Claret was the code name given to operations conducted from about July 1964 until July 1966 from East Malaysia across the border in Indonesian Kalimantan during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation. They were instigated by the Director of Borneo Operations Major General Walter Walker with the agreement of the British and Malaysian governments, their purpose was to seize the initiative and put the Indonesians on the defensive instead of allowing Indonesian forces to be safely based in Kalimantan and attack when and where they chose. However, it was important not to cause the Indonesians to lose face and escalate the conflict, or to enable Indonesia to present evidence of'imperialist aggression', so Claret operations were classified and never publicised, although it seems that some British journalists were aware of what transpired. British casualties on Claret operations were publicly reported as being in East Malaysia; these operations involved both special forces and infantry. Special forces were reconnaissance patrols crossing the border from the Malaysian state of Sarawak or Sabah into Indonesian Kalimantan in order to find and monitor Indonesian forces who might attack Sarawak or Sabah.
Conventional forces were tasked to act on this information and that from other sources to ambush or otherwise attack the Indonesians under a policy of'aggressive defence'. Such operations were to be'deniable' as they may have represented a violation of state sovereignty, however they were justified at the time as an instance of hot pursuit. Operation Claret was successful in gaining the initiative for the British Commonwealth forces, inflicting significant casualties on the Indonesians and keeping them on the defensive, before being suspended late in the war; the border between East Malaysia and Kalimantan was not well defined and 22 Special Air Service reconnaissance patrols seem to have liberally interpreted its inexactitude from late 1963 or early 1964. From early 1964 Indonesian cross-border raids increased and the mixed attacks by ill-trained'volunteers"advised' by Indonesian troops were replaced by an increasing numbers of raids comprising only Indonesian armed forces; this caused increasing concern to DOBOPS.
However, in July 1964 the new Labour government in London approved cross-border offensive operations to a depth of 5,000 yards by both special forces and infantry under the code-name Claret. DOBOPS added additional conditions, seven'Golden Rules': authorisation by DOBOPS for every operation, only trained and tested troops to be used, penetration depth to be limited, attacks only to thwart enemy offensive action, never retribution of casualties, civilian casualties never to be risked, no air support, except in extreme emergency, operations to be planned and rehearsed for at least two weeks, every operation to be planned and executed with maximum security, cover plans made, code names for each operation, soldiers sworn to secrecy no details to be discussed over radio or telephone, no id disks to be worn and no identifiable material to be left in Kalimantan, no soldiers to be captured alive or dead. Claret operations were only publicly disclosed by Britain in 1974, whilst the Australian government did not acknowledge its involvement until 1996.
The number of Claret operations and their objectives is unclear. Weekly operational reports by brigade, higher headquarters and some units are available in UK National Archives, they do not identify any actions as Claret. They outline'contacts' in a way that implies they took place in East Malaysia but provide a grid reference, from which those south of the border can be identified with the aid of a 1:50,000 scale map. However, the border is some 1,000 miles long; the operations varied in size from 4 man special forces reconnaissance patrols to infantry fighting patrols in company strength, sometimes coordinated in a battalion operation. They included at least one'permanent' Claret task, an artillery position astride the border ridge with authority to fire at any identifiable Indonesian forces inside Indonesia. Infantry tasks included fighting patrols inside Indonesia looking for opportunity'contacts', attacks on Indonesian positions and ambushing tracks and rivers. Apart from special forces, only Gurkha infantry were used in company strength, a battalion could only have one operation at a time.
As experience and the situation developed these changed, the Golden Rules on preparation and rehearsal, the definition of thwarting offensive action relaxed. So too was the need for'sworn secrecy', if it existed, an early ban on internal discussion of operations. In 1965 penetration limits were increased to 10,000 yards in the wake of the Indonesian assault at the Battle of Plaman Mapu, 20,000 yards. Small amphibious raids on the flanks by Special Boat Service were authorised. Infantry operations were if not always, within artillery range, their depth was affected by the threat of interception while withdrawing, greater when the Indonesian troop density was higher as it was in the areas south of Kuching. Another constraint was the limited range of man-pack VHF radios A41 & 42, mountainous terrain in some areas. However, A510, an Australian made small HF radio using continuous wave was used in some areas and new A13 HF radios appeared in early 1966. Intelligence for these operations came from several sources.
These included SAS patrols, Border Scouts, information from locals gathered by Border Scouts, Military Intelligence Officers and Field Intelligence NCOs, police Special Branch and others. SIGINT collection is unknown. Infantry operat
Merdeka Square, Kuala Lumpur
Merdeka Square is a square located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is situated in front of the Sultan Abdul Samad Building. Independence Square, it was known as the Selangor Club Padang or the "Padang" and was used as the cricket green of the Selangor Club, it was here the Union Flag was lowered and the Malayan flag hoisted for the first time at midnight on 31 August 1957. Since Merdeka Square has been the usual venue for the annual Merdeka Parade. In the early days of Kuala Lumpur, the Chinese and Malay communities settled along the east bank of the Klang River. To the west of river was land owned by Yap Ah Loy and was used to plant vegetables. In 1880, the state capital of Selangor was moved from Klang to Kuala Lumpur by the colonial administration; the British Resident William Bloomfield Douglas decided that the government buildings and staff living quarters should be located to the west of the river to keep away from what he considered the unsanitary condition of the town and the possibility of uprising from the locals.
The government offices and a new police headquarter were built on Bukit Aman, with accommodation for the police located on Barrack Road. A patch of swampy and uneven ground to the west of Klang River was leveled and drained to be used as training ground for the police; the land was acquired from Yap by the British Resident Frank Swettenham for $50 per acre in 1882. This patch of land named the Parade Ground, would become the Padang. Ten years in 1892, the Acting British Resident Ernest Birch, a keen cricketer started to smooth over the ground so that it may be used as a cricket ground and other sports; the Selangor Club clubhouse was built at the present location in 1890 and the St Mary's Church was built in 1895. In 1897, the government offices were relocated from Bukit Aman to the Sultan Abdul Samad Building overlooking the Padang; the building is one of the most significant landmarks built by the British, was designed by A. C. Norman, R. A. J. Bidwell, A. B. Hubback in an Indo-Saracenic or Neo-Mughal style of architecture.
This building housed the Selangor State Secretariat and the Supreme Court before the court was moved, the building was left unused for a few years. It now houses the Ministry of Heritage and Arts; as the Sultan Abdul Samad Building was designed and its construction began before Kuala Lumpur became the capital of the Federated Malay States, it became it inadequate for the use of a burgeoning bureaucracy when it was made the capital. Many building were constructed near it around the Padang. A printing office was constructed in 1899 on the southwest corner of the Pading, the town hall to the northeast in 1904, the FMS Railway offices to the southeast in 1905, the General Post Office south of the Sultan Abdul Samad Building in 1907, the Survey Department building in 1910 and the Supreme Court in 1915 in the northeast area; as the Padang is located in front of the government offices, it is used for many national and civic events. The Padang was once leased to the Selangor Club which used it for various sports such as cricket and rugby.
In 1987, the Padang was taken back by City Hall and in return the Selangor Club was given a piece of land in Bukit Kiara. On the midnight of 30 August 1957, the British flag was lowered and the Malayan flag was raised for the first time at the Padang, an event watched by a large number of people there. In the morning of 31 August 1957, the ceremony for Malayan independence was held at the Merdeka Stadium; the Padang was renamed'Dataran Merdeka' or Merdeka Square in October 1989. It was done in conjunction with the Visit Malaysia Year 1990 campaign beginning 1 January 1990. On 31 August 2007, Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi shouted'Merdeka!' on midnight celebrations, where thousands of Malaysians celebrated 50 years of nationhood. A 95-metre flagpole, one of the tallest in the world, is located at the southern end of the square. A flat, round black marble plaque marks the location where the Malayan flag was raised for the first time. Near the flagpole at the corner of the Padang is a fountain, the Cop's Fountain, built in 1897 as a memorial to Steve Harper, a popular police inspector.
A carpark and retail area, the Plaza Putra, renamed Plaza Dataran Merdeka, was built beneath the Merdeka Square. Surrounding the square are many buildings of historical interest. Just beside the square is the Sultan Abdul Samad Building the office of the Ministry of Information and Culture of Malaysia. Opposite the square is the Royal Selangor Club, first founded in 1884 as a meeting place for high-ranking members of the British colonial society. To the South is the former National History Museum which used to house a vast collection of historical items; the collection has been moved to Muzium Negara. Next to it is the Kuala Lumpur City Gallery which tells the story of Kuala Lumpur through miniature models and The Spectacular City Model Show. To the North is the St. Mary's Anglican Cathedral the Diocese of West Malaysia and the see of the Bishop of West Malaysia. Not far from the square is the original Kuala Lumpur Railway Station, still operational; however the main hub has been moved to KL Sentral in 2001.
Merdeka Square is the usual venue for the annual Merdeka Parade. It is used as the location for political rallies as well as other events. Merdeka Square was the starting line of The Amazing Race Asia 1; the square is accessible within walking distance west of
Dato' Sri Haji Mohammad Najib bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak is a Malaysian politician who served as the 6th Prime Minister of Malaysia from 2009 to 2018. He was the former President of the United Malays National Organisation, the leading party in Malaysia's Barisan Nasional coalition, which maintained control of Malaysia's government as a parliamentary majority for more than sixty years until the coalition's defeat in the 2018 general election. On 3 July 2018, Najib was arrested by the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission, investigating how RM42 million went from SRC International into Najib's bank account. Police seized 1,400 necklaces, 567 handbags, 423 watches, 2,200 rings, 1,600 brooches and 14 tiaras worth $273 million. Najib's tenure as Prime Minister was marked by economic liberalisation measures, such as cuts to government subsidies, loosening of restrictions on foreign investment, reductions in preferential measures for ethnic Malays in business. After the 2013 election his government was marked by the pursuit of a number of its critics on sedition charges, the imprisonment of opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim following a conviction for sodomy, the implementation of a Goods and Services Tax, an ongoing scandal involving state investment firm 1Malaysia Development Berhad which led to rallies calling for Najib's resignation, spearheaded by the grassroots movement Bersih.
These protests culminated in the Malaysian Citizens' Declaration by Mahathir Mohamad, Pakatan Harapan and NGO's to oust Najib. Najib's response to the corruption accusations has been to tighten his grip on power by replacing the deputy prime minister, suspending two newspapers and pushing through parliament a controversial National Security Council Bill that provides the prime minister with unprecedented powers. Najib's various subsidy cuts have contributed to soaring living costs, while fluctuating oil prices as well as fallout from the 1MDB scandal have led to a steady depreciation of the Malaysian currency, the ringgit. In the 2018 general elections the Barisan Nasional party lost their majority for the first time in Malaysia's history. Najib accepted the results of the election and promised to help facilitate a smooth transition of power. Subsequently, under the new government, he was charged with abuse of power and criminal breach of trust for actions during his time as Prime Minister.
Najib was born on 23 July, 1953 at the Pahang State Secretary official residence in Bukit Bius, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. Najib is the eldest of second Malaysian Prime Minister Abdul Razak's six sons, the nephew of the third PM Hussein Onn, his younger brother, Dato' Seri Mohd Nazir Abdul Razak, runs the country's second-largest lender, Bumiputra-Commerce Holdings Bhd. Najib is one of the Four Noblemen of the Pahang Darul Makmur by virtue of his inherited title as the Orang Kaya Indera Shahbandar, he received his primary and secondary education at Kuala Lumpur. He attended Malvern College in Worcestershire and subsequently went to the University of Nottingham, where he received a bachelor's degree in industrial economics in 1974. Najib Razak returned to Malaysia in 1974 and entered the business world, serving in Bank Negara Malaysia and with Petronas as a public affairs manager. In 1976 Najib married Tengku Puteri Zainah Tengku Eskandar with whom he has three children: Mohd Nizar Najib, Mohd Nazifuddin Najib and Puteri Norlisa Najib.
In 1987 he divorced Kui Yie and married Datin Seri Rosmah Mansor with whom he has two children: Mohd Norashman Najib and Nooryana Najwa Najib. His daughter Nooryana is married to the nephew of former Kazakhstani President, Nursultan Nazarbayev. Najib Razak is an avid golf lover and he is known to have played golf with the two most recent U. S. Presidents – Barack Obama and Donald Trump. Trump has referred to Najib as "my favourite prime minister"; the eldest son of Malaysian Prime Minister, Abdul Razak Hussein, was elected to the Parliament of Malaysia in 1976 replacing his deceased father in the Pahang-based seat of Pekan. The national outpouring of grief following Tun Razak's death and the respect for his father helped Najib win election unopposed as Member of Parliament at the young age of 23. In 1986 Najib won re-election to the same seat. From 1982 to 1986 he was the Menteri Besar of Pahang, before holding various cabinet posts throughout the remainder of the 1980s and 1990s, including Defence and Education.
In 2004 he became Deputy Prime Minister under Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, replaced him 2009. Under his leadership, Barisan Nasional won the 2013 elections, although for the first time in Malaysia's history the opposition won the majority of the popular vote. Najib was first assigned into the Cabinet of Malaysia at the age of 25 when he was appointed Deputy Minister of Energy, Telecommunications and Post in 1978, becoming the youngest deputy minister in the country, he served as the Menteri Besar of Pahang between 1982 and 1986, becoming the youngest Menteri Besar in the state to enter office when he was sworn in at the age of 29. In 1986 he was appointed as Minister of Culture and Sports in the Cabinet of Mahathir Mohamad, he focused on improving Malaysian sports and introduced the National Sports Policy in 1988. In 1989 Malaysia achieved its best-ever performance at the South East Asia Games, held in Kuala Lumpur. Najib was appointed head of UMNO Youth's Pekan branch and became a member of UMNO Youth's Executive Council in 1976.
In 1981, he was selected as a member of UMNO's Supreme Council, before winning the post of Vice-President of UMN
Cross border attacks in Sabah
The Cross border attacks in Sabah are a series of cross border terrorism perpetrated by the Moro pirates from Mindanao on Sabah that began before the British colonial period. Many civilians have died or suffered during these incidents, causing an increase in anti-Filipino sentiment among the native peoples of Sabah after major attacks in 1985, 2000 and 2013; the attacks were more intense during the presidential terms of Diosdado Macapagal and Ferdinand Marcos who supported irredentist claims to include eastern Sabah as part of the Philippines territory. In addition with the recent infiltration and attacks by militants as well the uncontrolled human migration from Mindanao to Sabah that has led to more unease sentiments among the local residents of Sabah, with around 78% prison inmates that were caught in the state due to involvement in criminal activities and lawlessness issues are originated from the southern Philippines. Prior to the large scale military operation initiated by Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte to combat the rampant lawlessness in the southern Philippines since the mid-2016, the Malaysian security forces have been told to tighten its security and to ensure that terrorists do not attempt to flee prosecution by escaping to uninhabited areas.
Sabahan leaders are ordering Malaysian security forces to "shoot-on-sight" any trespassers who continue to ignore laws despite repeated warnings, those escaping militants should be deal with the country laws more effectively. Following the declaration of martial law in neighbouring Philippines since 23 May 2017, Malaysian authorities had increase their border security. Various countries such as Australia, China, Hong Kong, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, United Kingdom, United States and Vietnam have raised a travel alert for its citizens to avoid the area in eastern Sabah. Piracy has been a part of the Sultanate of Sulu's culture. During the expedition by the British ship HMS Dido in 1846, Captain Henry Keppel mentioned: The most desperate and active pirates of the whole Indian Archipelago are the tribes of the Sooloo group of islands lying close to the north shore of Borneo; the Sulu islands were known for their "great slave market" with their islanders attacking Borneo Island in search of slaves.
In 1910, the neighbouring Celebes Islands was attacked by seven Moro pirates whom had crossed from Mindanao, two Dutch traders were killed in the incident. Subsequent reports from the British government in North Borneo reported that Joloano Moros terrorised the inhabitants of North Borneo, looting small towns and killing many people. Although the British did a lot to combat piracy, an office of a British company was raided by twelve Moro pirates in Kalabakan in July 1958. Another raid was done on the nearby township of Semporna on 29 March 1954. During the last years of British rule in North Borneo, both seafarers and coastal settlements suffered a high numbers of attacks from pirates who were believed to be based on Tawi-Tawi. Between 1959 and 1962, 232 pirates attack were recorded by the British authorities in North Borneo, but these were thought to be underestimated as many attacks went unreported; the British North Borneo governor at the time, Roland Turnbull had requested the British to provide him with security forces from the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force but no aid was sent until a British newspaper, the Daily Telegraph embellished the report with an anti-Indonesian bias because of the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation.
Regional migration flows within Southeast Asia are not a phenomenon restricted to current times. Social and cultural connections between Sabah and the Indonesian province of North Kalimantan have existed for centuries; the tradition of border crossing from the Philippine Sulu Archipelago to Sabah originated in the late 16th century. The first wave of this migration was linked to the Spanish colonialists who began pushing southwards toward the island provinces of Sulu and Tawi-Tawi from Manila, the administration centre of the Spanish during that time; the struggle for dominance between different ethnic groups and the Spanish in Mindanao led to increased immigration of Philippine Moro ethnic groups the Suluks and Bajaus to Sabah. The first arrival of the illegal immigrants in Sabah in the 1960s was said to be associated with the Philippine president Ferdinand Marcos and his country's claim to the northern Borneo region, it is claimed by media in the Philippines that during the first stage of his plan, Marcos sent around 17 men who recruited from Sulu and Tawi-Tawi had entered Sabah as forest rangers and police.
These agents have blended into the Sabah local communities with a plan to possessing the minds of the larger Filipino communities in eastern Sabah to secede from Malaysia and become part of the Philippines as well to destabilising Sabah. At the same time, a Suluk native, Mustapha Harun became the third Chief Minister of Sabah, he made a contact with one of the Filipino agent who became his driver. However, most of them did not intend to attack their fellow Muslim brothers in Sabah when they realise their true mission in which they were execute by Marcos commando soldiers in an event known as Jabidah massacre. During Mustapha's term from 1967 to 1975, he was believed to have encouraged many newly Filipino Tausūgs to migrate to northern Borneo to establish a strong Muslim community, represented by the United Sabah National Organisation. Since the massacre with the starting of Moro insurgency in the Philippines, Mustapha is believed to have supplied the Moro rebels with financial and weapon supports to fight for their freedom and to take a revenge for their fallen comrades.
Since it has caused major economic problems for Saba
Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo. Sabah has land borders with the Malaysian state of Sarawak to the southwest and Indonesia's Kalimantan region to the south; the Federal Territory of Labuan is an island just off the Sabah coast. Sabah shares maritime borders with Vietnam to the Philippines to the north and east. Kota Kinabalu is the state capital city, the economic centre of the state and the seat of the Sabah state government. Other major towns in Sabah include Tawau; as of the 2015 census in Malaysia, the state's population is 3,543,500. Sabah has an equatorial climate with abundant animal and plant species; the state has long mountain ranges on the west side which form part of the Crocker Range National Park. Kinabatangan River, second longest river in Malaysia runs through Sabah and Mount Kinabalu is the highest point of Sabah as well as of Malaysia; the earliest human settlement in Sabah can be traced back to 20,000–30,000 years ago along the Darvel Bay area at the Madai-Baturong caves.
The state had a trading relationship with China from the 14th century AD. Sabah came under the influence of the Bruneian Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries while the eastern part of the territory fell under the influence of the Sultanate of Sulu between the 17th and 18th centuries; the state was subsequently acquired by the British-based North Borneo Chartered Company in the 19th century. During World War II, Sabah was occupied by the Japanese for three years, it became a British Crown Colony in 1946. On 31 August 1963, Sabah was granted self-government by the British. Following this, Sabah became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia alongside Sarawak and the Federation of Malaya; the federation was opposed by neighbouring Indonesia, which led to the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation over three years along with the threats of annexation by the Philippines, threats which continue to the present day. Sabah exhibits notable diversity in ethnicity and language; the head of state is the Governor known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, while the head of government is the Chief Minister.
The government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and has one of the earliest state legislature systems in Malaysia. Sabah is divided into 27 districts. Malay is the official language of the state. Sabah is known for the sompoton; the Sabah International Folklore Festival is the main folklore event in Malaysia, other festivals including the Japanese Bon Odori Festival, Borneo Bird Festival, Borneo Bug Fest, Borneo Eco Film Festival, Kota Kinabalu Food Fest, Kota Kinabalu Jazz Festival, Sabah Dragon Boat Festival, Sabah Fest and Sabah Sunset Music Festival. Sabah is the only state in Malaysia to celebrate the Kaamatan festival. Sabah has abundant natural resources, its economy is export oriented, its primary exports include oil, gas and palm oil. The other major industries are ecotourism; the origin of the name Sabah is uncertain, there are many theories that have arisen. One theory is that during the time it was part of the Bruneian Sultanate, it was referred to as Saba because of the presence a variety of banana called pisang saba, grown on the coast of the region and popular in Brunei.
The Bajau community referred to it as pisang jaba. While the name Saba refers to a variety of banana in both Tagalog and Visayan languages, the word in Visayan has the meaning of "noisy". Due to local dialect, the word Saba has been pronounced as Sabah by the local community. While Brunei was a vassal state of Majapahit, the Old Javanese eulogy of Nagarakretagama described the area in what is now Sabah as Seludang. Meanwhile, although the Chinese since during the Han dynasty had long been associated with the island of Borneo, they did not have any specific names for the area. Instead during the Song dynasty, they referred to the whole island as Po Ni, the same name they used to refer to the Sultanate of Brunei at the time. Due to the location of Sabah in relation to Brunei, it has been suggested that Sabah was a Brunei Malay word meaning upstream or "in a northerly direction". Another theory suggests that it came from the Malay word sabak which means a place where palm sugar is extracted. Sabah is an Arabic word which means "morning".
The presence of multiple theories makes it difficult to pinpoint the true origin of the name. It is nicknamed "Land Below the Wind" as the state lies below the typhoon belt of East Asia and never battered by any typhoons, except for several tropical storms; the earliest known human settlement into the region existed 20,000–30,000 years ago, as evidenced by stone tools and food remains found by excavations along the Darvel Bay area at Madai-Baturong caves near the Tingkayu River. The earliest inhabitants in the area were thought to be similar to Australian aborigines, but the reason for their disappearance is unknown. In 2003, archaeologists discovered the Mansuli valley in the Lahad Datu District, which dates back the history of Sabah to 235,000 years; the first southern Mongoloid migration occurred 5,000 years ago, as evidenced from the discovery of archaeological site at Bukit Tengkorak in Semporna District, famed for being the largest pottery making site during the Neolithic Southeast Asian period.
Some anthropologists such as S. G. Tan and Thomas R. Williams be
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country; the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate.
Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation; the country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister; the country's official language is a standard form of the Malay language.
English remains an active second language. Since independence, Malaysian GDP has grown at an average of 6.5% per annum for 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism and medical tourism. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world, it is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία; the word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to accelerate or run.
This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra. Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu". Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area known as the East Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.
In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, smaller islands that lie between these areas. The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE; the name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.
In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries, their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fifth century; the Kingdom of