Dunnottar Castle is a ruined medieval fortress located upon a rocky headland on the northeastern coast of Scotland, about 3 kilometres south of Stonehaven. The surviving buildings are of the 15th and 16th centuries, but the site is believed to have been fortified in the Early Middle Ages. Dunnottar has played a prominent role in the history of Scotland through to the 18th-century Jacobite risings because of its strategic location and defensive strength. Dunnottar is best known as the place where the Honours of Scotland, the Scottish crown jewels, were hidden from Oliver Cromwell's invading army in the 17th century; the property of the Keiths from the 14th century, the seat of the Earl Marischal, Dunnottar declined after the last Earl forfeited his titles by taking part in the Jacobite rebellion of 1715. The castle is now open to the public; the ruins of the castle are spread over 1.4 hectares, surrounded by steep cliffs that drop to the North Sea, 50 metres below. A narrow strip of land joins the headland to the mainland, along which a steep path leads up to the gatehouse.
The various buildings within the castle include the 14th-century tower house as well as the 16th-century palace. Dunnottar Castle is a scheduled monument, twelve structures on the site were listed buildings. A chapel at Dunnottar is said to have been founded by St Ninian in the 5th century, although it is not clear when the site was first fortified, but in any case the legend is late and implausible; the earliest written reference to the site is found in the Annals of Ulster which record two sieges of "Dún Foither" in 681 and 694. The earlier event has been interpreted as an attack by Brude, the Pictish king of Fortriu, to extend his power over the north-east coast of Scotland; the Scottish Chronicle records that King Donald II of Scotland, the first ruler to be called rí Alban, was killed at Dunnottar during an attack by Vikings in 900. King Aethelstan of Wessex led a force into Scotland in 934, raided as far north as Dunnottar according to the account of Symeon of Durham. W. D. Simpson speculated that a motte might lie under the present castle, but excavations in the 1980s failed to uncover substantive evidence of early medieval fortification.
The discovery of a group of Pictish stones at Dunnicaer, a nearby sea stack, has prompted speculation that "Dún Foither" was located on the adjacent headland of Bowduns, 0.5 kilometres to the north. During the reign of King William the Lion Dunnottar was a center of local administration for The Mearns; the castle is named in the Roman de Fergus, an early 13th-century Arthurian romance, in which the hero Fergus must travel to Dunnottar to retrieve a magic shield. In May 1276 a church on the site was consecrated by Bishop of St Andrews; the poet Blind Harry relates that William Wallace captured Dunnottar from the English in 1297, during the Wars of Scottish Independence. He is said to have burned them alive. In 1336 Edward III of England ordered William Sinclair, 8th Baron of Roslin, to sail eight ships to the ruined Dunnottar for the purpose of rebuilding and fortifying the site as a forward resupply base for his northern campaign. Sinclair took with him 160 soldiers, a corps of masons and carpenters.
Edward himself visited in July, but the English efforts were undone before the end of the year when the Scottish Regent Sir Andrew Murray led a force that captured and again destroyed the defences of Dunnottar. In the 14th century Dunnottar was granted to William de Moravia, 5th Earl of Sutherland, in 1346 a licence to crenellate was issued by David II. Around 1359 William Keith, Marischal of Scotland, married Margaret Fraser, niece of Robert the Bruce, was granted the barony of Dunnottar at this time. Keith gave the lands of Dunnottar to his daughter Christian and son-in-law William Lindsay of Byres, but in 1392 an excambion was agreed whereby Keith regained Dunnottar and Lindsay took lands in Fife. William Keith completed construction of the tower house at Dunnottar, but was excommunicated for building on the consecrated ground associated with the parish church. Keith had provided a new parish church closer to Stonehaven, but was forced to write to the Pope, Benedict XIII, who issued a bull in 1395 lifting the excommunication.
William Keith's descendents were made Earls Marischal in the mid 15th century, they held Dunottar until the 18th century. Through the 16th century the Keiths improved and expanded their principal seats: at Dunnottar and at Keith Marischal in East Lothian. James IV visited Dunnottar in 1504, in 1531 James V exempted the Earl's men from military service on the grounds that Dunnottar was one of the "principall strenthis of our realme". Mary, Queen of Scots, visited in 1562 after the Battle of Corrichie, returned in 1564. James VI stayed for 10 days in 1580, as part of a progress through Fife and Angus, during which a meeting of the Privy Council was convened at Dunnottar. During a rebellion of Catholic nobles in 1592, Dunnottar was captured by Captain Carr on behalf of the Earl of Huntly, but was restored to Lord Marischal just a few weeks later. In 1581 George Keith succeeded as 5th Earl Marischal, began a large scale reconstruction that saw the medieval fortress converted into a more comfortable home.
As the founder of Marischal College in Aberdeen, the 5th Earl valued Dunnottar as much for its dramatic situation as for its security. A "palace" comprising a series of ranges around a quadrangle was built on the north-eastern cliffs, creating luxurious living quarters with sea views; the 13th-cen
Forres is a town and former royal burgh situated in the north of Scotland on the Moray coast 25 miles east of Inverness and 12 miles west of Elgin. Forres has been a winner of the Scotland in Bloom award on several occasions. There are many geographical and historical attractions nearby such as the River Findhorn, there are many historical artifacts and monuments within the town itself; the earliest written reference to Forres may be the Οὐάραρ εἴσχυσις mentioned in the second century Geography of Claudius Ptolemy. A royal castle was present in the area from at least 900 AD, around 1140 AD Forres became a royal burgh. Royal burghs were founded by the Kings of Scots of the 12th century to encourage trade and economic improvement; the local abbey was plundered by the Wolf of Badenoch. On 23 June 1496 King James IV of Scotland issued a Royal Charter laying down the rights and privileges that the town's people are believed to have held by an earlier charter since the reign of King David I some 300 years earlier.
The population of Forres has grown in recent years is now over 12,000. Sitting between the floodplain of the River Findhorn and the wooded slopes of Cluny and Sanquhar Hills, Forres is well known for its award-winning floral sculptures and is steeped in local history and traditions. Local bars and pubs include The Newmarket, The Red Lion The Mosset Tavern, The Carlton Hotel; the town is the location of Sueno's Stone, an enormous carved stone created by Picts to commemorate a battle against Norse invaders. The stele is 20 feet tall and encased in glass structure to protect it from the elements and graffiti. Sueno's Stone translates to Sven's Stone. Brodie Castle lies near the town. Other attractions to Forres include Dallas Dhu distillery. Benromach Distillery, located just north of the Forres bypass, is an active distillery with a visitors' centre. Shakespeare's play Macbeth locates Duncan's castle in Forres, the Three Witches meet on a heath near the town in the third scene of the drama. Macbeth's castle was located at Inverness.
There is a large network of walking and cycle paths with a spectacular, well marked mountain bike trail in the woods behind the park in the town. Findhorn Bay, home to seals and dolphins, is only 4 miles from the town and is accessible via a cycle path. Artistic and Alternative Communities Forres has a considerable alternative and new age community as the Findhorn Foundation as well as Newbold House own two large buildings in the town. Forres is home to many organisations that focus on sustainability. There is a large community of artists such as Orchard Road Studios, Findhorn Bay Arts and The House of Automata and various other galleries and arts organisations such as the soon to be National Unicorn Museum in the pipeline; the Glasgow School of Art established a campus focusing on design and innovation in the town in January 2016. Hugh Falconer, Scottish geologist, botanist and paleoanthropologist John Gordon FRSE anatomist born in Forres Charles Lumley, recipient of the Victoria Cross Donald Smith, 1st Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal, Scottish-born Canadian businessman and philanthropist Roy Williamson, Scottish song writer and folk musician, wrote Flower of Scotland Forres was a parliamentary burgh, combined with Inverness and Nairn, in the Inverness Burghs constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1708 to 1801 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1918.
The constituency was abolished in 1918 and the Forres and Nairn components were merged into the new constituency of Moray and Nairn. As with the rest of the British Isles and Scotland, Forres experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters; the nearest official Metoffice weather station for which online records are available is Kinloss, about 3 miles north east of the town centre. The lowest temperature to be recorded in recent years was −16.0 °C during December 2010. Forres is situated on the A96 trunk route connecting the cities of Inverness; the River Findhorn was crossed by fording near Waterford Farm. A suspension bridge was opened in 1831 to cross the river at the west end of the town; this bridge was replaced by the current bridge in 1938. Due to high volumes of traffic passing through the town centre, a bypass was built in the late 1980s to reduce congestion in the town centre; the A940 connects Forres with Grantown-on-Spey and the south directly without the requirement of driving via Inverness.
The B9011 connects Forres to Findhorn Bay. Forres railway station is operated by Abellio ScotRail; the town of Forres was once a triangular junction in the Highland Railway network, travelling through Forres was once the quickest route to reach Inverness from the south. The station had four platforms; the fourth was a short platform on the south east side used by through services between Elgin and Aviemore via Grantown. Trains from Grantown towards Nairn or Inverness had to run through the station and reverse back into the Aberdeen to Inverness platform and this is the only platform to remain in service today; the service to Grantown-on-Spey was closed in the 1960s and now forms part of The Dava Way, a scenic footpath connecting the two towns
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Iona is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. It is known for Iona Abbey, though there are other buildings on the island. Iona Abbey was a centre of Gaelic monasticism for three centuries and is today known for its relative tranquility and natural environment, it is a place for spiritual retreats. Its modern Gaelic name means "Iona of Columba"; the Hebrides have been occupied by the speakers of several languages since the Iron Age, as a result many of the names of these islands have more than one possible meaning. Nonetheless few, if any, can have accumulated so many different names over the centuries as the island now known in English as "Iona"; the earliest forms of the name enabled place-name scholar William J. Watson to show that the name meant something like "yew-place"; the element Ivo-, denoting "yew", occurs in Ogham inscriptions and in Gaulish names and may form the basis of early Gaelic names like Eogan. It is possible that the name is related to the mythological figure, Fer hÍ mac Eogabail, foster-son of Manannan, the forename meaning "man of the yew".
Mac an Tàilleir lists the more recent Gaelic names of Ì, Ì Chaluim Chille and Eilean Idhe noting that the first named is "generally lengthened to avoid confusion" to the second, which means "Calum's Iona" or "island of Calum's monastery". The possible confusion results from "ì", despite its original etymology, becoming a Gaelic noun meaning "island". Eilean Idhe means "the isle of Iona" known as Ì nam ban bòidheach; the modern English name comes of yet another variant, either just Adomnán's attempt to make the Gaelic name fit Latin grammar or else a genuine derivative from Ivova. Ioua's change to Iona, attested from c.1274, results from a transcription mistake resulting from the similarity of "n" and "u" in Insular Minuscule. Despite the continuity of forms in Gaelic between the pre-Norse and post-Norse eras, Haswell-Smith speculates that the name may have a Norse connection, Hiōe meaning "island of the den of the brown bear", The medieval English language version was "Icolmkill". Murray claims that the "ancient" Gaelic name was Innis nan Druinich and repeats a Gaelic story that as Columba's coracle first drew close to the island one of his companions cried out "Chì mi i" meaning "I see her" and that Columba's response was "Henceforth we shall call her Ì".
Iona lies about 2 kilometres from the coast of Mull. It is about 2 kilometres wide and 6 kilometres long with a resident population of 125; the geology of the island consists of Precambrian Lewisian gneiss with Torridonian sedimentary rocks on the eastern side and small outcrops of pink granite on the eastern beaches. Like other places swept by ocean breezes, there are few trees. Iona's highest point is Dùn Ì, 101 metres, an Iron Age hill fort dating from 100 BC – AD 200. Iona's geographical features include the Bay at the Back of the Ocean and Càrn Cùl ri Éirinn, said to be adjacent to the beach where St. Columba first landed; the main settlement, located at St. Ronan's Bay on the eastern side of the island, is called Baile Mòr and is known locally as "The Village"; the primary school, post office, the island's two hotels, the Bishop's House and the ruins of the Nunnery are here. The Abbey and MacLeod Centre are a short walk to the north. Port Bàn beach on the west side of the island is home to the Iona Beach Party.
There are numerous offshore islets and skerries: Eilean Annraidh and Eilean Chalbha to the north, Rèidh Eilean and Stac MhicMhurchaidh to the west and Eilean Mùsimul and Soa Island to the south are amongst the largest. The steamer Cathcart Park carrying a cargo of salt from Runcorn to Wick ran aground on Soa on 15 April 1912, the crew of 11 escaping in two boats. On a map of 1874, the following territorial subdivision is indicated: Ceann Tsear Sliabh Meanach Machar Sliginach Sliabh Siar Staonaig In the early Historic Period Iona lay within the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata, in the region controlled by the Cenél Loairn; the island was the site of a important monastery during the Early Middle Ages. According to tradition the monastery was founded in 563 by the monk Columba known as Colm Cille, exiled from his native Ireland as a result of his involvement in the Battle of Cul Dreimhne. Columba and twelve companions founded a monastery there; the monastery was hugely successful, played a crucial role in the conversion to Christianity of the Picts of present-day Scotland in the late 6th century and of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria in 635.
Many satellite institutions were founded, Iona became the centre of one of the most important monastic systems in Great Britain and Ireland. Iona became a renowned centre of learning, its scriptorium produced important documents including the original texts of the Iona Chronicle, thought to be the source for the early Irish annals; the monastery is associated with the distinctive practices and traditions known as Celtic Christianity. In particular, Iona was a major supporter of the "Celtic" system for calculating the date of Easter at the time of the Easter controversy, whi
Kingdom of Strathclyde
Strathclyde Cumbric: Ystrad Clud or Alclud, was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the Britons in Hen Ogledd, the Brythonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England. The kingdom developed during the post-Roman period, it is known as Alt Clut, a Brittonic term for Dumbarton Castle, the medieval capital of the region. It may have had its origins with the Brythonic Damnonii people of Ptolemy's Geography; the language of Strathclyde, that of the Britons in surrounding areas under non-native rulership, is known as Cumbric, a dialect or language related to Old Welsh, in modern terms to Welsh and Breton. Scottish toponymy and archaeology points to some settlement by Vikings or Norse–Gaels, although to a lesser degree than in neighbouring Galloway. A small number of Anglian place-names show some limited settlement by Anglo-Saxon incomers from Northumbria prior to the Norse settlement. Owing to the series of language changes in the area, it is not possible to say whether any Goidelic settlement took place before Gaelic was introduced in the High Middle Ages during the 11th century.
After the sack of Dumbarton Rock by a Viking army from Dublin in 870, the name Strathclyde comes into use reflecting a move of the centre of the kingdom to Govan. In the same period, it was referred to as Cumbria, its inhabitants as Cumbrians. During the High Middle Ages, the area was conquered by the Goidelic-speaking Kingdom of Alba in the 11th century, becoming part of the new Kingdom of Scotland. However, it remained a distinctive Brythonic area into the 13th centuries. Ptolemy's Geographia – a sailors' chart, not an ethnographical survey – lists a number of tribes, or groups of tribes, in southern Scotland at around the time of the Roman invasion and the establishment of Roman Britain in the 1st century AD; as well as the Damnonii, Ptolemy lists the Otalini. In addition, a group known as the Maeatae in the area around Stirling, appear in Roman records; the capital of the Damnonii is believed to have been at Carman, near Dumbarton, but around five miles inland from the River Clyde. Although the northern frontier appears to have been Hadrian's Wall for most of the history of Roman Britain, the extent of Roman influence north of the Wall is obscure.
Roman forts existed north of the wall, forts as far north as Cramond may have been in long-term occupation. Moreover, the formal frontier was three times moved further north. Twice it was advanced to the line of the Antonine Wall, at about the time when Hadrian's Wall was built and again under Septimius Severus, once further north, beyond the river Tay, during Agricola's campaigns, each time, it was soon withdrawn. In addition to these contacts, Roman armies undertook punitive expeditions north of the frontiers. Northern natives travelled south of the wall, to trade, to raid and to serve in the Roman army. Roman traders may have travelled north, Roman subsidies, or bribes, were sent to useful tribes and leaders; the extent to which Roman Britain was romanised is debated, if there are doubts about the areas under close Roman control there must be more doubts over the degree to which the Damnonii were romanised. The final period of Roman Britain saw an apparent increase in attacks by land and sea, the raiders including the Picts and the mysterious Attacotti whose origins are not certain.
These raids will have targeted the tribes of southern Scotland. The supposed final withdrawal of Roman forces around 410 is unlikely to have been of military impact on the Damnonii, although the withdrawal of pay from the residual Wall garrison will have had a considerable economic effect. No historical source gives any firm information on the boundaries of the Kingdom of Strathclyde, but suggestions have been offered on the basis of place-names and topography. Near the north end of Loch Lomond, which can be reached by boat from the Clyde, lies Clach nam Breatann, the Rock of the Britains, thought to have gained its name as a marker at the northern limit of Alt Clut; the Campsie Fells and the marshes between Loch Lomond and Stirling may have represented another boundary. To the south, the kingdom extended some distance up the strath of the Clyde, along the coast extended south towards Ayr. Although referred to as the Dark Ages, the period after the end of Roman rule in southern Scotland, while poorly understood, is less dark than the Roman period.
Archaeologists and historians have offered varying accounts of the period over the last century and a half. The written sources available for the period are Irish and Welsh, few indeed are contemporary with the period between 400 and 600. Irish sources report events in the kingdom of Dumbarton. Excepting the 6th-century jeremiad by Gildas and the poetry attributed to Taliesin and Aneirin—in particular y Gododdin, thought to have been composed in Scotland in the 6th century—Welsh sources date from a much period; some are informed by the political attitudes prevalent in Wales after. Bede, whose prejudice is apparent mentions Britons, usually in uncomplimentary terms. Two kings are known from near contemporary sources in this early period; the first is Coroticus or Ceretic Guletic, known as the recipient of a letter from Saint Patrick, stated by a 7th-century biographer to have been king of the Height of the Clyde, Dumbarton Rock, placing h
Earl of Angus
The Mormaer or Earl of Angus was the ruler of the medieval Scottish province of Angus. The title, in the Peerage of Scotland, is held by the Duke of Hamilton, is used as a courtesy title for the eldest son of the Duke's eldest son. Angus is one of the oldest attested mormaerdoms, with the earliest attested mormaer, Dubacan of Angus, known to have lived in the early 10th century, as recorded in the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba. Angus was, according to the doubtful and legendary text de Situ Albanie, one of the seven original mormaerdoms of the Pictish kingdom of Alba, said to have been occupied by seven brothers, of whom Angus was the eldest. Despite this, the mormaers of Angus are among the most obscure of all. After the death of Mormaer Maol Chaluim, in about 1240, the mormaerdom passed through the marriage of his daughter Matilda, to the line of the Norman Gilbert de Umfraville. Gilbert de Umfraville inherited the Earldom while in his minority after his father's death in 1245. Gilbert fought on the English side during the first war of Scottish independence until his death in 1308.
His heir, second son Robert fought on the side of the English and surrendered to King Robert de Brus during the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. He was treated with the Scots for peace with England, he was disinherited of his titles. Robert's heir Gilbert continued attempting to recover the Earldom and supported Edward Balliol and other disinherited barons and lords in Scotland. John Stewart of Bonkyll, obtained the title Earl of Angus in 1329 in a new line after the forfeiture of the de Umfraville line, though the latter family continued to use the title in England until 1381; this Stewart line ended with Margaret Stewart, countess of Angus in her own right, widow of Thomas, Earl of Mar. An illicit affair between Margaret Stewart, Countess of Mar and Angus, her brother in law, William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas produced George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus; the Countess secured a charter of her estates for her son, to whom in 1389 the title was granted by King Robert II. He was taken prisoner at Homildon Hill in 1402, died in captivity in England.
Archibald "Bell-the-Cat" the powerful adversary of James III, was his great-grandson. William Douglas 11th Earl of Angus, was created Marquis of Douglas in 1633, he resigned the title of Earl of Angus, having it recreated with the marquessate, so he was the 1st Earl of Angus in the new creation. He outlived his son Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus and was succeeded by Archibald's son James Douglas, 2nd Marquess of Douglas. James' son and heir Archibald Douglas was created Duke of Douglas, Marquess of Angus and Abernethy, Viscount of Jedburgh Forest, Lord Douglas of Bonkill and Robertoun on 10 April 1703, he died without leaving an heir and the titles acquired with the dukedom became extinct. All his other titles devolved to his distant cousin the 7th Duke of Hamilton, whose descendants hold them still. John Stewart, 1st Earl of Angus Thomas Stewart, 2nd Earl of Angus Margaret Stewart, Countess of Angus and Mar Thomas, Earl of Mar suo jure uxoris Earl of Angus George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus William Douglas, 2nd Earl of Angus James Douglas, 3rd Earl of Angus George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus George Douglas, Master of Angus Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus David Douglas, 7th Earl of Angus Archibald Douglas, 8th Earl of Angus William Douglas, 9th Earl of Angus William Douglas, 10th Earl of Angus William Douglas, 11th Earl of Angus, William Douglas, 1st Marquess of Douglas James Douglas, 2nd Marquess of Douglas Archibald Douglas, 3rd Marquess of Douglas, Archibald Douglas, 1st Duke of Douglas For Earls of Angus and Marquesses of Douglas, see the Duke of Hamilton This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Angus, Earls of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 43–44. Roberts, John L. Lost Kingdoms: Celtic Scotland in the Middle Ages, pp. 53–4 Chronicle of the Kings of Alba