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Malacca Sultanate

The Malacca Sultanate was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Conventional historical thesis marks c. 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a Malay Raja of Singapura, Parameswara known as Iskandar Shah. At the height of the sultanate's power in the 15th century, its capital grew into one of the most important entrepôts of its time, with territory covering much of the Malay Peninsula, the Riau Islands and a significant portion of the northern coast of Sumatra in present-day Indonesia; as a bustling international trading port, Malacca emerged as a centre for Islamic learning and dissemination, encouraged the development of the Malay language and arts. It heralded the golden age of Malay sultanates in the archipelago, in which Classical Malay became the lingua franca of the Maritime Southeast Asia and Jawi script became the primary medium for cultural and intellectual exchange, it is through these intellectual and cultural developments, the Malaccan era witnessed the enculturation of a Malay identity, the Malayisation of the region and the subsequent formation of an Alam Melayu.

In the year of 1511, the capital of Malacca fell to the Portuguese Empire, forcing the last Sultan, Mahmud Shah, to retreat to the further reaches of his empire, where his progeny established new ruling dynasties and Perak. The political and cultural legacy of the sultanate remains to this day. For centuries, Malacca has been held up as an exemplar of Malay-Muslim civilisation, it established systems of trade and governance that persisted well into the 19th century, introduced concepts such as daulat – a distinctly Malay notion of sovereignty – that continues to shape contemporary understanding of Malay kingship. The fall of Malacca benefited Brunei when its ports became a new entrepôt as the kingdom emerged as a new Muslim empire in the Malay Archipelago, attracting many Muslim traders who fled from the Portuguese occupation after the ruler of Brunei's conversion to Islam; the series of raids launched by the Chola Empire in the 11th century had weakened the once glorious empire of Srivijaya.

By the end of the 13th century, the fragmented Srivijaya caught the attention of the expansionist Javanese King, Kertanegara of Singhasari. In 1275, he decreed the Pamalayu expedition to overrun Sumatra. By 1288, Singhasari naval expeditionary forces sacked Jambi and Palembang and brought Malayu Dharmasraya—the successor state of Srivijaya, to its knees. In 1293 Singhasari was succeeded by Majapahit ruling the region. According to the Malay Annals, a prince from Palembang named Seri Teri Buana who claimed to be a descendant of Alexander the Great, stayed in the island of Bintan for several years before he set sail and landed on Temasek in 1299; the Orang Laut, famous for their loyal services to Srivijaya made him king of a new kingdom called Singapura. In the 14th century, Singapura developed concurrently with the Pax Mongolica era and rose from a small trading outpost into a centre of international trade with strong ties with the Yuan Dynasty. In an effort to revive the fortune of Malayu in Sumatra, in the 1370s, a Malay ruler of Palembang sent an envoy to the court of the first emperor of the newly established Ming dynasty.

He invited China to resume the tributary system. Learning this diplomatic maneuver King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit sent an envoy to Nanking, convinced the emperor that Malayu was their vassal, was not an independent country. Subsequently, in 1377—a few years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit sent a punitive naval attack against a rebellion in Palembang, which caused the complete destruction of Srivijaya and caused the diaspora of the Srivijayan princes and nobles. Rebellions against the Javanese rule ensued and attempts were made by the fleeing Malay princes to revive the empire, which left the area of southern Sumatra in chaos and desolation. By the second half of 14th century, Kingdom of Singapura grew wealthy. However, its success alarmed two regional powers at that time, Ayuthaya from the north and Majapahit from the south; as a result, the kingdom's fortified capital was attacked by at least two major foreign invasions before it was sacked by Majapahit in 1398. The fifth and last king, Parameswara fled to the west coast of the Malay Peninsula.

Parameswara fled north to Muar, Ujong Tanah and Biawak Busuk before reaching a fishing village at the mouth of Bertam river. The village belonged to the sea-sakai or orang laut which were left alone by Majapahit forces that not only sacked Singapura but Langkasuka and Pasai; as a result, the village became a safe haven and in the 1370s it began to receive a growing number of refugees running away from Mahapahit's attacks. By the time Parameswara reached Malacca in the early 1400s, the place had a cosmopolitan feel with Buddhists from the north, Hindus from Palembang and Muslims from Pasai. Legend has it that Parameswara saw a mouse deer outwit his hunting dog into the water when he was resting under the Malacca tree, he thought this bode well, remarking,'this place is excellent the mouse deer is formidable. Tradition holds that he named the settlement after the tree he was leaning against while witnessing the portentous event. Today, the mouse deer is part of modern Malacca's coat of arms; the name "Malacca" itself was derived from the fruit-bearing Melaka tree scientifically termed as Phyllanthus emblica.

Another account of the naming origin of Malacca elaborates that

Amkat Mai

Amkat Mai is a Papua New Guinean politician. He was elected to the National Parliament at the 2012 election as Governor of West Sepik Province, lost office on 4 October 2013 when his election was declared void by the National Court, returned to parliament when he won a subsequent by-election for his seat in August 2015, he has variously been a member of the Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party, Papua New Guinea Party and National Alliance Party. Mai was an educationist in the Telefomin district prior to entering politics, he won the West Sepik governorship at the 2012 election as an endorsed Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party candidate, but announced his intention to shift to the Papua New Guinea Party prior to the conclusion of counting. He criticised a ban on foreign journalists entering Papua New Guinea to cover issues with the Australian-run Manus Regional Processing Centre, but welcomed the centre's reopening, suggesting that Australia should provide assistance with surveillance and border monitoring capabilities in exchange.

In November 2012, he switched parties for a second time and crossed from the opposition to the government, leaving the Papua New Guinea Party and joining the National Alliance Party. On 4 October 2013, the National Court declared Mai's election to have been null and void after ruling in favour of a legal challenge from two losing candidates and previous governors, Simon Solo and John Tekwie, on the basis that there had been illegal practices during the election, including underage children voting, double voting and multiple voting. Mai appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, which upheld the National Court decision in March 2015, ruling that a by-election needed to be held. Mai was re-elected with an absolute majority of votes at the resulting August 2015 by-election, he has supported a free trade zone around the PNG-Indonesia border to provide economic benefits for the Vanimo area, argued that Papua New Guinea should set up more police border posts to protect sovereignty and deter illegal activities, called for the development of the Wewak port to international standards.

In December 2016, he signed a deal with two Chinese companies to establish two large industrial parks in West Sepik Province

Tau Pegasi

Tau Pegasi, formally named Salm, is a 4.6 magnitude star in the constellation of Pegasus. Τ Pegasi is the star's Bayer designation. The star bore the traditional names Salm and Markab, a name shared with Alpha Pegasi, k Puppis and Kappa Velorum. In 2016, the IAU organized a Working Group on Star Names to catalog and standardize proper names for stars; the WGSN approved the name Salm for this star and Markeb for the component Kappa Velorum A, both on 5 September 2017. Markab had been approved for Alpha Pegasi on 30 June 2016. All three are now so included in the List of IAU-approved Star Names. In Chinese, 離宮, meaning Resting Palace, refers to an asterism consisting of Tau Pegasi, Lambda Pegasi, Mu Pegasi, Omicron Pegasi, Eta Pegasi and Nu Pegasi; the Chinese name for Tau Pegasi itself is 離宮五, "the Fifth Star of Resting Palace". Tau Pegasi belongs to spectral class A5 Vp; this is a Delta Scuti variable star with a pulsation period of 0.94 hours. It is rotating with a projected rotational velocity of 150 km s−1.

Tau Pegasi is radiating nearly 30 times the luminosity of the Sun from its outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 7,762 K