The first to mention the trade in historical periods are the Egyptians. In the 3rd millennium BC, they traded with the Land of Punt, believed to have been situated in an area encompassing northern Somalia, Djibouti and the Red Sea coast of Sudan. In the first millennium BC the Arabs and Indians were engaged in sea and land trade in luxury goods such as spices, precious stones, leather of rare animals and pearls; the sea trade was in the Indian Ocean. The sea route in the Red Sea was from Bab-el-Mandeb to Berenike and from there by land to the Nile and by boats to Alexandria; the land trade was in deserts of Western Arabia using camels. The Indonesians were trading in spices with East Africa using Catamaran boats and sailing with the help of the Westerlies in the Indian Ocean. In the second half of the first millennium BC the Arab tribes of South and West Arabia took control over the land trade of spices from South Arabia to the Mediterranean Sea.
The tribes were the M'ain, Hadhramaut and Himyarite. In the north the Nabateans took control of the trade route that crossed the Negev from Petra to Gaza; the trade made the Arab tribes rich. The South Arabia region was called Eudaemon Arabia by the Greeks and was on the agenda of conquests of Alexander of Macedonia before he died; the Indians and the Arabs had control over the sea trade with India. In the late second century BC, the Greeks from Egypt learned from the Indians how to sail directly from Aden to the West coast of India using the monsoon winds and took control over the sea trade. Rome played a part in the spice trade during the 5th century, but this role, unlike the Arabian one, did not last through the Middle Ages; the rise of Islam brought a significant change to the trade as Radhanite Jewish and Arab merchants from Egypt took over conveying goods via the Levant to Europe. The Spice trade had brought great riches to the Abbasid Caliphate, inspired famous legends such as that of Sinbad the Sailor.
These early sailors and merchants would set sail from the port city of Basra and after many voyages they would return to sell their goods including spices in Baghdad. The fame of many spices such as nutmeg and cinnamon are at
Kannur known as Cannanore, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Kannur district, state of Kerala, India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Kannur District and situated 518 km north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. During British rule in India, Kannur was known as Cannanore, a name, still in use by the Indian Railways. Kannur is the largest city of North Malabar region; as of 2011 census population of Kannur was 2,32,486. Kannur is one of the million-plus urban agglomerations in India with a population of 1,642,892 in 2011. Kannur was an important trading centre in the 12th century, with active business connections with Persia and Arabia, it served as the British military headquarters on India's west coast until 1887. In conjunction with its sister city, Tellicherry, it was the third largest city on the western coast of British India in the 18th century after Bombay and Karachi; the modern town is referred to as Kannur Town. Kannur, as a district and surrounding areas, were ruled by the famous Kolathiri Rajas.
When the state of Kerala was formed the district took the name Kannur since the administrative offices were established here. Before that, Kannur was under the Chirakkal taluk of Madras state under British rule; when the British dominated this part of the world, they preferred Madras and Cochin as their major stations and Kannur started to lose its old glory. The people of Kannur are still waiting for their old glory to get back and they feel they are being sidelined because the state administration is located opposite side of the state. Part of the original city of Kannur was under Kerala's only Muslim Royalty called the Arakkal and this area is still known as City. St. Angelo Fort was built in 1505 by Dom Francisco de Almeida, the first Portuguese Viceroy of India; the Dutch captured the fort from the Portuguese in 1663. They modernised the fort and built the bastions Hollandia and Frieslandia that are the major features of the present structure; the original Portuguese fort was pulled down later.
A painting of this fort and the fishing ferry behind it can be seen in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. The Dutch sold the fort to king Ali Raja of Arakkal in 1772. During the 17th century, Kannur was the capital city of the only Muslim Sultanate in Kerala, known as Arakkal; the British conquered it in 1790 and used it as one of their major military stations on the Malabar Coast. During the British Raj, Kannur was part of the Madras province in the North Malabar District; the guerrilla war by Pazhassi Raja, the ruler of Kottayam province, against the British had a huge impact in the history of Kannur. Changes in the socio-economic and political sectors in Kerala during the initial decades of 20th century created conditions congenial for the growth of the Communist Party. Extension of English education initiated by Christian missionaries in 1906 and carried forward by government, rebellion for wearing a cloth to cover upper parts of body, installing an idol at Aruvippuram in 1888, Malayali Memorial in 1891, establishment of SNDP Yogam in 1903, struggles etc. became factors helpful to accelerate changes in Kerala society during a short time.
Movements for liberation from the colonial rule of British imperialism and struggles launched by these movements grew with them. Soon, ideas about socialism and Soviet Revolution reached Kerala; such ideas got propagated in Kerala through the works of Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai, Sahodaran Ayyappan, P. Kesavadev and others. By the beginning of the 1930s some other useful developments were taking place. Important among them was Nivarthana Agitation in Travancore; that was the demand of people suppressed so far as untouchables and weaker sections for participation in government. This brought to the forefront struggles like proportional representation in government and reservation of jobs; this imparted a new enthusiasm among oppressed masses. District: Kannur Governing Body: Kannur corporation Taluk/Tehsil: Kannur Block: Kannur Assembly Constituency: Kannur Parliament Constituency: Kannur Police Station: Kannur Post Office: Kannur 670001 Telephone Exchange: Kannur 0497 Railway Station: kannur Railway Station Airport: Kannur International Airport Kannur the rural areas, has been referred to as a stranglehold of the left parties – locally known as'party gramam'.
Gramam means'village' and denote local allegiance to only one party. Kannur has a strong presence of trade unions as well as left-leaning organizations. However, other parties have strong influence. According to the 2011 census of India, Kannur city has a population of 56,823. Males constitute 46.2% of the population and females 53.8%. Kannur has an average literacy rate of 96.23%, higher than the national average of 74.04%. Male literacy is 98% and female literacy is 94%. In Kannur, 12% of the population is under six years of age. Hindus form the majority of the population with 32,026 members forming 56.3% of the population. There are 21,557 Muslims forming 37.9% of the population. Christians form 5% of the population with 2,892 members; the Anglo-Indian community in Kannur live in the Kannur Cantonment of Burnacherry and its surrounding areas of Thillery, No.3 Bazaar and Camp Bazaar. Malayalam is the local language. Kannur Taluk has 27 villages. Anjarakandi, Azhikode North, Azhikode South and Chelora Chembilode and Chirakkal Edakkad, Iriveri, Kadambur and Kolacherry Kanhirod, Kannapuram Makrery, Mattool and Munderi Muzhappilangad, Narath and Pappinisseri Puzhathi and Valiyannur V-Pra Kaayal Floating park / V-Pra Park is a project from District Tourism Promotional Council DTPC.
It is a Park, constructed on top of Vayalapra kaayal
Zheng He was a Chinese mariner, diplomat, fleet admiral, court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty. He was born as Ma He in a Muslim family, adopted the conferred surname Zheng from Emperor Yongle. Zheng commanded expeditionary treasure voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, East Africa from 1405 to 1433, his larger ships stretched 120 meters or more in length and carried hundreds of sailors on four tiers of decks. As a favorite of the Yongle Emperor, whose usurpation he assisted, Zheng rose to the top of the imperial hierarchy and served as commander of the southern capital Nanjing, his voyages were long neglected in official Chinese histories but have become well known in China and abroad since the publication of Liang Qichao's Biography of Our Homeland's Great Navigator, Zheng He in 1904. A trilingual stele left by the navigator was discovered on the island of Ceylon shortly thereafter. Zheng He was born Ma He to a Muslim family of Kunyang, Yunnan, China, he had four sisters.
Ma He's religious beliefs became eclectic in his adulthood. The Liujiagang and Changle inscriptions suggest that Zheng He's devotion to Tianfei was the dominant faith to which he adhered, reflecting the goddess' central role to the treasure fleet. John Guy mentions, "When Zheng He, the Muslim eunuch leader of the great expeditions to the'Western Ocean' in the early fifteenth century, embarked on his voyages, it was from the Divine Woman that he sought protection, as well as at the tombs of the Muslim saints on Lingshan Hill, above the city of Quanzhou."Zheng He was a great-great-great-grandson of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar, who served in the administration of the Mongol Empire and was the governor of Yunnan during the early Yuan dynasty. His great-grandfather may have been stationed at a Mongol garrison in Yunnan. Zheng He's grandfather carried the title hajji, while his father had the sinicized surname Ma and the title hajji, which suggests that they had made the pilgrimage to Mecca. Peterson suggests that the Hajji of both his father and grandfather indicated that Zheng He may have had Mongol-Arab ancestry and that he could speak Arabic.
In the autumn of 1381, a Ming army invaded and conquered Yunnan, ruled by the Mongol prince Basalawarmi, Prince of Liang. In 1381, Ma Haji died in the fighting between the Ming armies and Mongol forces. Dreyer states that Zheng He's father died at age 39 while resisting the Ming conquest, while Levathes states Zheng He's father died at age 37, but it is unclear if he was helping the Mongol army or just caught in the onslaught of battle. Wenming, the oldest son, buried their father outside of Kunming. In his capacity as Admiral, Zheng He had an epitaph engraved in honor of his father, composed by the Minister of Rites Li Zhigang on the Duanwu Festival of the 3rd year in the Yongle era. Zheng He was captured by the Ming armies at Yunnan in 1381. General Fu Youde saw Ma He on a road and approached him in order to inquire about the location of the Mongol pretender. Ma He responded defiantly by saying. Afterwards, the general took him prisoner. One source states that he was castrated at the age of 10 and was placed in the service of the Prince of Yan, while another source indicates that the castration occurred in 1385.
Ma He was sent to serve in the household of Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan, who became the Yongle Emperor. Zhu Di was eleven years older than Ma. While enslaved as a eunuch servant, Ma He gained the confidence of Zhu Di, while Zhu Di as his benefactor would gain the allegiance and loyalty of the young eunuch. Since 1380, the prince had been governing Beiping,which was located near the northern frontier where the hostile Mongol tribes were situated. Ma would spend his early life as a soldier on the northern frontier, he participated in Zhu Di's military campaigns against the Mongols. On 2 March 1390, Ma accompanied the Prince when he commanded his first expedition, a great victory as the Mongol commander Naghachu surrendered as soon as he realized he had fallen for a deception, he would gain the confidence and trust of the prince. Ma was known as "sān bǎo" during the time of service in the household of the Prince of Yan; this name was a reference to the Three Jewels in Buddhism. There is a document saying his name could be 三保.
Ma received a proper education while at Beiping, which he would not have had if he had been placed in the imperial capital Nanjing, as the Hongwu Emperor did not trust eunuchs and believed that it was better to keep them illiterate. Meanwhile, the Hongwu Emperor purged and exterminated many of the original Ming leadership and gave his enfeoffed sons more military authority those in the north like the Prince of Yan. Ma He's appearance as an adult was recorded: he was seven chi tall, had a waist, five chi in circumference, cheeks and a forehead, high, a small nose, glaring eyes, teeth that were white and well-shaped as shells, a voice, as loud as a bell, it is recorded that he had great knowledge about warfare and was well-accustomed to battle. The young eunuch became a trusted adviser to the prince and assisted him when the Jianwen Emperor's hostility to his uncle's feudal bases prompted the 1399–1402 Jingnan Campaign which ended with the emperor's apparent death and the ascension of the Zhu Di, Prince of Yan, as the Yongle Emperor.
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle