click links in text for more info

Malaysian Armed Forces

The Malaysian Armed Forces, are the military of Malaysia, consists of three branches, namely the Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy and the Royal Malaysian Air Force. Since June 20. 2018, General Tan Sri Affendi Buang RMAF is the Chief of Malaysian Armed Forces. Malaysia's armed forces were created from the unification of military forces which arose during the first half of the 20th century when Malaya and Singapore were the subjects of British colonial rule before Malaya achieved independence in 1957; the primary objective of the armed forces in Malaysia is to defend the country's sovereignty and protect it from any and all types of threats. It is responsible for assisting civilian authorities to overcome all international threats, preserve public order, assist in natural disasters and participate in national development programs, it is sustaining and upgrading its capabilities in the international sphere to uphold the national foreign policy of being involved under the guidance of the United Nations.

The main theaters of operations were within Malaysian borders to fight an insurgency led by the Communist Party of Malaya in what was known as the Emergency. The only foreign incursion of Malaysian territory in modern times were in World War II by Japan and during the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation by Indonesia under the leadership of President Sukarno. Operations on foreign soil have been peacekeeping operations under the auspices of the United Nations. First Emergency An insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malayan Races Liberation Army organised by the CPM against the British and Malayan administration. Moro attacks on Malaysia Congo Peacekeeping Mission A contingent of 1,947 personnel were dispatched as part of the United Nations Operation in the Congo or ONUC; this contingent was known as the Malayan Special Force to the Congo and their experiences there were recounted through the drawings of the cartoonist, Rejabhad. Sarawak Communist Insurgency An insurrection and guerrilla war of the Sarawak Communist Organisation against the British and Malaysian governments to establish an independent nation comprising the states of Sabah and Brunei.

The insurgency ended when the NKCP signed a peace treaty with the Malaysian government in 1990. Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation An intermittent armed conflict between Malaysia and Indonesia with skirmishes occurring in Sarawak and Sabah in the island of Borneo. In 1964, armed raids were made on Peninsular Malaysia. Combat eased with the deposing of Indonesia's President Sukarno in 1965 by the Indonesian army and the conflict was declared over by both sides in 1966. Communist insurgency in Malaysia A low level resurgence of insurgent activity by the armed elements of the CPM from sanctuaries in the Malaysian-Thai border; the insurgency was only ended after the CPM signed a peace treaty with the Governments of Malaysia and Thailand on 2 December 1989. Iran/Iraq Border Participated as part of the UN Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group to supervise the Iran–Iraq War ceasefire. Namibia Contributed a battalion to the UN Transition Assistance Group to supervise Namibia's elections and transition to independence.

Western Sahara A contingent of observers under the Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara to help implement a ceasefire between the Polisario Front & Morocco and help promote referendum on area's future. Angola A contingent was sent under the United Nations Angola Verification Mission II to enforce the ceasefire in Angolan civil war. Iraq/Kuwait Border A contingent was sent under the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission to monitor the demilitarised zone along the Iraq-Kuwait border, deter border violations and report on any hostile action. Cambodia An observer team was sent under the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia to aid in the administration of Cambodia and to organise and run elections. Bosnia and Herzegovina A peacekeeping contingent known as MALBATT Command was sent under the United Nations Protection Force from 1993–1995 with deployments at Konjic and Pazarić in Hadžići. Following the Dayton Agreement, forces were redeployed as MALCON Command under the NATO led Implementation Force in Operation Joint Endeavor with deployments at Livno, Glamoč and Kupres.

MALCON further participated as part of the NATO led Stabilisation Force until 1998. Up to 8,000 troops were deployed in this theatre of operations. Liberia An observer team of 3 officers was sent under the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia to support the efforts of the Economic Community of West African States and the Liberian National Transitional Government to implement peace agreements signed between the warring parties in Liberia. Somalia A contingent known as MALBATT was sent under the United Nations Operation in Somalia II to take appropriate action, including enforcement measures, to establish throughout Somalia a secure environment for humanitarian assistance. During its deployment, MALBATT was involved in the Battle of Mogadishu which saw 1 personnel killed in action and 7 others wounded in action during the relief operations to aid the surrounded troops of the United

Religious emblems programs (Girl Scouts of the USA)

A variety of religious emblems programs are used by the Girl Scouts of the USA to encourage youth to learn about their faith and to recognize adults who provide significant service to youth in a religious environment. These religious programs are created and awarded by the various religious groups and not GSUSA, though the GSUSA recognizes such programs and allows the emblem to be worn on the uniform. Many are listed by Programs of Religious Activities with Youth, an independent organization, as awards recognized by the Girl Scouts in an official brochure provided to Girl Scout council offices, as well as posted on the P. R. A. Y. Website; the Girl Scouts recognize that not all religions have programs that are affiliated through P. R. A. Y. and suggests contacting local religious leaders for information about those. The following awards are administered through the P. R. A. Y. and may be worn on the uniform upon completion of the program. The emblems and awards given to girls at the completion of the program are worn either "in a single horizontal row on the right side of the uniform blouse, level with the Girl Scout Membership Pin, or on the vest in the area below the membership stars or troop/group numerals and above the next official insignia on the vest."

In addition to the official recognitions offered by each faith for girls, several faiths offer patch programs for girls who complete certain requirements and/or achieve certain goals. Because these patch programs are considered unofficial by GSUSA, they do not require formal approval from the Scouting organization, nor are they worn on the front of the uniform. Like other unofficial patches, event patches, holiday patches, they are worn on the back of the uniform sash or vest. P. R. A. Y; also offers its own "To Serve God" segment patch program for Girl Scouts of all ages and adult advisers of all faiths, designed to promote their religious awards programs. The name is inspired by the words "to serve God" in the Girl Scout promise. To earn the patch and adults must attend or make an interfaith presentation about religious awards fulfill a personal commitment of their choice "to serve God", such as promoting, earning, or helping another girl earn the religious award for her faith. There are four segments for the patch.

One is offered yearly, called the "anchor patch", while the other three are offered yearly on a rotational basis. After one patch is released, the previous year's patch is discontinued for the next three years is reinstated again for a one-year period; the program began in 2006, as of August 2008, only two of these three patches have been released. Religious emblems programs Girl Scouts of the USA: Girl Scouts and Faith

Binary space partitioning

In computer science, binary space partitioning is a method for recursively subdividing a space into two convex sets by using hyperplanes as partitions. This process of subdividing gives rise to a representation of objects within the space in the form of a tree data structure known as a BSP tree. Binary space partitioning was developed in the context of 3D computer graphics in 1969, where the structure of a BSP tree allows for spatial information about the objects in a scene, useful in rendering, such as objects being ordered from front-to-back with respect to a viewer at a given location, to be accessed rapidly. Other applications of BSP include: performing geometrical operations with shapes in CAD, collision detection in robotics and 3D video games, ray tracing, other applications that involve the handling of complex spatial scenes. In 1993, Doom was the first video game to make use of BSP after John Carmack utilized the most efficient 1991 algorithms describing front-to-back rendering with the use of a specialized data structure to record parts of the screen, drawn already.

Prior to that, Wolfenstein 3D had made use of ray casting. Quake utilized developments in 1992 regarding a pre-processing step that generated visible sets. Binary space partitioning is a generic process of recursively dividing a scene into two until the partitioning satisfies one or more requirements, it can be seen as a generalisation of other spatial tree structures such as k-d trees and quadtrees, one where hyperplanes that partition the space may have any orientation, rather than being aligned with the coordinate axes as they are in k-d trees or quadtrees. When used in computer graphics to render scenes composed of planar polygons, the partitioning planes are chosen to coincide with the planes defined by polygons in the scene; the specific choice of partitioning plane and criterion for terminating the partitioning process varies depending on the purpose of the BSP tree. For example, in computer graphics rendering, the scene is divided until each node of the BSP tree contains only polygons that can be rendered in arbitrary order.

When back-face culling is used, each node therefore contains a convex set of polygons, whereas when rendering double-sided polygons, each node of the BSP tree contains only polygons in a single plane. In collision detection or ray tracing, a scene may be divided up into primitives on which collision or ray intersection tests are straightforward. Binary space partitioning arose from the computer graphics need to draw three-dimensional scenes composed of polygons. A simple way to draw such scenes is the painter's algorithm, which produces polygons in order of distance from the viewer, back to front, painting over the background and previous polygons with each closer object; this approach has two disadvantages: time required to sort polygons in back to front order, the possibility of errors in overlapping polygons. Fuchs and co-authors showed that constructing a BSP tree solved both of these problems by providing a rapid method of sorting polygons with respect to a given viewpoint and by subdividing overlapping polygons to avoid errors that can occur with the painter's algorithm.

A disadvantage of binary space partitioning is. It is therefore performed once on static geometry, as a pre-calculation step, prior to rendering or other realtime operations on a scene; the expense of constructing a BSP tree makes it difficult and inefficient to directly implement moving objects into a tree. BSP trees are used by 3D video games first-person shooters and those with indoor environments. Game engines using BSP trees include the Doom, GoldSrc and Source engines. In them, BSP trees containing the static geometry of a scene are used together with a Z-buffer, to merge movable objects such as doors and characters onto the background scene. While binary space partitioning provides a convenient way to store and retrieve spatial information about polygons in a scene, it does not solve the problem of visible surface determination; the canonical use of a BSP tree is for rendering polygons with the painter's algorithm. Each polygon is designated with a front side and a back side which could be chosen arbitrarily and only affects the structure of the tree but not the required result.

Such a tree is constructed from an unsorted list of all the polygons in a scene. The recursive algorithm for construction of a BSP tree from that list of polygons is: Choose a polygon P from the list. Make a node N in the BSP tree, add P to the list of polygons at that node. For each other polygon in the list: If that polygon is wholly in front of the plane containing P, move that polygon to the list of nodes in front of P. If that polygon is wholly behind the plane containing P, move that polygon to the list of nodes behind P. If that polygon is intersected by the plane containing P, split it into two polygons and move them to the respective lists of polygons behind and in front of P. If that polygon lies in the plane containing P, add it to the list of polygons at node N. Apply this algorithm to the list of polygons in front of P. Apply this algorithm to the list of polygons behind P; the following diagram illustrates the use of this algorithm in converting a list of lines or polygons into a BSP tree.

At each of the eight steps, the algorithm above is applied to a list of lines, one new node is added to the tree. The final number of polygons or lines in a tree is larger than the original list, since lines or polygons that cross the partitioning plane mu

End Credits

"End Credits" is the first single to be taken from drum and bass duo Chase & Status' second studio album, No More Idols. The single was co-written, co-produced and features vocals from Plan B, was released on 29 October 2009, peaking at number nine on the UK Singles Chart; the song was used in a trailer for the video game F1 2010, featured in-game, as well as serving as the official theme from the Michael Caine film Harry Brown, in which Drew co-starred. The track has been covered by Jess Mills as a B-side for her 2011 single, "Live For What I'd Die For"; the track appeared in series 8, episode 2 of British comedy-drama Shameless in 2011. The main chord sequence of the song has been noted for its similarity to Radiohead's track, "Reckoner"; the music video for "End Credits" was directed by Kim Gehrig, features footage from Harry Brown. The promotional CD single features alternate artwork to the official release, instead portrays Michael Caine pointing a gun; the VIP version of the track was released through RAM Records in the UK as a double AA-side of the VIP mix of "Is It Worth It", a track from the duo's debut album More Than Alot with vocals from Takura Tendayi.

Fraser McAlpine of BBC Chart Blog gave the song a positive review stating: "Perhaps buoyed by the success of Pendulum's radio-friendly take on drum'n'bass, London duo Chase & Status experimented with elements of hip-hop and Bollywood on last year's debut album More Than Alot. So well-regarded were the results that they landed the pair – Saul Milton and Will Kennard – a production gig on the new Rihanna album. Now, making the most of the buzz, they're back with new single'End Credits'. Kicking off with a simple guitar riff that could pass for The Feeling, it's only when the beats drop around the minute mark that this becomes an identifiably Chase & Status affair. Combining their thumpingly effective d&b beats with strings, more guitars and Plan B's tender vocals,'End Credits' has a soaring, cinematic feel while remaining perky enough to pack out the dancefloor. Proof positive why Chase & Status are now being sought out by pop A-listers".. Saul Milton – producer, mixing Will Kennard – producer, mixing Mark Kennedy – engineer Rob Swire – mixing Stuart Hawked – mastering Plan B – vocals, producer Kim Gehrig – video director Juliette Larthe – video producer Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics


Xpujil is a town in the Mexican state of Campeche. It serves as the municipal seat for the surrounding municipality of Calakmul; as of 2010, Xpujil had a population of 3,984. Xpujil is located in the south-east of the state, close to the border with Quintana Roo to the east and Peten, Guatemala, to the south. With Escárcega, Campeche 153 kilometres to the west and Chetumal, Quintana Roo 120 kilometres to the east it is a useful midway point on Federal Highway 186. Close to the town are the Maya ruins of Xpuhil and Becan, Chicanná, Hormiguero. Further to the south-west is the major Maya site of Calakmul, in the 7,230 square kilometres Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. Highway 186 was, as of February 2009, undergoing a major refurbishment to a multilane highway that will improve access to the zone. In addition to providing services for the local community, Xpujil has a paved runway and serves as the gateway for tourists visiting those areas, with restaurants, transportation services, modest hotels, etc.

Many tourists travel by road from Cancun to Palenque, stop to visit the many Mayan sites in the region. There are plans to increase room availability and other services for eco-tourism and other activities within the Calakmul Ecological reserve. XEPUJ, a government-run indigenous community radio station that broadcasts in Spanish, Yucatec Maya and Ch'ol, is based in Xpujil. Xpujil travel guide from Wikivoyage

The Hofstadter Insufficiency

"The Hofstadter Insufficiency" is the first episode of the seventh season of The Big Bang Theory and the 136th episode in total. It aired on September 26, 2013, on CBS. Sheldon calls Leonard on his ship in the North Sea about a major emergency situation concerning their DVDs. Leonard is grabbed by a kraken and taken away. Sheldon realizes it was just a dream, he runs over to Penny's apartment, distraught by the content of the dream. Another day, Raj and Howard are in the cafeteria. Raj is heartbroken about losing his relationship with Lucy and is seeing Lucy everywhere, including in grease stains and in his chicken pot pie. Howard suggests a strategy to Raj. While Penny is missing Leonard, she is not interested in the 3-D chess game that Sheldon has set up in his apartment. Penny calls Leonard, partying on his boat and not available to talk. Penny is upset, so Sheldon makes her a hot beverage to go. Penny loiters and they agree to share a'vulnerable' secret each. Penny shares that she did a topless scene in a slasher horror movie about a killer gorilla called "Serial Ape-ist", unreleased.

Sheldon chides her. Sheldon shares his secret. Penny feels duped; this hurts Sheldon's feelings. Penny apologizes and they share a rare hug. Raj accepts they both attend a work social. Raj is not engaged and decides to leave, as he is departing he engages with Janine Davis; the conversation reveals common themes in their respective romantic relationships. Raj tries to end the interaction amiably. Raj thinks that they had a moment together. Amy and Bernadette are lounging in the hotel bar. Amy gets excited. Bernadette brushes the guys off. Bernadette comments to Amy that no one would blame her for accepting the invitation, since her boyfriend is "kind of Sheldon." Amy is offended and retaliates by saying Bernadette's husband "is Howard." At bedtime, neither is talking to the other. They try to engage by talking about how great it was to be found attractive. Amy is attracted to the short guy with the weird haircut, while Bernadette likes the tall inexperienced one; when it dawns on them that they feel attracted to traits of each other's respective guys, they say goodnight.

At the end of the episode, Leonard boasts to his colleagues about Penny being his girlfriend as they watch her topless scene and everyone else praises him for it. "The Hofstadter Insufficiency" written by Jay Murray aired on CBS on September 26, 2013. The episode was watched by 18.99 million viewers in the U. S. and received a Nielsen rating of 5.5/18 among adults between 18 and 49. In addition, 5.15 million viewers watched on DVR, giving the episode a total of 24.16 million viewers. It was top in its time slot, ahead of FOX's The X Factor, NBC's Parks and Recreation, ABC's Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D. and The CW's The Vampire Diaries. The Big Bang Theory was the highest-rated show of the night. In Canada, the episode aired on September 26, 2013, it received a weekly ranking of 2. The episode aired on October 31, 2013 in the UK and was watched by 2.32 million viewers on E4, making it the top watched program on E4 that week. It was watched by 0.41 million viewers on E4 +1, so it was watched by a total of 2.73 million people.

Oliver Sara from The A. V. Club gave the episode a B+. Jesse Schedeen from IGN gave the episode an 8/10 and called this episode a "solid look at life without Leonard". Schedeen praised the episode for "the characters divided into some fun, nontraditional pairs" and "moments of growth for Raj and Penny". However, he said there were "too many shades of early season 6 right now" and wondering if the series still needs Leonard. "The Hofstadter Insufficiency" on IMDb "The Hofstadter Insufficiency" at