Santa Clara River (California)
The Santa Clara River is 83 miles long, is one of the most dynamic river systems in Southern California. The river drains parts of four ranges in the Transverse Ranges System north and northwest of Los Angeles flows west onto the Oxnard Plain and into the Santa Barbara Channel of the Pacific Ocean; the watershed has provided habitat for a wide array of native plants and animals and has supplied humans with water and fertile farmland. The northern portion of the watershed was home to the Tataviam people while the southern portion was occupied by the Chumash people. Much of the Santa Clara River Valley is used for agriculture which has limited the use of structural levees to separate the natural floodplain from the river. Although it is one of the least altered rivers in Southern California, some levees exist where the river flows through areas of significant urban development; the Santa Clara River was named the Rio de Santa Clara on August 9, 1769 by the Portolá expedition on the march north from San Diego to found a mission at Monterey, to honor Saint Clare of Assisi who died on August 11, 1253.
The Santa Clara River Valley was known as the Cañada de Santa Clara. The Santa Clara-Mojave River Ranger District of the Angeles National Forest is named after the Santa Clara River; the failure and near complete collapse of the St. Francis Dam took place in the middle of the night on March 12, 1928; the dam was holding a full reservoir of 12.4 billion gallons of water that surged down San Francisquito Canyon and emptied into the river. The Santa Clara River's headwaters take drainage from the northern slopes of the San Gabriel Mountains near the Angeles Forest Highway, inside the western part of the Angeles National Forest, its largest fork, Aliso Canyon, forms the primary headstream. These branches combine into the broad wash of the main stem near the town of Acton which flows west through Soledad Canyon, crossing under California State Route 14 near the town of Canyon Country; the Sierra Pelona Mountains on the north provide additional seasonal tributaries. The river receives Bouquet Creek, Placerita Creek, San Francisquito Creek within the City of Santa Clarita.
The riverbed surface remains dry most of the year here, except on extreme occasions of heavier than average rainfall. The river crosses west under Interstate 5 and receives Castaic Creek from the right. After the Castaic Creek confluence, the river starts to flow southwest through the Santa Clarita Valley. Near the county line between Los Angeles County and Ventura County, the river enters the Santa Clara River Valley flowing past Buckhorn and Fillmore, incorporating additional flow from Piru Creek and Sespe Creek, both from the right, Santa Paula Creek at the town of Santa Paula, where it passes the large South Mountain Oil Field on the south bank; the Santa Clara River bends southwest, passing the Saticoy Oil Field on the north bank where South Mountain marks its entrance onto the broad Oxnard Plain. The river ends at the Pacific Ocean after flowing across the north side of this plain made fertile with the silt deposited by the river. A sand bar stands across the mouth at the Santa Clara Estuary Natural Preserve that lies within McGrath State Beach in Oxnard and bounded on the north by the city of Ventura.
Although located just north of the populated Los Angeles Basin, the 1,600-square-mile Santa Clara River watershed remains one of the most natural on the South Coast. It is separated from the Los Angeles Basin by the low Santa Susana Mountains, along the north side of which the Santa Clara River runs. On the east are the San Gabriel Mountains, on the north are the Santa Ynez Mountains, Sespe Mountains, San Cayetano Mountains, Tehachapi Mountains. Piru and Sespe Creeks, each over 50 miles long, are the primary tributaries of the Santa Clara River. While Piru and Castaic Creeks form reservoirs for the California State Water Project, Sespe Creek is designated a National Wild and Scenic River, unique among Southern California streams. There are 12 historical landmarks in the watershed; the Santa Clara River watershed borders on the Ventura River/Matilija Creek watershed on the west. On the northwest, lies the Santa Ynez River watershed. On the north is the interior drainage basin of Tulare Lake in the Central Valley.
To the east is the Mojave River and to the south is the Los Angeles River. The Santa Clara River is the second largest river in Southern California; the estuary has been modified by human activities at least since 1855. By the late 1920s roads and agricultural fields had become established. In the late 1950s the former delta area was occupied by the Ventura Water Reclamation Facility and agricultural fields with levees constraining the river from these areas and directing the flow to the Harbor Boulevard bridge. McGrath State Beach was established in 1948; the estuary has been designated a Natural Preserve within McGrath State Beach on the south bank of the river mouth. From the north bank of the river, the city of Ventura releases some 9,000,000 US gallons of treated effluent daily that flows into the Santa Clara Estuary Natural Preserve from their water reclamation facility. A sand berm separates the river from the ocean most of the year. In years with adequate rainfall, the river breaks the berm, slowly rebuilt by ocean action through the rest of the year.
When the river watershed has an exceptionally dry year, the berm acts as a dam, allowing the water level to rise with the
National Marine Fisheries Service
The National Marine Fisheries Service is the United States federal agency responsible for the stewardship of national marine resources. The agency conserves and manages fisheries to promote sustainability and prevent lost economic potential associated with overfishing, declining species, degraded habitats; the National Marine Fisheries Service is a United States federal agency, informally known as NOAA Fisheries. A division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in the cabinet-level Department of Commerce, NMFS is responsible for the stewardship and management of the nation's living marine resources and their habitats within the United States' exclusive economic zone, which extends seaward 200 nautical miles from the coastline. NOAA oversees the NMFS. Using the tools provided by the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the NMFS assesses and predicts the status of fish stocks, ensures compliance with fisheries regulations, works to end wasteful fishing practices.
Under the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act, the agency monitors recovering protected marine species, such as wild salmon and sea turtles. With the help of the six regional science centers, eight regional fisheries management councils, the coastal states and territories, three interstate fisheries management commissions, NMFS conserves and manages marine fisheries to promote sustainability and to prevent lost economic potential associated with overfishing, declining species, degraded habitats. While the coastal states and territories have authority to manage fisheries within near-shore state waters, the NMFS has the primary responsibility to conserve and manage marine fisheries in the U. S. exclusive economic zone beyond state waters. The agency attempts to balance competing public needs for the natural resources under its management; the NMFS serves as a federal law enforcement agency, working with state enforcement agencies, the United States Coast Guard, foreign enforcement authorities.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Office for Law Enforcement is based in Silver Spring, Maryland. The NMFS regulatory program is one of the most active in the federal government, with hundreds of regulations published annually in the Federal Register. Most regulations are published to conserve marine fisheries under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act; the NMFS regulates fisheries pursuant to decisions of "regional fishery management organizations" and other RFMOs to which the U. S. is a party, such as the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission, the Agreement on the International Dolphin Conservation Program, the International Pacific Halibut Commission, etc. In 2007, the NMFS issued regulations to protect endangered whales from fatal fishing-gear entanglements after environmental groups sued to force action on the rules, which were proposed in early 2005.
The rules were enacted to protect the North Atlantic right whale, of which about only 350 remain. Marine-gear entanglements and ship strikes are the top human causes of right whale deaths. On July 1, the shipping lanes in and out of Boston Harbor were rotated to avoid an area with a high concentration of the right whales. In the fiscal year 2017, the Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Program of NOAA's NMFS, Greater Atlantic Regional Fisheries Office, Protected Resources Division, carried out the mandates of the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act, was charged with protecting the whales, porpoises and sea turtles that occur within the greater Atlantic region; this program includes marine mammal health and stranding response, large whale disentanglement, sea turtle stranding and disentanglement. To implement this program, NMFS established several networks of volunteer organizations that it authorizes to respond to stranded marine mammals and sea turtles and entangled large whales and sea turtles.
NMFS seeks the submission of proposals addressing Marine Animal Entanglement Response in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The eight domestic regional fisheries management councils make binding regulations for federal waters off various parts of the U. S. coast: North Pacific Fishery Management Council Pacific Fishery Management Council Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council Caribbean Fishery Management Council South Atlantic Fishery Management Council Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council New England Fishery Management Council The NMFSational Marine Fisheries Service operates six fisheries science centers covering marine fisheries conducted by the United States. The science centers correspond to the administrative division of fisheries management into five regions, with the west coast utilizing two fisheries science centers; the Northeast Fisheries Science Center is headquartered in Massachusetts. It operates laboratories at five other locations, an additional marine field station.
Its primary mission is the management of fisheries on the Northeast shelf. However, it oversees the operation of the National Systematics Lab, in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution; the Northeast Fisheries Science Center operates the Woods Hole Science Aquarium in conjunction with the Marine Biological Laboratory. The NMFS maintains the Northwest
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Malibou Lake, California
Malibou Lake is a small reservoir surrounded by a residential development in the Santa Monica Mountains near Agoura Hills, California. Adjacent to Malibu Creek State Park and within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, it is situated between Malibu Beach and the Conejo Valley, it was created in 1922. The lake, community of 250 residents are private; the 350 acres site includes rugged mountain terrain, exclusive ranch houses, cabins and a club, It has been a popular venue for filming due to its proximity to the Hollywood studios. About 100 Hollywood movies have been filmed since the silent film period; the Chumash, Native Americans, territory extended loosely from the San Joaquin Valley to San Luis Obispo to Malibu, as well as several islands off the southern coast of California. They named this region "Humaliwo" or "the surf sounds loudly." This name was included within the name of Rancho Topanga Malibu Sequit. The "o" was added to avoid confusion with Malibu Lagoon. In 1922, George Wilson and Bertram Lackey bought 350 acres of land near Cornell with the vision of creating a remote residential community surrounding a lake.
In 1922, they formed the Malibou Lake Club. For nearly four years Malibou "Lake" remained dry; because of this, the Malibou Lake Mountain Club received criticism from early cabin owners, who had purchased properties for up to $700 along roads such as "Lakeside Drive". On April 5, 1926, a storm produced nearly five inches of rain; the hillsides nearby drained millions of gallons of water into Medea and Triunfo Creeks and Malibou Lake was filled for the first time. The founding members threw a party; the club land is rich with live oak and Sycamore trees, the trees of the riparian woodland. Built in 1924, the Malibou Lake Clubhouse had 24 bedrooms, a lounge, a dining room, a stage, locker rooms, a trading post, a tennis court and swimming/changing facilities, it was replaced with a smaller structure after the clubhouse burned down in 1936. The 1936 clubhouse by early Los Angeles architectural firm Russell and Alpaugh stands today; the Malibou Lake Mountain Club clubhouse has a 2100 sq ft ballroom and a 475 sqft receiving room, a 1500 sqft patio adjacent gardens, a swimming pool and a tennis court and 18 ensuite 10' x 13' club member guest rooms.
Winter rains were expected to refill the lake in late 1959 when state safety officials had the lake drained so the dam could be inspected. Attempts by a rainmaker to resurrect it were unsuccessful; the rains poured down in 1961 and refilled the lake. Over the past few decades the community of Malibu Lake has proved successful in preserving the lake area and resisting various proposals for mass development in the area; the 2018 Woolsey Fire burned through the area. Malibou Lake is located in the Santa Monica Mountains, half a mile south of Mulholland Highway, over the hill, north of Malibu; the Ventura Freeway is 3 miles to the north. The Malibou Lake area includes parts of Point Dume and Thousand Oaks; the lake sits at the bottom of a sharp defile where the confluence of Medea and Triunfo Creeks forms Malibu Creek. Here, the canyon floor widens into a valley that includes the lake, which dries out; the lake is situated in the midst of the Santa Monica Mountains Recreation Area. The lake periphery measures its shores are studded with many film settings and homes.
The depth of water in the lake is ranges to 25 ft which provided the ideal location for the heroes of the film Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid to jump from the top of a cliff. A similar stunt act of jumping into the lake was performed by James Coburn, for the film “Our Man Flint”; the Santa Monica mountains and the Agoura hills, which form the catchment of the lake, the creeks which drain into the lake are adjacent to Malibu Creek State Park. These locations were part of the CBS-TV series M*A*S*H and a ranch where Ronald Reagan came to relax. A gated dam-bridge is located at the lake's southern end; when the area receives 4 inches or more of rain, the lake overflows. The water flows down Malibu Creek to the ocean at the Malibu Lagoon. Malibou Lake has been used as a setting for many films and television programs; this location has been a popular location since the silent movie era for films. These include Hollywood movies, such as The Ring, a 2002 American psychological horror film, the 1931 version of Frankenstein, the 1956 Oscar-nominated film The Bad Seed.
Two famous actresses shot movies at Malibou Lake. Claudette Colbert appears in "The Man from Yesterday" and Betty Grable appeared there in "Thrill of a Lifetime"; the Postman Always Rings Twice, a 1946 movie starring Lana Turner and John Garfield, mentions Malibou Lake, but the lake does not appear in the film. Other notable films and programs include: Malibou Lake holds more than a 100 film credits. Arthur Edeson, American film cinematographer Elizabeth Montgomery, American film and television actress Ronald Reagan, President of the United States, owned a large ranch nearby. In 1953 he was named the honorary mayor. List of lakes in California Rindge Dam Sherwood Dam Official malibou lake website
The Chumash are a Native American people who inhabited the central and southern coastal regions of California, in portions of what is now San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara and Los Angeles counties, extending from Morro Bay in the north to Malibu in the south. They occupied three of the Channel Islands: Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, San Miguel. Modern place names with Chumash origins include Cayucos, Nipomo, Ojai, Pismo Beach, Point Mugu, Port Hueneme, Lake Castaic, Simi Valley and Somis. Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash have deep roots in the Santa Barbara Channel area and lived along the southern California coast for millennia, they inhabited the Antelope Valley in Palmdale and traded with the Kitanemuk tribe in the Mojave desert. The Chumash resided between the Santa Ynez Mountains and the California coasts where rivers and tributaries abound. Inside and around the modern-day Santa Barbara region, the Chumash lived with a bounty of resources; the tribe lived in an area of three environments: the interior, the coast, the Northern Channel Islands.
These provided a diverse array of materials to support the Chumash lifestyle. The interior is composed of the land outside the coast and spanning the wide plains and mountains; the coast covers the cliffs and land close to the ocean and, in reference to resources, the areas of the ocean from which the Chumash harvested. The Northern Channel Islands lie off the coast of the Chumash territory. All of the California coastal-interior has a Mediterranean climate due to the incoming ocean winds; the mild temperatures, save for winter, made gathering easy. What villagers gathered and traded during the seasons changed depending on where they resided. With coasts populated by masses of species of fish and land densely covered by trees and animals, the Chumash had a diverse array of food. Abundant resources and a winter harsh enough to cause concern meant the tribe lived a sedentary lifestyle in addition to a subsistence existence. Villages in the three aforementioned areas contained remains of sea mammals, indicating that trade networks existed for moving materials throughout the Chumash territory.
Such connections spread out the land’s wealth, allowing the Chumash to live comfortably without agriculture. The closer a village was to the ocean, the greater its reliance on maritime resources. Due to advanced canoe designs and island people could procure fish and aquatic mammals from farther out. Shellfish were a good source of nutrition: easy to find and abundant. Many of the favored varieties grew in tidal zones. Shellfish grew in abundance during winter to early spring; some of the consumed species included mussels, a wide array of clams. Haliotis rufescens was harvested along the Central California coast in the pre-contact era; the Chumash and other California Indians used red abalone shells to make a variety of fishhooks, beads and other artifacts. Ocean animals such as otters and seals were thought to be the primary meal of coastal tribes people, but recent evidence shows the aforementioned trade networks exchanged oceanic animals for terrestrial foods from the interior. Any village could acquire fish, but the coastal and island communities specialized in catching not just smaller fish, but the massive catches such as swordfish.
This feat, difficult for today’s technology, was made possible by the tomol plank canoe. Its design allowed for the capture of deepwater fish, it facilitated trade routes between villages. Before contact with Europeans, coastal Chumash relied less on terrestrial resources than they did on maritime. Regardless, they consumed similar land resources. Like many other tribes, deer were the most important land mammal. Interior Chumash placed greater value on the deer, to the extent that they had unique hunting practices for them, they dressed as deer and grazed alongside the animals until the hunters were in range to use their arrows. Chumash close to the ocean pursued deer, though in understandably fewer numbers, what more meat the villages needed they acquired from smaller animals such as rabbits and birds. Plant foods composed the rest of Chumash diet acorns, which were the staple food despite the work needed to remove their inherent toxins, they could be ground into a paste, easy to eat and store for years.
Coast live. Native Americans have lived along the California coast for at least 13,000 years; the first settlement started over 13,000 years ago near the Santa Barbara coast. The name Chumash means “bead maker” or “seashell people” being that they originated near the Santa Barbara coast; the Chumash tribes near the coast benefited most with the “close juxtaposition of a variety or marine and terrestrial habitats, intensive upwelling in coastal waters, intentional burning of the landscape made the Santa Barbara Channel region one of the most resource abundant places on the planet”. Before the mission period, the Chumash lived in over 150 independent villages, speaking variations of the same language. Much of their culture consisted of basketry, bead manufacturing and trading, cuisine of local abalone and clam, herbalism which consisted of using local herbs to produce teas and medical rel
Santa Ynez River
The Santa Ynez River is one of the largest rivers on the Central Coast of California. It is 92 miles long, flowing from east to west through the Santa Ynez Valley, reaching the Pacific Ocean at Surf, near Vandenberg Air Force Base and the city of Lompoc; the river drains the north slope of the Santa Ynez Mountains, the south slope of the San Rafael Mountains, as well as much of the southern half of Santa Barbara County. Its drainage basin is 896 square miles in area; the river's flow is variable. It dries up completely in the summer, but can become a raging torrent in the winter; the river has three dams. The river was first named by the Spanish Portolà expedition, first European land exploration of Alta California, which camped near the river mouth on August 30, 1769. Unable to agree on a single name, expedition diarists recorded three. Engineer Miguel Costanso wrote "Río Grande de San Verardo". Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi noted two additional names. None of the three names remain attached to any feature in the area.
Instead, the river and mountains took the name of Mission Santa Inés, established in 1804. According to the USGS, variant and historical names of the Santa Ynez River include La Purisima River, Rio De La Purisima, Rio De Calaguasa, Rio Santa Rosa, Rio De Santa Ines, Rio De Santa Ynes; the Santa Ynez River originates in Los Padres National Forest, on the northern slope of the Santa Ynez Mountains near Divide Peak and the Ventura County border. The river flows west; the Upper Santa Ynez Campground is located near the river's source. After flowing through Billiard Flats the river enters Jameson Lake, the reservoir impounded by Juncal Dam. Below the dam, Alder Creek joins the Santa Ynez River from the south. At times water from Alder Creek is diverted into Jameson Lake via a tunnel. Continuing its westward course, the Santa Ynez flows by several campgrounds and canyons, including Blue Canyon. Mono Creek joins from the north just as the Santa Ynez flows into Gibraltar Reservoir, impounded by Gibraltar Dam.
Below this dam the river passes several campgrounds as well as facilities such as the Los Prietos Ranger Station. Paradise Road runs along the river. Continuing west, the river passes Fremont Campground near the mouth of Red Rock Canyon. West of Red Rock Canyon the river leaves Los Padres National Forest and its valley widens considerably. Kelly Creek joins from draining Los Laureles Canyon and Cold Spring Canyon. State Route 154, which crosses the Santa Ynez Mountains via San Marcos Pass, enters the Santa Ynez River valley at this point and follows the river for several miles to the west. Hot Spring Canyon joins from the south. Lake Cachuma, the largest reservoir on the river, is five miles in length. Several tributaries join the Santa Ynez River in Lake Cachuma, including Santa Cruz Creek and Cachuma Creek from the north and a number of smaller streams from the south; the lake area is designated as the Lake Cachuma Recreation Area. Cachuma County Park, near Tequepis Point, provides lake access.
Water from the lake is diverted into the Tecolote Tunnel, which passes south under the mountains to the Santa Barbara area. Below Lake Cachuma, the Santa Ynez River continues its westward course, its valley contains ranches and other development. The river passes by the cities of Solvang and Buellton. In Buellton the river is crossed by U. S. Route 101. Several tributaries join the river in this area, including Quiota Creek, Alisal Creek, Nojoqui Creek and Falls from the south, Santa Agueda Creek, Zanja de Cota Creek, Alamo Pintado Creek and Zaca Creek from the north. West of Buellton the Santa Ynez River flows between the Santa Rita Hills and Purisima Hills to the north and the Santa Rosa Hills to the south, it is joined by Santa Rosa Creek from Salsipuedes Creek from the south. Just west of Salsipuedes Creek the Santa Ynez River flows past the largest city in the valley, Lompoc. A few miles west of Lompoc the river reaches the Pacific Ocean at a location known as Surf, where there is a beach and an Amtrak station.
While there is public access to Surf and the mouth of the Santa Ynez River, most of the land between Lompoc and the ocean is part of Vandenberg Air Force Base. The USGS operates several stream gages along the Santa Ynez river. Gage 11133000 is located near Lompoc; the mean annual discharge recorded over the period since flow regulation by Lake Cachuma, in 1952, up to 2009, is 127 cubic feet per second. The maximum discharge was 80,000 cubic feet per second, recorded on January 25, 1969; the maximum discharge predating the stream gage was an estimated 120,000 cubic feet per second, during the flood of January 9, 1907. There is no flow at all for several months each year. There are three reservoirs on the river, the largest of, Lake Cachuma, with a capacity of 205,000 acre feet. Bradbury Dam, which forms the lake, was built by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation. Water from Lake Cachuma is diverted into the Tecolote Tunnel, which passes south under the Santa Ynez Mountains; the tunnel supplies water to the city of Santa Barbara, the Goleta Water District, the Carpinteria Valley Water District, the Montecito Water District.
Water from Lake Cachuma is released into the Santa Ynez River below Bradbury Dam in order to satisfy downstream water rights. The other two reservoirs are Gibraltar Res
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were