Dunnottar Castle is a ruined medieval fortress located upon a rocky headland on the north-east coast of Scotland, about 3 kilometres south of Stonehaven. The surviving buildings are largely of the 15th and 16th centuries, Dunnottar has played a prominent role in the history of Scotland through to the 18th-century Jacobite risings because of its strategic location and defensive strength. Dunnottar is best known as the place where the Honours of Scotland, the property of the Keiths from the 14th century, and the seat of the Earl Marischal, Dunnottar declined after the last Earl forfeited his titles by taking part in the Jacobite rebellion of 1715. The castle was restored in the 20th century and is now open to the public, the ruins of the castle are spread over 1.4 hectares, surrounded by steep cliffs that drop to the North Sea,50 metres below. A narrow strip of land joins the headland to the mainland, the various buildings within the castle include the 14th-century tower house as well as the 16th-century palace.
Dunnottar Castle is a monument, and twelve structures on the site are listed buildings. Possibly the earliest written reference to the site is found in the Annals of Ulster which record two sieges of Dún Foither in 681 and 694. The earlier event has been interpreted as an attack by Brude, the Scottish Chronicle records that King Domnall II, the first ruler to be called rí Alban, was killed at Dunnottar during an attack by Vikings in 900. King Aethelstan of Wessex led a force into Scotland in 934, W. D. Simpson speculated that a motte might lie under the present caste, but excavations in the 1980s failed to uncover substantive evidence of early medieval fortification. During the reign of King William the Lion Dunnottar was a center of administration for The Mearns. The castle is named in the Roman de Fergus, an early 13th-century Arthurian romance, in May 1276 a church on the site was consecrated by William Wishart, Bishop of St Andrews. The poet Blind Harry relates that William Wallace captured Dunnottar from the English in 1297 and he is said to have imprisoned 4,000 defeated English soldiers in the church and burned them alive.
Sinclair took with him 160 soldiers, and a corps of masons, in the 14th century Dunnottar was granted to William de Moravia, 5th Earl of Sutherland, and in 1346 a licence to crenellate was issued by David II. Around 1359 William Keith, Marischal of Scotland, married Margaret Fraser, niece of Robert the Bruce, William Keith completed construction of the tower house at Dunnottar, but was excommunicated for building on the consecrated ground associated with the parish church. Keith had provided a new church closer to Stonehaven, but was forced to write to the Pope, Benedict XIII. William Keiths descendents were created Earls Marischal in the mid 15th century, through the 16th century the Keiths improved and expanded their principal seats, at Dunnottar and at Keith Marischal in East Lothian. James IV visited Dunnottar in 1504, and in 1531 James V exempted the Earls men from service on the grounds that Dunnottar was one of the principall strenthis of our realme. Mary, Queen of Scots, visited in 1562 after the Battle of Corrichie, James VI stayed for 10 days in 1580, as part of a progress through Fife and Angus, during which a meeting of the Privy Council was convened at Dunnottar
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
The River Tees is in northern England. It rises on the slope of Cross Fell in the North Pennines. The river drains 710 square miles and has a number of tributaries including the River Greta, River Lune, River Balder, River Leven, before the reorganisation of the historic English counties, the river formed the boundary between County Durham and Yorkshire. The head of the valley, whose upper portion is known as Teesdale, has a grandeur, surrounded by moorland and hills. This area is part of the North Pennine Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, the source of the river at Teeshead just below Cross Fell lies at an elevation of approximately 2,401 feet. It flows east-north-east through an area of shake holes through Carboniferous Limestone, below Viewing Hill, it turns south to the Cow Green Reservoir constructed to store water to be released in dry conditions to satisfy the industrial need for water on Teesside. Emerging from the reservoir at Cauldron Snout the river traverses a series of black basalt and dolerite rocks that intrude through the softer limestone.
From this point downstream the Tees forms the boundary between the counties of Durham and Yorkshire almost without a break, although since 1974 much of it lies wholly in Durham. The dale widens below Cauldron Snout, and trees appear, contrasting with the rocks where the water descends over High Force. After a short turn northwards, the continues to meander south-easterly. Close to where the B6277 road begins to run parallel to the river is the 98-foot High Force waterfall, about 1 1⁄2 miles downstream is the smaller Low Force waterfall. The scenery becomes gentler and more picturesque as the river descends past Middleton-in-Teesdale and this locality has lead and ironstone resources. Just to the east of Middleton-in-Teesdale, the River Lune joins the Tees, after passing the village of Romaldkirk to the west, the river is joined by the River Balder at Cotherstone. The ancient town of Barnard Castle, Egglestone Abbey, and Rokeby Park, at Rokeby the Tees is joined by the River Greta. From the area near Eggleston, the river is crossing over millstone grit, from here the valley begins to open out, and traverses the rich plain east and south of Darlington in large meandering curves.
The course of the valley down to here has been generally east-south-east, passing Ovington and Winston it runs parallel to the A67 south-east past Gainford and Piercebridge to Darlington, passing under the A1 and A66. The section from Piercebridge to Hurworth flows over magnesian limestone and it is at Croft-on-Tees that the River Skerne joins the Tees. The river now flows south past Croft-on-Tees before swinging northwards past Hurworth-on-Tees, a series of large meanders takes the course past Neasham, Low Dinsdale and Sockburn to Middleton St George
Iona is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. It was a centre of Gaelic monasticism for four centuries and is renowned for its tranquility. It is a popular tourist destination and a place for retreats and its modern Gaelic name means Iona of Columba. The Hebrides have been occupied by the speakers of languages since the Iron Age. Nonetheless few, if any, can have accumulated so many different names over the centuries as the now known in English as Iona. The earliest forms of the name enabled place-name scholar William J. Watson to show that the name meant something like yew-place. The element Ivo-, denoting yew, occurs in Ogham inscriptions and in Gaulish names and it is possible that the name is related to the mythological figure, Fer hÍ mac Eogabail, foster-son of Manannan, the forename meaning man of the yew. The possible confusion results from ì, despite its original etymology, eilean Idhe means the isle of Iona, known as Ì nam ban bòidheach.
The modern English name comes of yet another variant, iouas change to Iona, attested from c.1274, results from a transcription mistake resulting from the similarity of n and u in Insular Minuscule. Iona lies about 2 kilometres from the coast of Mull and it is about 2 kilometres wide and 6 kilometres long with a resident population of 125. The geology of the island consists mainly of Precambrian Lewisian gneiss with Torridonian sedimentary rocks on the eastern side, like other places swept by ocean breezes, there are few trees, most of them are near the parish church. Ionas highest point is Dùn Ì,101 metres, an Iron Age hill fort dating from 100 BC – AD200. Ionas geographical features include the Bay at the Back of the Ocean and Càrn Cùl ri Éirinn, the main settlement, located at St. Ronans Bay on the eastern side of the island, is called Baile Mòr and is known locally as The Village. The primary school, post office, the two hotels, the Bishops House and the ruins of the Nunnery are here. The Abbey and MacLeod Centre are a short walk to the north, port Bàn beach on the west side of the island is home to the Iona Beach Party.
The steamer Cathcart Park carrying a cargo of salt from Runcorn to Wick ran aground on Soa on 15 April 1912, in the early Historic Period Iona lay within the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata. The island was the site of an important monastery during the Early Middle Ages. Columba and twelve companions went into exile on Iona and founded a monastery there, many satellite institutions were founded, and Iona became the centre of one of the most important monastic systems in Great Britain and Ireland
Kingdom of Strathclyde
The kingdom developed during the post-Roman period. It is known as Alt Clut, a Brittonic term for Dumbarton Castle and it may have had its origins with the Brythonic Damnonii people of Ptolemys Geography. Scottish toponymy and archaeology points to some settlement by Vikings or Norse–Gaels, a small number of Anglian place-names show some limited settlement by Anglo-Saxon incomers from Northumbria prior to the Norse settlement. Due to the series of changes in the area, it is not possible to say whether any Goidelic settlement took place before Gaelic was introduced in the High Middle Ages during the 11th century. After the sack of Dumbarton Rock by a Viking army from Dublin in 870, in the same period, it was referred to as Cumbria, and its inhabitants as Cumbrians. During the High Middle Ages, the area was conquered by the Goidelic speaking Kingdom of Alba in the 11th century, however, it remained a distinctive Brythonic area into the 12th and 13th centuries. As well as the Damnonii, Ptolemy lists the Otalini, whose capital appears to have been Traprain Law, to their west, the Selgovae in the Southern Uplands and, further west in Galloway, the Novantae.
In addition, a known as the Maeatae, probably in the area around Stirling. The capital of the Damnonii is believed to have been at Carman, near Dumbarton, although the northern frontier appears to have been Hadrians Wall for most of the history of Roman Britain, the extent of Roman influence north of the Wall is obscure. Certainly, Roman forts existed north of the wall, and forts as far north as Cramond may have been in long-term occupation, the formal frontier was three times moved further north. In addition to contacts, Roman armies undertook punitive expeditions north of the frontiers. Northern natives travelled south of the wall, to trade, to raid, Roman traders may have travelled north, and Roman subsidies, or bribes, were sent to useful tribes and leaders. The final period of Roman Britain saw an apparent increase in attacks by land and sea, the including the Picts, Scotti. These raids will have targeted the tribes of southern Scotland, no historical source gives any firm information on the boundaries of the Kingdom of Strathclyde, but suggestions have been offered on the basis of place-names and topography.
The Campsie Fells and the marshes between Loch Lomond and Stirling may have represented another boundary, to the south, the kingdom extended some distance up the valley of the Clyde, and along the coast probably extended south towards Ayr. Although often referred to as the Dark Ages, the period after the end of Roman rule in southern Scotland and historians have offered varying accounts of the period over the last century and a half. The written sources available for the period are largely Irish and Welsh, Irish sources report events in the kingdom of Dumbarton only when they have an Irish link. Some are informed by the political attitudes prevalent in Wales in the 9th century, whose prejudice is apparent, rarely mentions Britons, and usually in uncomplimentary terms
Edmund I, called the Elder, the Deed-doer, the Just, or the Magnificent, was King of the English from 939 until his death. He was a son of Edward the Elder and half-brother of Æthelstan, Æthelstan died on 27 October 939, and Edmund succeeded him as king. Shortly after his proclamation as king, he had to several military threats. King Olaf III Guthfrithson conquered Northumbria and invaded the Midlands, when Olaf died in 942, in 943, Edmund became the god-father of King Olaf of York. In 944, Edmund was successful in reconquering Northumbria, in the same year, his ally Olaf of York lost his throne and left for Dublin in Ireland. Olaf became the king of Dublin as Amlaíb Cuarán and continued to be allied to his god-father, in 945, Edmund conquered Strathclyde but ceded the territory to King Malcolm I of Scotland in exchange for a treaty of mutual military support. Edmund thus established a policy of safe borders and peaceful relationships with Scotland, during his reign, the revival of monasteries in England began.
One of Edmunds last political movements of which there is knowledge is his role in the restoration of Louis IV of France to the throne. Louis, son of Charles the Simple and Edmunds half-sister Eadgifu, had resided at the West-Saxon court for time until 936. In the summer of 945, he was captured by the Norsemen of Rouen and subsequently released to Duke Hugh the Great, the chronicler Richerus claims that Eadgifu wrote letters both to Edmund and to Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor in which she requested support for her son. Edmund responded to her plea by sending angry threats to Hugh, duke of the Franks, allying himself with Hugh the Black, son of Richard, and the other leading men of the kingdom, restored to the kingdom King Louis. On 26 May 946, Edmund was murdered by Leofa, an exiled thief, john of Worcester and William of Malmesbury add some lively detail by suggesting that Edmund had been feasting with his nobles, when he spotted Leofa in the crowd. He attacked the intruder in person, but in the event, Leofa was killed on the spot by those present.
A recent article re-examines Edmunds death and dismisses the accounts as fiction. It suggests the king was the victim of a political assassination, Edmunds sister Eadgyth, the wife of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, died earlier the same year, as Flodoards Annales for 946 report. Edmund was succeeded as king by his brother Eadred, king from 946 until 955, Edmunds sons ruled England as, King of England from 955 until 957, king of only Wessex and Kent from 957 until his death on 1 October 959. Edgar the Peaceful, king of Mercia and Northumbria from 957 until his brothers death in 959, Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury Burial places of British royalty Edmund the Just, fictional king of Narnia Flodoard, Annales, ed. Philippe Lauer, Les Annales de Flodoard. Collection des textes pour servir à létude et à lenseignement de lhistoire 39, Edmund 14 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England
Forres is a town and former royal burgh situated in the north of Scotland on the Moray coast, approximately 25 miles east of Inverness and 12 miles west of Elgin. Forres has been a winner of the Scotland in Bloom award on several occasions, there are many geographical and historical attractions nearby such as the River Findhorn, and there are many historical artifacts and monuments within the town itself. The earliest written reference to Forres may be the Οὐάραρ εἴσχυσις mentioned in the second century Geography of Claudius Ptolemy, a royal castle was in the area from at least 900 AD, and around 1140 AD Forres became a royal burgh. Royal burghs were founded by the Kings of Scots of the 12th century to encourage trade, the local abbey was plundered by the Wolf of Badenoch. The population of Forres has grown in recent years and now has over 12000 inhabitants, local bars and pubs include The Newmarket, The Red Lion, locally known as the Beastie, The Mosset Tavern, and The Carlton Hotel. The town is the location of Suenos Stone, a carved stone probably created by Picts to commemorate a battle against Norse invaders.
The stele is 20 feet tall and encased in glass structure to protect it from the elements, Suenos Stone translates to Svens Stone. Brodie Castle lies near the town, other attractions to Forres include Dallas Dhu Distillery, which lies just south of the town. Although no longer in production, the distillery is maintained in working order by Historic Scotland, benromach Distillery is an active distillery with a visitors centre and is located just north of the Forres bypass. Shakespeares play Macbeth locates Duncans castle in Forres, and the Three Witches meet on a heath near the town in the scene of the drama. Macbeths castle was located at Inverness, Forres has a network of footpaths that have been established and waymarked by the Forres Footpaths Trust in recent years. Forres has just completed a flood prevention scheme at Chapletonmoss. The constituency was abolished in 1918 and the Forres and Nairn components were merged into the new constituency of Moray. As with the rest of the British Isles and Scotland, Forres experiences a climate with cool summers.
The nearest official Metoffice weather station for which records are available is Kinloss. The lowest temperature to be recorded in recent years was −16.0 °C during December 2010, Forres is situated on the A96 trunk route connecting the cities of Aberdeen and Inverness. The River Findhorn was originally crossed by fording near Waterford Farm, a suspension bridge was opened in 1831 to cross the river at the west end of the town. This bridge was replaced by the current bridge in 1938, due to high volumes of traffic passing through the town centre, a bypass was built in the late 1980s to reduce congestion in the town centre
Constantine II of Scotland
Constantine, son of Áed was an early King of Scotland, known by the Gaelic name Alba. The Kingdom of Alba, a name which first appears in Constantines lifetime, was in northern Great Britain, the core of the kingdom was formed by the lands around the River Tay. Its southern limit was the River Forth, northwards it extended towards the Moray Firth and perhaps to Caithness, Constantines grandfather Kenneth I of Scotland was the first of the family recorded as a king, but as king of the Picts. This change of title, from king of the Picts to king of Alba, is part of a transformation of Pictland. His reign, like those of his predecessors, was dominated by the actions of Viking rulers in the British Isles, particularly the Uí Ímair. During Constantines reign the rulers of the kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, the Kingdom of England. At first allied with the southern rulers against the Vikings, Constantine in time came into conflict with them, in 943 Constantine abdicated the throne and retired to the Céli Dé monastery of St Andrews where he died in 952.
He was succeeded by his predecessors son Malcolm I, during his reign the words Scots and Scotland are first used to mean part of what is now Scotland. The earliest evidence for the ecclesiastical and administrative institutions which would last until the Davidian Revolution appears at this time, compared to neighbouring Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England, few records of 9th- and 10th-century events in Scotland survive. The main local source from the period is the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, the list survives in the Poppleton Manuscript, a 13th-century compilation. Originally simply a list of kings with reign lengths, the details contained in the Poppleton Manuscript version were added in the 10th and 12th centuries. In addition to this, king lists survive, for narrative history the principal sources are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the Irish annals. The evidence from charters created in the Kingdom of England provides occasional insight into events in northern Britain, while Scandinavian sagas describe events in 10th-century Britain, their value as sources of historical narrative, rather than documents of social history, is disputed.
The dominant kingdom in eastern Scotland before the Viking Age was the northern Pictish kingdom of Fortriu on the shores of the Moray Firth, by the 9th century, the Gaels of Dál Riata were subject to the kings of Fortriu of the family of Constantín mac Fergusa. Constantíns family dominated Fortriu after 789 and perhaps, if Constantín was a kinsman of Óengus I of the Picts and these deaths led to a period of instability lasting a decade as several families attempted to establish their dominance in Pictland. By around 848 Kenneth MacAlpin had emerged as the winner, the same style is used of Kenneths brother Donald I and sons Constantine I and Áed. The extent of Kenneths nameless kingdom is uncertain, but it extended from the Firth of Forth in the south to the Mounth in the north. Whether it extended beyond the spine of north Britain—Druim Alban—is unclear
Annals of the Four Masters
The Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland or the Annals of the Four Masters are chronicles of medieval Irish history. The entries span from the Deluge, dated as 2,242 years after creation to AD1616, due to the criticisms of Tuileagna Ó Maol Chonaire, the text was not published in the lifetime of any of the participants. The annals are mainly a compilation of annals, although there is some original work. They were compiled between 1632 and 1636 at a Franciscan friary near the Drowes river, now in County Leitrim, the patron of the project was Fearghal Ó Gadhra, M. P. a Gaelic lord in Coolavin, County Sligo. Although only one of the authors, Mícheál Ó Cléirigh, was a Franciscan friar, they known as The Four Friars or in the original Irish. The Anglicized version of this was The Four Masters, the name became associated with the annals themselves. The annals are written in Irish, the several manuscript copies are held at Trinity College Dublin, the Royal Irish Academy, University College Dublin and the National Library of Ireland.
The first substantial English translation was published by Owen Connellan in 1846, the Connellan translation included the annals from the eleventh to the seventeenth centuries. The only version to have a frontispiece, it included a large folding map showing the location of families in Ireland. This edition, neglected for over 150 years, was republished in the early twenty-first century, the original Connellan translation was followed several years by a full translation by the historian John ODonovan. The translation was funded by a government grant of £1,000 obtained by the notable mathematician Sir William Rowan Hamilton while he was president of the Royal Irish Academy, the Annals are one of the principal Irish-language sources for Irish history up to 1616. While many of the chapters are essentially a list of names and dates. Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters, from the earliest period to the year 1616, edited from MSS in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy and of Trinity College Dublin with a translation and copious notes.
The Annals are available from CELT in Irish and in English translation, the Annals of the Four Masters, Irish History and Society in the Early Seventeenth Century. Cunningham, Bernadette, ed. ODonnell Histories and the Annals of the Four Masters, Rathmullan & District Local Historical Society. The Irish Annals, Their Genesis and History, the autograph manuscripts of the Annals of the Four Masters. The Slane manuscript of the Annals of the Four Masters, ríocht na Mídhe, Journal of the County Meath Historical Society. Irish Script On Screen — The ISOS project at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies has high-resolution digital images of the Royal Irish Academys copy of the Annals
Eadred was King of the English from 946 until his death in 955, in succession to his elder brother Edmund I. Eadred was a son of Edward the Elder by his marriage, to Eadgifu, daughter of Sigehelm. He succeeded his elder brother King Edmund I, who was stabbed to death at Pucklechurch, on St Augustines Day,26 May 946. The same year, on 16 August, Eadred was consecrated by Archbishop Oda of Canterbury at Kingston upon Thames, where he appears to have received the submission of Welsh rulers and northern earls. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year 946 records that Eadred reduced all the land of Northumbria to his control, Eadred soon faced a number of political challenges to the West-Saxon hegemony in the north. Óláf Sihtricson, otherwise known as Amlaíb Cuarán, had been king of Northumbria in the early 940s when he became Edmunds godson and client king, but he was driven out. He succeeded his cousin as King of Dublin, but after a defeat in battle in 947. Shortly thereafter, Olaf was back in business, having regained the kingdom of York, what Eadred thought of the matter or how much sympathy he bore for his brothers godson can only be guessed at, but it seems that he at least tolerated Olafs presence.
In any event, Olaf was ousted from the kingship a second time by the Northumbrians, the other player in the game was Eric Bloodaxe, previously king of Norway. After a number of operations elsewhere, he came to Northumbria. King Eadred responded harshly to the defectors by launching a destructive raid on Northumbria. The Northumbrians appeased the English king and paid compensation, the Historia Regum suggests that the threat of an independent Northumbrian king had come to an end in 952, when earls finally took over the helm. Towards the end of his life, Eadred suffered from a malady which would prove fatal. Author B, the biographer and former apprentice of St Dunstan, described with vivid memory how the king sucked out the juices of his food, chewed on what was left and spat it out. Eadred died at the age of 32 on 23 November,955, at Frome and he died a bachelor, and was succeeded by Edmunds son Eadwig. Historia Regum, ed. T. Arnold, Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia, john of Worcester, Chronicon ex Chronicis, ed.
Benjamin Thorpe, Florentii Wigorniensis monachi chronicon ex chronicis. Like his grandfather King Alfred, Eadred left a record of his will. Anglo-Saxon Charters, Sawyer nos. 515–580, 1211-2,1511, primary sources Chronicle of Æthelweard, ed. and tr