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Malagasy language

Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar. Most people in Madagascar speak it as a first language as do some people of Malagasy descent elsewhere; the Malagasy language is the westernmost member of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family. Its distinctiveness from nearby African languages was noted in 1708 by the Dutch scholar Adriaan Reland, it is related to the Malayo-Polynesian languages of Indonesia and the Philippines, to the East Barito languages spoken in Borneo, with apparent influence from early Old Malay. There appears to be a Bantu substratum in Malagasy phonotactics. Malagasy is the demonym of Madagascar from which it is taken to refer to the people of Madagascar in addition to their language. Madagascar was first settled by Austronesian peoples from Maritime Southeast Asia from Borneo; the migrations continued along the first millennium, as confirmed by linguistic researchers who showed the close relationship between the Malagasy language and Old Malay and Old Javanese languages of this period.

Far c. 1000, the original Austronesian settlers mixed with Arabs, amongst others. There is evidence that the predecessors of the Malagasy dialects first arrived in the southern stretch of the east coast of Madagascar. Malagasy has a tradition of poetic histories and legends; the most well-known is the national epic, about a Malagasy folk hero of the same name. Malagasy is the principal language spoken on the island of Madagascar, it is spoken by Malagasy communities on neighboring Indian Ocean islands such as Réunion and Comoros. Large expatriate Malagasy communities speaking the language exist in France and Quebec and, to a lesser extent and Washington, DC; the Merina dialect of Malagasy is considered the national language of Madagascar. It is one of two official languages alongside French in the 2010 constitution put in place the Fourth Republic. Under the 2007 constitution, Malagasy was one of three official languages alongside French and English. Malagasy is the language of instruction in all public schools through grade five for all subjects, remains the language of instruction through high school for the subjects of history and Malagasy language.

There are two principal dialects of Malagasy. Ethnologue encodes 12 variants of Malagasy as distinct languages, they have about a 70% similarity in lexicon with the Merina dialect. The Eastern dialects are: Northern Betsimisaraka Malagasy – spoken by the Betsimisaraka on the northeastern coast of the island Southern Betsimisaraka Malagasy – spoken by the Betsimisaraka in the North of the region Vatovavy Fito Vinany. Plateau Malagasy – spoken in the centre of the island and includes southeastern dialects like Antemoro and Antefasy. Tanosy Malagasy – spoken by the Antanosy people in the south of the island Tesaka Malagasy – spoken by the Antaisaka people in the southeast of the island; the Western dialects are: Antankarana Malagasy – spoken by the Antankarana in the northern tip of the island Bara Malagasy – spoken by the Bara people in the south of the island Masikoro Malagasy – spoken by the Masikoro in the southwest of the island Sakalava Malagasy – spoken by the Sakalava people on the western coast of the island Tandroy-Mahafaly Malagasy – spoken by the Antandroy and the Mahafaly people on the southern tip of the island Tsimihety Malagasy – spoken by the Tsimihety people.

Additionally, Bushi is spoken on the French overseas territory of Mayotte, part of the Comoro island chain situated northwest of Madagascar. The two main dialects of Malagasy are distinguished by several phonological features. Sakalava lost final nasal consonants, whereas Merina added a voiceless: *tañan'hand' → Sakalava, Merina Final *t became - in the one but - in the other: *kulit'skin' → Sakalava, Merina Sakalava retains ancestral *li and *ti, whereas in Merina these become and: *putiq'white' → Sakalava, Merina However, these last changes started in Borneo before the Malagasy arrived in Madagascar; the language has a written literature going back to the 15th century. When the French established Fort-Dauphin in the 17th century, they found an Arabico-Malagasy script in use, known as Sorabe; this Arabic Ajami script was used for astrological and magical texts. The oldest known manuscript in that script is a short Malagasy-Dutch vocabulary from the early 17th century, first published in 1908 by Gabriel Ferrand though the script must have been introduced into the southeast area of Madagascar in the 15th century.

The first bilingual renderings of religious texts are those by Étienne de Flacourt, who published the first dictionary of the language. Radama I, the first literate representative of the Merina monarchy, though extensively versed in the Arabico-Malagasy tradition, opted in 1823 for a Latin system derived by David Jones and invited the Protestant London Missionary Society to establish schools and churches; the first book to be printed in Malagasy using Latin characters was the Bible, translated into Malagasy in 1835 by British Protestant missiona

Eddie Powers

Edward Joseph Powers was a Canadian professional lacrosse player, professional ice hockey player and coach. Powers was head coach of the Toronto St. Pats of the National Hockey League for two seasons and minor professional league coach for 13 seasons, including championship seasons with the Boston Tigers and Syracuse Stars, he was an assistant coach and hockey executive for the Toronto franchise. Powers was born in Elora, Ontario on September 11, 1888. From the age of 16, Powers played senior lacrosse, he played with Nelson in British Columbia. He started coaching lacrosse, he was coach of the 1926 Mann Cup championship team Weston Westonmen. Powers' ice hockey coaching career began when he was employed as a youth with the Eaton's department store chain, coaching the store's own team. Powers moved on to coaching amateur teams. In 1919–20, he coached Toronto Parkdale's senior team. In 1920–21, he coached the Port Colborne intermediate team, he coached the Westminster Ice Hockey Club in Boston in 1921-1922 and led them to the US Championship.

In fall 1922, the University of Pennsylvania recruited Powers to coach its hockey and lacrosse teams. He coached the teams for two years, through the 1923-1924 season. Financial troubles at the university led Penn to disband the team, but Powers was offered his first job as a professional ice hockey coach, joining the Toronto St. Patricks for the 1924-1925 season. In 1926, Powers moved to Boston to coach the new Boston Tigers (Canadian-American Hockey League team, he coached in Boston for six seasons, winning the CAHL championship in 1929. Powers coached the New Haven Eagles in 1932–33 before moving to the Syracuse Stars organization, he coached the Stars from 1934 until 1939, winning the IAHL championship in 1937. He joined the Toronto Maple Leafs organization where he was the assistant coach in 1940–41 and during the 1942 Stanley Cup Finals, he returned to head coaching in the 1942–1943 season for the New Haven Eagles. Powers' death coincided with the suspension of the Eagles by the AHL. Powers' health was poor but he travelled to a road game with the club on January 16 in Washington.

On January 17, 1943 the day of the final game for the Eagles, Powers went out to buy a newspaper, collapsed of a cerebral hemorrhage in New Haven, Connecticut. He died an hour later; the final game went ahead as scheduled and the Eagles won the game 9–4 over the Providence Reds after a minute of silence for Powers. As scheduled, the team was disbanded by the American Hockey League the next day. At the time of his death, Powers had been considering a coaching job in the Quebec Senior Hockey League offered by T. P. Gorman, who knew him from his youth, playing against him in lacrosse. Coaches Hap Day of the Maple Leafs and Dick Irvin of the Montreal Canadiens both praised Powers as a "fine fellow", "a real gentleman" and "a great hockey player." The trophy for the scoring championship of the Ontario Hockey League is named the Eddie Powers Memorial Trophy. Powers was born in Elora and moved to Toronto as a youth. Powers married Pearl Dennahower and was the father of one daughter and five sons, whom were in the RCAF at the time of his death.

Powers was interred at Mount Hope Cemetery in Toronto. Powers was a scout for the Toronto Maple Leafs and head of their farm system during his career. Eddie Powers career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database

Melbourne City of Literature

Melbourne City of Literature is a City of Literature located in Victoria, Australia, as part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network. It was designated by UNESCO in 2008 after Edinburgh. In 2014, the Melbourne City of Literature Office was directed by David Ryding; the Office is hosted at the Wheeler Centre and is dedicated to supporting Melbourne as a City of Literature through one-off programs and projects, partnerships with the literary sector, international exchanges with other UNESCO Cities of Literature. The Melbourne City of Literature Office is funded by the City of Melbourne. In 2017, the Office was awarded a "gold star assessment" from the UN. Travel Fund Conference Subsidy Program Known Bookshops Walking the City of Literature Sleipnir's Literary Travels Public Artwork Design Concept Award 2017 Art Book Fair Official website


Begemder was a province in the northwestern part of Ethiopia. There are several proposed etymologies for the name Begemder. One is that it came from Bega plus meder, as an inscription of Emperor Ezana of Aksum describes his movement of 4,400 conquered Beja to a not yet located province named Matlia. A more plausible source for the name Bega is the self-name of the word Bega which means dry in the local language or another possible interpretation could be "sheep" where rearing of sheep, beg in Amharic. Thus, Begemder refers to'land of that rear sheep or The land of Dry area". Another etymology is that the first two syllables come from the Ge'ez language baggi` for sheep, although Beke claimed that sheep have never been pastured there, nor could they be raised there. Beckingham and Huntingford note that Begemder applied to the country east of Lake Tana, where water is scarce, conclude, "The allusion to the lack of water suggests Amharic baga, "dry season", as a possible source of the name." The earliest recorded mention of Begemder was on the Fra Mauro map, where it is described as a kingdom.

While Emperor Lebna Dengel, in his letter to the King of Portugal described Begemder as a kingdom, he included it as a subdivision of his empire. During the 18th century, its capital was at Filakit Gereger, where Ras Ali died in 1788. Begemder's boundaries were revised as a result of Proclamation 1943/1, which created 12 taklai ghizats from the existing 42 provinces of varying sizes. With the adoption of the new constitution in 1995, Begemder was divided between two new ethnic regions: Wolqayt province became part of the Mi'irabawi Zone and Tselemti district became part of the Semien Mi'irabawi Zone, both in the Tigray Region, while the remainder became the Semien and Debub Gondar Zones of the Amhara Region. History of Ethiopia Subdivisions of Ethiopia Gondar

Elizabethtown (film)

Elizabethtown is a 2005 American romantic tragicomedy film written and directed by Cameron Crowe and distributed by Paramount Pictures. Its story follows a down on his luck, young shoe designer, just fired from his job after costing his company close to $1 billion. On the verge of suicide, he receives a call from his sister informing him of the death of his father, he decides to return to his hometown of Elizabethtown to lay his father to rest and becomes involved in an unexpected romance. It stars Orlando Bloom, Kirsten Dunst, Alec Baldwin, Susan Sarandon; the film was produced by Vinyl Films. It premiered September 4, 2005 at the 2005 Venice Film Festival and was released worldwide on October 14, 2005, it grossed $10.6 million in its opening weekend and $52.2 million worldwide, against a budget of $45 million. It received negative reviews and has a 29% approval rating based on 176 votes on Rotten Tomatoes. Drew Baylor is a designer for a shoe company; when his latest design, hyped to be a great accomplishment in his life, has a flaw that will cost the company $972 million to correct, Drew is shamed by his boss before he is dismissed.

Disappointed in his failure, the subsequent breakup with his girlfriend Ellen, he plans to commit suicide, only to be stopped at the last moment by a call from his sister Heather telling him that his father died while visiting family in Elizabethtown, Kentucky. When his mother Hollie refuses to go, following a dispute between her and the rest of the Kentucky Baylors, Drew volunteers to retrieve the body. On the flight to Kentucky, Drew meets Claire, an optimistic and kind flight attendant who gives him a seat in first class, due to the plane being empty, she provides helpful advice to a despondent Drew, giving him directions and tips on getting to his destination before they part. When he gets to Elizabethtown, Drew is met by the family, he makes arrangements for a cremation at his mother's request, despite the family's objections. While staying at a hotel, where a wedding reception is being held, Drew calls his mother and sister his ex-girlfriend as he continues to struggle with his suicidal thoughts.

He calls Claire, the two of them talk for hours. She impulsively suggests they meet. Drew comes to grips with his father's death, while he is visiting his Aunt Dora, his uncle Bill remarks on how his father would look in the suit. Drew realizes that he hadn't given the suit to the mortuary to be cremated, has second thoughts on the procedure, he is too late and is given his father's ashes. Claire unexpectedly meets him at his hotel, they sleep together, but when she tells him she loves him, he responds with regret that he failed at his life, admitting he was contemplating suicide. Claire leaves upset. Hollie and Heather arrive for the service, Hollie tells a series of amusing anecdotes with her eulogy. Claire arrives, tells Drew to take one final trip with his father, giving him a map with special stops to make along the way. Drew follows the map home, spreading his father's ashes at memorable sites until reaching a farmer's market, where a series of notes gives him a choice, he chooses the latter.

The two kiss and Drew realizes he loves her. Jane Fonda had to drop out. Ashton Kutcher, Seann William Scott, Colin Hanks, Chris Evans, James Franco all auditioned for Bloom's part. Kutcher was hired to play Drew, but director Cameron Crowe decided during filming that the chemistry between him and Dunst was not right and Kutcher left the project. Biel was given a smaller role as Drew's then-girlfriend. There is a character named Ben, mentioned as a love interest of Claire. In the original cut of the film, Ben is revealed to be Claire's brother. Recognizable settings for scenes shot in Louisville, Kentucky include the Brown Hotel, Highland Middle School, Cave Hill Cemetery. Opening scene shows a helicopter flying over downtown Portland and the Fremont bridge. Although the exterior and corridors of the Brown Hotel are seen, a passable replica of the Brown Hotel's Crystal Ball Room was re-created on a soundstage. While Bloom's character is traveling to "Elizabethtown" by car, he is going the incorrect direction on the road.

He is pictured going through the Cherokee Park tunnel, which happens to be on I-64. Elizabethtown is about 40 miles in the other direction. Although the title of the movie is Elizabethtown, most of the small town scenes were filmed in Versailles, Kentucky. Only two scenes portraying distinctive landmarks were filmed in Elizabethtown itself, because many of Elizabethtown's historic buildings have been replaced by chain stores and sprawl. A few scenes were filmed in Kentucky. Other local scenes were filmed in Otter Creek Park near Brandenburg. Filming took place in Scottsbluff, Nebraska. In the original cut of the film shown at the Toronto International Film Festival, an epilogue reveals that the shoe designed by Drew turns out to be a hit, as it whistles with every step; this was cut from the release version of the film to prevent the ending seeming overly-drawn out. Joni Mitchell's painting Hyde Park appears in this film. One of her paintings had appeared in Crowe's Vanilla Sky; the film received negative reviews by critics.

Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a 29% "Rotten" rating based on 176 reviews. The site's consensus is "This story of a floundering sh

Darlington's Bridge at Delaware Station

The Darlington's Bridge at Delaware Station was a highway bridge over the Delaware River in the community of Delaware, New Jersey. A railroad bridge constructed by the Delaware and Western Railroad in 1871 to replace an earlier 1855 timber span, the bridge was sold off when the new one upstream was constructed. Henry V. Darlington, an Episcopal minister in Delaware and nearby Belvidere offered to buy the second-hand bridge for $5,000. Darlington converted it into a highway bridge, using two fired members of the nearby Meyer's Ferry to be toll collectors; the bridge prospered, becoming a part of State Highway Route 6 in 1927 and U. S. Route 46 in 1936. In 1932, during the massive state takeover of bridges by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission, Darlington refused offers, bargaining his way up to $275,000 before accepting the sale; this amount was a far cry from the nearby Belvidere-Riverton and Portland-Columbia Covered Bridge, which were accepted for $60,000 and $50,000 respectively.

On that moment, tolls along the bridge and Route 6 were eliminated. The bridge prospered toll-free for another 21 years, until the construction of the Portland-Columbia Toll Bridge upstream at Columbia. Darlington was still alive to see all this transpire; the Commission ceased operations on the Darlington Bridge on April 3, 1954, the bridge was demolished. As expansion of the Delaware and Western Railroad continued westward from Hoboken, the railroad company saw the need to build a new bridge over the Delaware River. Reaching the community of Delaware, DL&W built a train station in the community, denoted as Delaware Station; the new wood bridge was constructed on the railroad mainline during 1855. The structure lasted a short time, until DL&W replaced the wooden crossing for a new 740 feet long iron bridge; the new bridge had two tracks to cross the river, serving the local area with coal cars and boxcars crossing. The new bridge survived the floods in 1903 that destroyed many bridges along the Delaware and continued to prosper.

However, as trains and locomotives began to get heavier and larger, the DL&W needed to build a new bridge across the river to support the heavier weights. In 1914, they built the new bridge just upstream for the reason that it would not have to move much track for better service; as soon as the new bridge was finished, DL&W put the former one up for sale. Demand for second-hand bridges were not high at the time, when Henry V. B. Darlington, a local Episcopal minister, put up an offer of $5,000 for the bridge, DL&W took the money; the railroad did not check on the background of Reverend Darlington or asked what he wanted to do with the iron structure. His money was "as good as anybody's", according to DL&W. After Darlington bought the railroad bridge from the Delaware and Western Railroad he took out the tracks, replacing them with a paved roadway. Darlington knew the automobile was becoming a big entity in the 1910s and 1920s, turning the bridge into a vehicular bridge was an important decision to make the most out of the crossing.

He figured that the bridge would make a good approach for drivers coming to visit the local natural attractions, such as the Delaware Water Gap and the Pocono Mountains. Darlington created new roadway approaches to the bridge and two buildings on the New Jersey side of the span. One building was for toll collecting; these quarters were soon occupied by his wife. McCracken and his wife had come from the Meyer's Ferry, a local ferry service running at that point on the Delaware since the early 18th century. McCracken had been the local ferry operator, but when a large accident occurred during a dinner break killed four passengers, the owner put the ferry under his control and fired McCracken. Klein sold the ferry, which Darlington bought and shut down, he hired the McCrackens to work as the toll collectors. In the meantime, the only other bridge across the Delaware River accessible for vehicular use was the covered bridge in Columbia, New Jersey and Portland, Pennsylvania. Drivers heading along the local roads came to Darlington's Bridge first.

The McCrackens collected tolls in large bushel baskets, which were filled to the brim of quarters and half-dollars. Locals said that the McCrackens were sometimes spotted dropping these coins off the bridge and into the river below, although swimmers were never able to find anything of value to support the myth. Though the bridge made a large sum of a money and the tollhouse was filled with money, the place was never robbed. Two Airedales the McCrackens kept in the tollhouse, named Duke and Totsey, helped keep the place clear from thieves. In the time of the bridge prospering, Reverend Darlington was wed to Dorothy Stone Smith at the Trinity Chapel in Newark; the wedding, which occurred in November 1920, made the local news and the ceremony was performed by Darlington's father. Two years the Darlingtons made the news again, this time with the birth of their first child in Orange, New Jersey at Orange Memorial Hospital; the bridge continued to prosper through the 1920s and 1930s with a toll of one quarter to cross the bridge, with drivers of State Highway Route 6 coming along the bridge from the junction with State Highway Route 8 coming across the bridge since 1927.

During the 1920s and 1930s, the states of New Jersey and Pennsylvania beg