Malaysian Chinese people or Chinese Malaysians is a local ethnic group in Malaysia. The group is defined as local Malaysians of ethnic Chinese ancestry. Today, they form the second largest ethnic group after the Malay majority. Most are descendants of Southern Chinese immigrants who arrived in Malaysia between the early 19th century and the mid-20th century; the sub-ethnic groups of Malaysian Chinese includes Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan and Kwongsai. Malaysian Chinese form the second largest community of Overseas Chinese in the world, after Thai Chinese. Within Malaysia, they represent the third largest group, constituting 23% of the Malaysian population. Malaysian Chinese are traditionally dominant in the business sector of the Malaysian economy. Different towns and cities in Malaysia are placed by different Chinese dialects among Chinese speakers. But, Mandarin is now used as a working language or lingua franca among the different Chinese ethnicities and younger generations. Culturally, most Malaysian Chinese have maintained their Chinese heritage, including their various dialects, although the descendants of the earliest Chinese migrants who arrived from the 13th to 17th centuries have assimilated aspects of the Malay or indigenous cultures, where they form a distinct sub-ethnic group known as the Peranakans in Kelantan and Terengganu, Baba-Nyonya in Malacca and Penang as well the Sino-Natives in Sabah.
Malaysian Chinese are referred to as "Chinese" in Malaysia, "Orang Cina" in Malay, "Sina" or "Kina" among Borneo indigenous, "Cīṉar" in Tamil and "Huaren" or "Huaqiao" by local Chinese themselves. With absolute population numbers increasing with each censuses, the proportion of ethnic Chinese among the country's total population has been declining due to a lower birth rate as well as a high level of emigration in recent decades. According to a report by the World Bank, the Malaysian diaspora around the world in 2010 numbered at around a million, most of them ethnic Chinese; the main reasons for emigrating are the better economic and career prospects abroad and a sense of social injustice within Malaysia. The large number of emigrants, many of whom are young and educated, constitute a significant "brain drain" from the country to nearby Singapore. Since the early dynasties of China, there has been connection between China and various early kingdoms in the Malay Archipelago, such as in the northern area of Malay Peninsula and Po-Ni in the western part of Borneo.
The first recorded movement of people from China into the present-territory of Malaysia was during the arrival of Mongol expeditionary forces under the led of Kublai Khan to Borneo in 1292 for their preparation in the invasion of Java in 1293. Many of his Chinese followers and traders settled and established their own enclave within the Kinabatangan River as a result of the campaign with their arrival are warmly received by the indigenous people in the island who were eager to possess the jars and bead they brought along with silks and pottery. Through the establishment of firm relationship, a Chinese explorer and mariner named Zheng He commanded several expeditions to southeastern Asia between 1405 and 1430 where they visiting Malacca in their third voyage, his accompanier and translator named Ma Huan described the place in his Yingya Shenglan as under Siam before a local king there asserting for independence to become an "Islamised country", by the time of their fourth imperial fleet visit, he described the local king had just converted and dressed like an Arab with his kingdom are chafing under the Chinese dominance.
The last edition of official Chinese historical works of Twenty-Four Histories named as History of Ming made a brief mention of an established Chinese settlement in the area, followed by other records when trade contacts had been established with the Nanyang region. The Words about the Sea written by Hwang Chung and published in 1537 gives further account on the life practice of the Chinese community in Malacca which are different than the local Malays; the connection is well maintained with the Islamisation of the Malacca and Brunei kingdoms, whose thalassocracy once covered much of the territory of the present-day Malaysia. Both of the Muslim sultanates pledged protection from the Chinese dynasties to shield them from further conquest either by neighbouring Javanese Majapahit or Siamese Ayutthaya; the close relationship resulted in the interracial marriage between the Sultanate royal family and Chinese envoy and representatives. Zheng He's arrival propagated the spread of Islam in the Malay Archipelago and aided the growth of Chinese Muslim population from the eastern China's coastal towns of Fujian and Canton with many of their traders arrived at the coastal towns of present-day Malaysia and Indonesia by the early 15th century.
Apart from the early settlements in Kinabatangan and Malacca, two other oldest Chinese settlements are located in Terengganu and Penang Island as part of the trade networks with the respective areas. Following the conquest of Malacca by the Portuguese in 1511, many Chinese traders avoided Portuguese Malacca although the flow of emigrants from China continued; the Zhengde Emperor conducted several retaliations against the Portuguese due to their activities in Malacca during the Ming dynasty, following the arrival of her fleet in Canton. However, the Chinese emperor was reluc
Mary White, was a ceramic artist and calligrapher. White was born in 1926 in Wales. From 1949 to 1950 she studied at Goldsmiths' College and in 1951 she married the painter Charles White, she was made a fellow of the Society of Scribes & Illuminators in 1962 and the Letter Exchange. During the early 1970s White taught at Glamorgan. After teaching for twenty years in grammar schools, art colleges and Atlantic College, White gave up teaching in 1973 to work freelance. In 1975 White was invited to take part in an international symposium in Cardiff and had the opportunity to experiment with porcelain, she developed wide-flanged bowls. She found the possibilities of using colours in glazes instead of the more usual warm browns that she had been using for tableware; this marked a great change in her work. Turquoise became her favourite colour, at first pure, with subtle variations, she began to make more individual pieces and by the time she and her husband moved to Germany in 1980 she made tableware. In 1982 she was awarded the Staatspreis Rheinland-Pfalz for outstanding craftwork.
Before the move to Germany, White had exhibited calligraphy with the SSI and had used letters on bowls painted in lustres. In Germany she could not find a market for these and at that time had no contact with German calligraphers, so for many years she concentrated on ceramics. In the early 1980s White began to make organic forms in porcelain hand built, she used the clay as thin as possible like torn paper and assembled it in layers. Ideas come from the layers of rock on the seashore and waves rippling over the sand and colours in the sea and sky, she preferred to make shapes rather than round. In 1990 she became involved with calligraphy again and attended an International symposium in Belgium. Under the influence of a master calligrapher, Villu Toots from Estonia, she regained her enthusiasm for calligraphy and experimented with combining the two artforms, her work is collected internationally and appears in museum collections, including the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris.
She died in Germany in 2013. Lettering on Ceramics, 2003, reviewed in
This page describes the qualification procedure for EuroBasket Women 2009. The Qualifying Round was held from August 13 to September 13, 2008; the top 2 teams in each group and the best team in 3rd place qualified to EuroBasket Women 2009. The best 6 of the remaining teams will go to the Additional Qualifying Round, from which 2 additional teams will qualify to EuroBasket Women 2009; the last 4 teams will play in the Relegation Round, from which 2 teams will relegate to Division B in 2010–2011. The Additional Qualifying Round and the Relegation Round will be held from January 4 to January 19, 2009; the draw for the Qualifying Round was held on February 16, 2008. The remaining 19 teams in Division A were divided into one group of 4 teams. Group A: Israel, Ukraine, Great Britain Group B: Turkey, Italy and Herzegovina, Finland Group C: France, Hungary, Romania Group D: Greece, Belgium, Bulgaria Qualified for EuroBasket Women 2009 Go to Additional Qualifying Round Go to Relegation Round Eurobasket qualification at FIBA-Europe.com
In accounting, the convention of conservatism known as the doctrine of prudence, is a policy of anticipating possible future losses but not future gains. This policy tends to understate rather than overstate net assets and net income, therefore lead companies to "play safe"; when given a choice between several outcomes where the probabilities of occurrence are likely, you should recognize that transaction resulting in the lower amount of profit, or at least the deferral of a profit.. In accounting, it states that when choosing between two solutions, the one that will be least to overstate assets and income should be selected. "expected losses are losses but expected gains are not gains". The conservatism principle is the foundation for the lower of cost or market rule, which states that you should record inventory at the lower of either its acquisition cost or its current market value. Conservatism plays an important role in a number of accounting rules, including the allowance for doubtful debts and the lower of cost or market rule.
Accepted Accounting Principles U. S. GAAP International Financial Reporting Standards Conservatism concept Prudence concept André, P. Filip, A. & Paugam, L.. Impact of Mandatory IFRS Adoption on Conditional Conservatism in Europe. ESSEC Working Papers WP1311, ESSEC Research Center, ESSEC Business School. Available at SSRN 1979748. "Accounting terminology guide". New York State Society of CPAs. Retrieved 24 April 2017
The Flame and the Arrow is a 1950 American swashbuckler film made by Warner Bros. and starring Burt Lancaster, Virginia Mayo and Nick Cravat. It was directed by Jacques Tourneur and produced by Harold Hecht and Frank Ross from a screenplay by Waldo Salt; the music score was by the cinematography by Ernest Haller. The film was shot in Technicolor. In the time of Frederick Barbarossa, in the area of Italy known as Lombardy, Dardo Bartoli has brought his son Rudi to the town to see Count Ulrich, known as "the Hawk", together with his niece, Lady Anne, his mistress, Dardo's unfaithful wife Francesca. Dardo shows off his skill as an archer by shooting down Ulrich's expensive hunting hawk. In revenge, the count orders that Dardo's son be taken to his castle. Dardo is struck by an arrow while fleeing with Rudi, so the boy allows himself to be captured in order to draw the soldiers away. At the palace, young Marchese Alessandro de Granazia, to whom Ulrich plans to marry Anne's hand for political reasons, refuses to pay Ulrich's taxes.
After his rescue by Dardo, the marchese joins Dardo's band of outlaws. Dardo makes another attempt to free his son. Acting on information provided by his uncle Papa Bartoli, Dardo obtains the help of Anne's maid to sneak into Ulrich's castle along with his best friend Piccolo, but the rescue proves unsuccessful; when they find themselves in Lady Anne's apartment, Piccolo suggests they kidnap her instead. They take her to their secret hideout, she tries several times to escape. Dardo sends a message to the count, offering an exchange of prisoners, but Ulrich threatens to execute Bartoli unless Anne is released. Dardo and the others race to the village and rescue Bartoli. Dardo learns from his aunt Nonna that five more prisoners have been taken to hang in Papa's place. Dardo is hanged in front of his son. Ulrich takes the rest including the marchese; the marchese informs Ulrich that the rebels are planning an attack the next day and that Dardo is still alive. As a reward for this betrayal, Ulrich agrees to the marchese's marriage to Anne.
When she finds out their plans, she warns Nonna Bartoli, with Dardo and his men hiding around the corner. They decide. Piccolo comes up a plan for getting into the castle by the men posing as some of the acrobats providing entertainment; the ruse works. When they are ready, they remove their disguises and a battle ensues. During the melee, Anne warns Dardo; when Dardo catches up to Ulrich, he is in the company of the marchese. The count leaves the marchese to fight. Though Dardo tries to persuade the marchese to stand aside, the marchese refuses, trusting in his swordsmanship, but Dardo manages to plunge the room into darkness, where his hunter's instinct gives him the fatal edge. Afterwards, Dardo finds killed by a knife in the back while trying to protect Rudi, he finds the count holding Rudi at sword-point, using him as a human shield to make his escape. Dardo finds a bow and, aiming kills Ulrich and frees his son. With the battle won, Dardo embraces Anne. Burt Lancaster as Dardo Bartoli Virginia Mayo as Anne de Hesse Nick Cravat as Piccolo Norman Lloyd as Apollo, the troubadour Robert Douglas as Marchese Alessandro de Granazia Robin Hughes as Skinner Victor Kilian as Apothecary Mazzoni Francis Pierlot as Papa Pietro Bartoli Aline MacMahon as Nonna Bartoli Frank Allenby as Count Ulrich,'The Hawk' Gordon Gebert as Rudi Bartoli Lynn Baggett as Francesca According to Warner Bros records the film earned $2,737,000 domestically and $2,889,000 foreign, making it the studio's most popular film of the year.
Warner's offered $1 million to anyone who could prove that Lancaster did not perform all his stunts for the film. Someone claimed that Don Turner performed some of the stunts but Warners refused to pay out and a breach of contract claim was filed. Warner claimed that Turner did not perform the stunts within the term of the offer and that they had withdrawn the offer before the claim; the appeals court judge ruled against the claim. The Flame and the Arrow on IMDb The Flame and the Arrow at AllMovie
Maldon is a locality in the Macarthur Region of New South Wales, Australia, in the Wollondilly Shire. In the 2016 census it had a population of 15. A station was established at Maldon, as part of the Great Southern Railway, in 1879, it was named Wilton. The station closed in 1976. Maldon is still an active rail location, having turnouts for freight trains bringing limestone to the cement works, grain to the flour mill. In 1983, the NSW government commenced construction of an electrified rail link between Maldon and Dombarton, improving access for coal trains to Port Kembla; the contract for construction of the Avon Tunnel was cancelled in mid-1988: the line was not thought economically viable. An incomplete rail bridge across the Nepean Gorge can be seen just north of the Picton Road bridge. Maldon was the site of'Harvey's Crossing', one of two stone causeways over the Upper Nepean River on the Picton - Menangle Road. Stonework supporting the steep approach roads on each side can still be seen; the causeway was replaced by a wooden suspension bridge in 1903, designed by Ernest Macartney de Burgh.
By the 1970s, the bridge had become a severe bottleneck with the increasing coal traffic. A deviation of the main road and a concrete beam bridge were constructed further north along the Gorge, opened in 1980; the Suspension Bridge is now a Heritage item. It is closed to all traffic, including pedestrian. "The Nepean River, which runs parallel to the Great Southern Railway from Menangle to Picton, is crossed by road at two places only in the whole of the distance - one near Maldon, the other near Douglas Park Railway Station. Before determining upon the position at which the bridge was to be built, due consideration was given to the claims of both these sites: but it was decided that near Maldon presented advantages both from a traffic point of view and in regard to economy construction; the bridge has accordingly been erected at Harvey's Crossing on the road connecting Wilton with the Great Southern Railway at Maldon Station, was opened by Mr. E. W. O'Sullivan, Minister for Public Works on March 12.
Prior to the erection of the bridge the road used to cross the Nepean River at a stone causeway some 80 ft below the level of the deck of the new structure, but the approaches were steep and difficult, the crossing was being damaged by floods, causing delays to traffic and heavy expenditure in maintenance. The main bridge is a stiffened suspension structure of an uncommon type, inasmuch as the main cables, after leaving the towers, are carried upwards to an anchorage in the sandstone cliffs above the bridge, instead of downwards, as is the case; the main span is of 226 ft centres, carried by suspension rods from the cables, of which there are fourteen on either side of the bridge. The cables have socketed end connections secured to steel girders in anchorages cut out of the solid rock and accessible for inspection; the stiffening trusses are of steel, hinged at the towers and at the centre, to allow for the rise and fall of the cables due to temperature changes. The roadway is of timber planking, 15 ft wide between kerbs, carried on timber stringers and cross girders.
In addition to the main span there are seven timber approach spans, built on a curve to meet the roadway on either side of the river. The approaches include a considerable retaining wall on the Maldon side; the materials required have been supplied under various contracts. The cables were imported, the steel and ironwork in stiffening trusses etc. manufactured by Clyde Engineering Company, the timber supplied by various firms. The erection of the structure has been carried out by day labour, under Inspector James McCall, of the Public Works Department; the total cost, including contracts mentioned above and road work in approaches, was £8000." The Maldon Weir lies about 250 metres upstream from the Suspension Bridge. It supplied water to the nearby Stonequarry Lodge Hostel. Maldon Weir is the only weir on the Upper Nepean River not targeted for modification, despite having been identified as a major barrier to fish migration. Most other Upper Nepean weirs will be given increased capacity, to improve environmental flows, improved fishways will be installed, as part of Sydney Catchment Authority's Weirs Project.
Maldon has long been home to a cement factory operated by Boral Cement. A flour mill owned by Allied Mills, commenced operations in 2009, it was the first slipform constructed mill in New South Wales, replacing the company's mill at Summer Hill. Inghams Enterprises operates a Poultry Hatchery at Maldon; the Maldon Gorge remains a popular picnicking and swimming spot. The Maldon Suspension Bridge was used for bungee jumping during the 1990s, in 2000, an attempt was made by a private company to establish the sport of'bridge jumping' there. Local opinion opposed both these activities, fearing a negative impact on the immediate bushland environment due to increased visitor levels, deterioration of the bridge itself; the sports were discontinued. The approach roads were closed and barred, access to the bridge deck was blocked to prevent further damage from vandalism; the bungee-jumping platform can still be seen on the western side of the bridge. Deteriorating stairs and other infrastructure installed by the bridge-jumping company remain in the bushland.