Malcolm McLaren

Malcolm Robert Andrew McLaren was an English impresario, visual artist, musician, clothes designer and boutique owner, notable for combining these activities in an inventive and provocative way. He is best known as a manager of bands the New York Dolls and the Sex Pistols. Brought up unconventionally by his grandmother after his father, left the family home, McLaren attended a number of British art colleges and adopted the stance of the social rebel in the style of French revolutionaries the Situationists. With a keen eye for trends, McLaren realised that a new protest style was needed for the 1970s, initiated the punk movement, for which he supplied fashions from the Chelsea boutique SEX, which he operated with girlfriend Vivienne Westwood. After a spell advising the New York Dolls in the U. S. McLaren managed the Sex Pistols; the issue of a controversial record, "God Save the Queen", satirising the Queen's Jubilee in 1977, was typical of McLaren's shock tactics, he gained publicity by being arrested after a promotional boat trip outside the Houses of Parliament.

McLaren performed as a solo artist focusing on hip hop and world music and diversifying into funk and disco, the dance fashion for "voguing" and merging opera with contemporary electronic musical forms. When accused of turning popular culture into a cheap marketing gimmick, he joked that he hoped it was true. In his years, he lived in Paris and New York City, died of peritoneal mesothelioma in a Swiss hospital. McLaren was born on 22 January 1946 to Peter McLaren, a Scottish engineer, Emily Isaacs in post-World War II North London, his father left when he was two and he and his brother Stuart were raised in Stoke Newington by his maternal grandmother, Rose Corre Isaacs, the wealthy daughter of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish diamond dealers. McLaren told Andrew Denton on Enough Rope that his grandmother always said to him, "To be bad is good... to be good is boring". In The Ghosts of Oxford Street he says; when he was six, McLaren's mother married a rag trade entrepreneur. McLaren left home in his teens.

After trying a series of jobs, he attended several art colleges, including Goldsmiths, Central Saint Martins and Harrow School of Art. He left education in 1971. In the late 1960s, McLaren was attracted to the Situationist movement the UK wing King Mob, which promoted absurdist and provocative actions as a way of enacting social change. In 1968 McLaren tried unsuccessfully to travel to Paris to join the demonstrations there. Instead, with fellow student Jamie Reid, he took part in a student occupation of Croydon Art School. McLaren grafted some of the movement's ideas into promotion of pop and rock groups. In October 1971, McLaren took over the back part of the retail premises at 430 King's Road in Chelsea, West London, sold rock and roll records, refurbished 1950s radiograms and dead stock clothing as In The Back Of Paradise Garage. With the assistance of art-school friend Patrick Casey, McLaren converted the entire ground floor into Let It Rock, with his girlfriend Vivienne Westwood repairing original clothing and making facsimiles.

McLaren and Westwood gathered custom from Teddy Boys and designed clothing for theatrical and cinematic productions such as That'll Be The Day. In 1973, new designs in leather with studding inaugurated a new manifestation at the site with the name Too Fast To Live Too Young To Die. In August 1973, McLaren and Westwood visited New York to participate in the National Boutique Fair, where they met the New York Dolls and began to supply the group with stage wear. In October 1974, the store was renamed SEX to reflect a growing preoccupation with fetishwear and provocation. In January 1975, McLaren and Westwood designed red patent leather costumes for the New York Dolls and used a Soviet-style hammer and sickle motif for their stage show as a provocative means of promoting the band; this ploy was not successful and the Dolls soon broke up. In April 1975, McLaren returned to Britain. In mid-1975, McLaren advised SEX customers Paul Cook and Steve Jones on their musical aspirations, introducing them to his shop assistant, bassist Glen Matlock, persuading them to eject guitarist/singer Wally Nightingale from rehearsals.

It has been reported that McLaren's associate Bernie Rhodes spotted a replacement frontman in another customer, John Lydon sporting green hair and torn clothes with the words "I hate" scribbled on his Pink Floyd T-shirt. Lydon, dubbed "Johnny Rotten", joined and McLaren provided the name Sex Pistols. Rock is fundamentally a young people's music, right? And a lot of kids feel cheated, they feel. NME – November 1976 In May 1977, a few months after Sid Vicious had replaced Matlock, the band released "God Save the Queen" during the week of Queen Elizabeth II's Silver Jubilee. McLaren organised a boat trip down the Thames in which the Sex Pistols would perform their music outside the Houses of Parliament; the boat was raided by the police and McLaren was arrested, thus achieving his goal to obtain publicity. The band released their album Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols in October 1977 and played their last UK gig before embarking upon a U. S. tour in January 1978. During his time managing the band, McLaren was accused

Bombing of Normandy

The Bombing of Normandy during the Normandy invasion was meant to destroy the German communication lines in the Norman cities and towns. However few Germans occupied these municipalities. German troops were located outside these areas. On 9 July 1944, Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery demanded a massive air assault against Caen in hopes of clearing the way for an attack the following morning. Four hundred and fifty heavy aircraft participated; the pilots however negated most of the effect by releasing their loads well back from the forward line to avoid hitting their own troops. As a result, the city incurred heavy damage but German defenses went unscathed. Allied heavy bomber missions caused serious problems for both Allied ground forces and French civilians, during the early stages of the campaign. Sometimes friendly troops were victims of misplaced bomb strikes. In the early stages of the Normandy campaign, this resulted from insufficient communication between air and land forces, which had to get used to working together.

US General Omar Bradley remarked after the war that We went into France totally untrained in air-ground cooperation." The first two strikes on Caen resulted in numerous casualties to French civilians. According to Antony Beevor in his book D-Day, The bombings destroyed 96% of Tilly-la-Campagne, 95% of Vire, 88% of Villers-Bocage, 82% of Le Havre, 77% of Saint-Lô, 76% of Falaise, 75% of Lisieux, 75% of Caen, it is estimated that the bombings in Normandy before and after D-Day caused over 50,000 civilian deaths. The French historian Henri Amouroux in La Grande histoire des Français sous l’Occupation, says that 20,000 civilians were killed in Calvados department, 10,000 in Seine-Maritime, 14,800 in the Manche, 4,200 in the Orne, around 3,000 in the Eure; the most deadly allied bombings under the German occupation were these: Lisieux, Caen, Le Havre For many families who lived through the war, it was the arrival and passage of British and American forces, by far the most tormenting experience. According to Christophe Prime, "It was profoundly traumatic for the people of Normandy.

Think of the hundreds of tons of bombs destroying entire cities and wiping out families. But the suffering of civilians was for many years masked by the over-riding image, that of the French welcoming the liberators with open arms." Battle for Caen Bombing of France during World War II Operation Charnwood

Teresa Sapey

Teresa Sapey is an Italian architect and interior designer. She studied at Architecture Politecnic University of Turin in 1985, completed her academic education in París with a BFA degree from the Parsons School of Design and a Master in La Villette. In 1990 she moved to Madrid. Sapey is a teacher of Plastic Investigation at Universidad Camilo José Cela in Madrid and has visited professors at several foreign universities, she is part of the Hotel Puerta América Project. In this project, 18 architects worked together such as Jean Nouvel, Arata Isozaki, Norman Foster and Zaha Hadid. 1998 Competition Domus – Airplane Interiors 2000 Finalist FAD Prize, Spain 2000 Competition “Final House”, Japan 2000 Competition Premio di Progetto di Case Riabita, Italy 2000 Submission to RIABITA Prize of Housing Design, Italy 2000 Competition al V Premio Internazionale Risorse, Washington, USA 2000 Competition Ar+D, Architectural Review, England 2002 Competition McCann-Erickson, Spain 2005 Awarded the Official Prize of Architecture of Madrid 2006 Awarded the Official Prize of Commercial Architecture, Madrid City 2007 Awarded the Breakthrough Designer of the Year, Wallpaper Magazine 2008 Awarded the Woman of the Year Award, Women Together Organization 2009 appointed "Commendatore" by the Italian Republic Minister Napolitano 2010 "Interior Design Studio" of the year.

Architectural Digest Magazine 2010 Plus Interior Design 2010 2010 Marie Claire Magazine Names Teresa Among the 10 Women of the Year 2011 Chosen Architect by Citroën to do a personal design of DS3 2011 OperaHouse, el Cairo Competition Bases 2011 Golden Medal 2011 of Foro Europa 2001 2011 Arco 2012 VIP Lounge Sapone Sapey, Mondadori Electa, Milano, 2010 Parking, Edizioni Gribaudo, Alessandria, 2008, pp. 12–21 The Architecture of Parking, Simon Henley, Thames & Hudson, London, 2007, pp. 52 Cybercafes, Surfing Interioris, Barcelona, 2007, pp. 144–149 Dress Code, Interior Design for Fashion Shops, Frame Publishers, Amsterdam, 2006, pp. 298–303 Bagni, Federico Motta Editore, Milano, 2004, pp. 267–271 Sapore Sapey, Mondadori Electa, Milano, 2004 Scale, Federico Motta Editore, Milano, 2003, pp. 228–229 The International Design Book 2003, Laurence King Publishing, 2003, pp. 126 Loft, Federico Motta Editore, Milano, 2002, pp. 326–337 Caffé e Ristoranti, Federico Motta Editore, Milano, 2000, pp. 316–325 Bibliografía y obras de Teresa Sapey, Premio AD al mejor interiorista de España 2010 Referencia: Premio Women Together 2010 de las Naciones Unidas Premio Women Together 2010 de las Naciones Unidas junto a la Fundación la Caixa Web official Hotel Puerta de América Lección de decoración con Teresa Sapey. Escala 1:1 - Teresa Sapey, Picasso y Colita. La Noche en Blanco: Teresa Sapey. Official Website