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Westminster Chapel

Westminster Chapel is an evangelical free church in Westminster, central London. The church is in Buckingham Gate, on the corner of Castle Lane and opposite the junction with Petty France. Buckingham Gate is just near Buckingham Palace; the church has had several notable pastors including G. Campbell Morgan, John Henry Jowett, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, R. T. Kendall and Greg Haslam; the congregation was formed in 1840 and its original chapel building was completed in Buckingham Gate in 1841. The congregation outgrew that building, so construction of a new chapel was begun in 1864; this building is the present chapel. It has capacity to seat about 1,500 people. Westminster Chapel has had four well-known pastors: the Revd Samuel Martin, G. Campbell Morgan, D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones and R. T. Kendall; the chapel was founded as a Congregational church, but during the pastorate of D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones the church left the Congregational Union and joined the Evangelical Fellowship of Congregational Churches and the Fellowship of Independent Evangelical Churches.

Prominent among the past deacons at Westminster Chapel have been Sir Fred Catherwood and MJ "Monty" Micklewright. The reformed theologian John Murray delivered a notable lecture here titled "The Heavenly, Priestly Activity of Christ" in 1958. During R. T. Kendall's pastorate, he led the church to adopt many emphases and practices of the Charismatic movement, despite the concerns of other church officers that these were contrary to the church's accepted reformed teachings; the following pastor, Greg Haslam, was the pastor of Winchester Family Church, a Newfrontiers church, continued this trend, introducing many of Newfrontiers' core values to the church. In addition to the activities of the Chapel's own worshipping community, the Chapel is well known as a host venue for many Christian conferences and assemblies including, in the past, as a venue for the "May Meetings" of the Congregational Union of England and Wales; the church is evangelical in its beliefs. Services include worship, opportunities for prophecies, a biblical sermon.

Westminster Chapel aims to be a prophetic voice to the UK and the nations. It issued a "Mission, Values" brochure, stating that the church would be Spirit-led, be mission-minded; the church aims to open to all who may want to visit. Sunday services are at 11 am. Groups called Life Groups meet in homes throughout London on Tuesday and Wednesday nights; these include special groups for students. The church's website states that these are "the hub of friendship and evangelism" at the Chapel. Westminster Chapel hosts a free Alpha course twice a year. Alpha is an opportunity to explore the meaning of life over dinner, the Chapel's course runs on a Monday night. Westminster Chapel runs the Westminster Foodbank, as part of the Trussell Trust network of food banks. About 70 students and people in their twenties attend the Chapel, the church has a dedicated team who minister to this age group. There are events aimed at students and twenties, as well as those that cater to the wider church family with which students can join in.

Twice a year the Chapel hosts a retreat for twenties. In August 2016 the church announced that an eldership team would be appointed, Howard Satterthwaite would be appointed as Lead Elder; the full list of previous pastors is: 1842–78 Revd Samuel Martin 1876–87 Revd Henry Simon 1887–94 no settled ministry 1894–95 Revd W. Evans Hurndall 1896–1902 Revd Richard Westrope 1902–04 no settled ministry 1904–17 Revd G. Campbell Morgan 1904–07 Revd Albert Swift 1918–22 Revd John Henry Jowett 1923–25 Revd John Hutton 1926–27 no settled ministry 1928–33 Revd Hubert Simpson 1933–43 Revd G. Campbell Morgan 1939–68 Revd D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones 1969–74 Revd J. Glyn Owen 1974–76 no settled ministry 1977–2002 Revd R. T. Kendall 2002–16 Revd Greg Haslam The present chapel, completed in 1865, was designed by the architect William Ford Poulton of Reading, Berkshire in a Lombard Romanesque Revival style, it is built of stock brick with stone dressings. The façade on Buckingham Gate is gabled and has a recessed triple-arched central porch, with graduated arcading above, all having decorative shafting.

There is a tower to the right, with coupled arched windows. The top stage of the tower was added in the 20th century in a different colour; the auditorium, with seating capacity of about 1,500, is nearly oval, with two tiers of galleries and large open roof span. The galleries too are nearly oval, except that the'circle' of the upper gallery is incomplete so as to accommodate the pipe organ. There is a high platform or daïs toward the front of the Chapel, accommodating the Communion Table and chairs for the presiding minister and the serving deacons; this platform or daïs is about three feet above the floor level. Beyond this is a large platform or daïs, forming a large preaching-station or pulpit; this feature is surmounted by a balustrade. It may be one of the largest pulpits in any church building; the chapel is a Grade II Listed building. A four-manual pipe organ was built by the eminent organ-builder Henry Willis and restored and enlarged in the 1920s by Messrs Rushwort

Senate of the Republic (Italy)

The Senate of the Republic or Senate is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament. The two houses together form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately. Pursuant to Articles 57, 58, 59 of the Italian Constitution, the Senate has a variable number of members, of which 309 are elected from Italian constituencies, 6 from Italian citizens living abroad, a small number are senators for life, either appointed or ex officio, it was established in its current form on 8 May 1948, but existed during the Kingdom of Italy as Senato del Regno, itself a continuation of the Senato Subalpino of Sardinia established on 8 May 1848. Members of the Senate are styled Senator or The Honourable Senator and they meet at Palazzo Madama, Rome; the Senate consists of 315 elected members, as of 2018 six senators for life. The elected senators must be over 40 years of age and are elected by Italian citizens aged 25 or older; the Senate is elected on a regional basis. The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population.

However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley and Molise. The senators for life are composed of former Presidents of the Italian Republic who hold office ex officio, up to five citizens who are appointed by the President "for outstanding merits in the social, artistic or literary field"; the current life senators are: The current term of the Senate is five years, except for senators for life that hold their office for their lifetime. Until a Constitutional change on February 9, 1963, the Senate was elected for six-year terms; the Senate may be dissolved before the expiration of its normal term by the President of the Republic. In 2016, Italian Parliament passed a constitutional law that "effectively abolishes the Senate as an elected chamber and restricts its ability to veto legislation"; the law was rejected on December 2016 by a referendum, leaving the Senate unchanged. According to article 58 of the Italian constitution, people aged more than 25 years are enabled to vote for the Senate.

The electoral system is a parallel voting system, with 37% of seats allocated using first-past-the-post voting and 63% using proportional representation, allocated with the largest remainder method, with one round of voting. The 315 elected senators are elected in: 116 by plurality. A small, variable number of senators for life are members of the Senate. For Italian residents, each house members are elected by single ballots, including the constituency candidate and his/her supporting party lists. In each single-member constituency the deputy/senator is elected on a plurality basis, while the seats in multi-member constituencies will be allocated nationally. In order to be calculated in single-member constituency results, parties need to obtain at least 1% of the national vote. In order to receive seats in multi-member constituencies, parties need to obtain at least 3% of the national vote. Elects from multi-member constituencies will come from closed lists; the single voting paper, containing both first-past-the-post candidates and the party lists, shows the names of the candidates to single-member constituencies and, in close conjunction with them, the symbols of the linked lists for the proportional part, each one with a list of the relative candidates.

The voter can cast their vote in three different ways: Drawing a sign on the symbol of a list: in this case the vote extends to the candidate in the single-member constituency, supported by that list. Drawing a sign on the name of the candidate of the single-member constituency and another one on the symbol of one list that supports them: the result is the same as that described above. Drawing a sign only on the name of the candidate for the FPTP constituency, without indicating any list: in this case, the vote is valid for the candidate in the single-member constituency and automatically extended to the list that supports them; the current membership of the Senate of the Republic, following the latest political elections of 4 March 2018: Under the current Constitution, the Senate must hold its first sitting no than 20 days after a general election. That session, presided by the oldest senator, proceeds to elect the President of the Senate for the following parliamentary period. On the first two attempts at voting, an absolute majority of all senators is needed.

If this third round fails to produce a winner, a final ballot is held between the two senators with the highest votes in the previous ballot. In the case of a tie, the elder senator is deemed the winner. In addition to overseeing the business of the chamber and regulating debates, deciding whether motions a