Teak is a tropical hardwood tree species placed in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae. Some forms of teak are known as Burmese teak, Central Province teak, as well as Nagpur teak. T. grandis is a deciduous tree that occurs in mixed hardwood forests. It has fragrant white flowers arranged in dense clusters at the end of the branches; these flowers contain both types of reproductive organs. The large, papery leaves of teak trees are hairy on the lower surface. Teak wood has a leather-like smell when it is freshly milled and is valued for its durability and water resistance; the wood is used for boat building, exterior construction, furniture, carving and other small wood projects. Tectona grandis is native to south and southeast Asia India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand and Bangladesh but is naturalised and cultivated in many countries in Africa and the Caribbean. Myanmar's teak forests account for nearly half of the world's occurring teak. Molecular studies show that there are two centres of genetic origin of teak: one in India and the other in Myanmar and Laos.
The English word teak comes from Tamil tekku, Telugu teku, Malayalam thekku, Sinhala thekka, Kannada tega via the Portuguese teca. In Bangladesh and West Bengal, the species is known as segun. Central Province teak and Nagpur teak are named for those regions of India. Teak is a large, deciduous tree up to 40 m tall with gray to grayish brown branches; these are known for their finest quality wood. Leaves are ovate-elliptic to ovate, 15–45 cm long by 8–23 cm wide, are held on robust petioles which are 2–4 cm long. Leaf margins are entire. Fragrant white flowers are borne on 25–40 cm long by 30 cm wide panicles from June to August; the corolla tube is 2.5–3 mm long with 2 mm wide obtuse lobes. Tectona grandis sets fruit from September to December. Flowers are weakly protandrous in that the anthers precede the stigma in maturity and pollen is shed within a few hours of the flower opening; the flowers are entomophilous, but can be anemophilous. A 1996 study found that in its native range in Thailand, the major pollinator were species in the bee genus Ceratina.
Heartwood is yellowish in colour. It darkens. Sometimes there are dark patches on it. There is a leather-like scent in newly cut wood. Sapwood is whitish to pale yellowish brown in colour, it can separate from heartwood. Wood texture ring porous. Density varies according to moisture content: at 15% mc it is 660 kg/m3. Tectona grandis was first formally described by Carl Linnaeus the Younger in his 1782 work Supplementum Plantarum. In 1975, Harold Norman Moldenke published new descriptions of four forms of this species in the journal Phytologia. Moldenke described each form as varying from the type specimen: T. grandis f. canescens is distinguished from the type material by being densely canescent, or covered in hairs, on the underside of the leaf, T. grandis f. pilosula is distinct from the type material in the varying morphology of the leaf veins, T. grandis f. punctata is only hairy on the larger veins on the underside of the leaf, T. grandis f. tomentella is noted for its dense yellowish tomentose hairs on the lower surface of the leaf.
Tectona grandis is one of three species in the genus Tectona. The other two species, T. hamiltoniana and T. philippinensis, are endemics with small native distributions in Myanmar and the Philippines, respectively. Tectona grandis is native to India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, northern Thailand, northwestern Laos. Tectona grandis is found in a variety of habitats and climatic conditions from arid areas with only 500 mm of rain per year to moist forests with up to 5,000 mm of rain per year. Though, the annual rainfall in areas where teak grows averages 1,250-1,650 mm with a 3-5 month dry season. Teak's natural oils make it useful in exposed locations, make the timber termite and pest resistant. Teak is durable when not treated with oil or varnish. Timber cut from old teak trees was once believed to be more durable and harder than plantation grown teak. Studies have shown that plantation teak performs on par with old-growth teak in erosion rate, dimensional stability and surface checking, but is more susceptible to color change from UV exposure.
The vast majority of commercially harvested teak is grown on teak plantations found in Indonesia and controlled by Perum Perhutani that manages the country's forests. The primary use of teak harvested in Indonesia is in the production of outdoor teak furniture for export. Nilambur in Kerala, India, is a major producer of teak of fine quality, holds the world's oldest teak plantation. Teak consumption raises a number of environmental concerns, such as the disappearance of rare old-growth teak. However, its popularity has led to growth in sustainable plantation teak production throughout the seasonally dry tropics in forestry plantations; the Forest Stewardship Council offers certification of sustainably grown and harvested teak products. Propagation of teak via tissue culture for plantation purposes is commercially viable. Teak plantations were established in Equatorial Africa during the Colonial era; these timber resources, as well as the oil reserves, are at the heart of the current South Sudanese conflict.
Much of the world's teak is exported by Myanmar. There is a growing plantation grown market in Central America and South America
Tatya Tope was a general of the rebellious and martyr sepoys of 1857 and one of its notable leaders. He was born as Ramachandra Panduranga to a Marathi Deshastha Brahmin family and took on the title Tope, meaning commanding officer, his first name Tatya meant General. It is believed that he had escaped the British and someone else disguised as him was hanged in his place, it is believed that he spent the last years of his life in Navsari. A personal adherent of Nana Sahib of Bithur, he progressed with the Gwalior contingent after the British reoccupied Kanpur and forced General Windham to retreat from the city. On, he came to the relief of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi and with her seized the city of Gwalior. However, he was defeated by General Napier's British Indian troops at Ranod and after a further defeat at Sikar abandoned the campaign, he was executed by the British Government at Shivpuri on 18 April 1859. According to an official statement, Tatya Tope's father was Panduranga, an inhabitant of Jola Pargannah, Patoda Zilla Nagar, in present-day Maharashtra.
Tope was a Maraṭha Vashista Brahman by birth. In a government letter, he was said to be the minister of Baroda, while he was held identical to Nana Sahib in another communication. A witness at his trial described Tantia Tope as'a man of middling stature, with a wheat complexion and always wearing a white chukri-dar turban.' After the uprising in Cawnpore took place on 5 June 1857, Nana Sahib became the leader of the rebels. The British forces surrendered on 25 June 1857, Nana was declared Peshwa in late June. General Havelock fought with Nana's forces in battle two times, they were defeated the third time and withdrew to Bithur, after which he crossed the Ganges and retreated to Awadh. Tantia Tope began to act in Nana Sahib's name from Bithur. Tantia Tope was one of the leaders of the massacre of Cawnpore, which occurred on June 27,1857. Since Tope held a good defensive position until her was driven out by the British force led by Sir Henry Havelock on August 16, 1857. Afterwards, he defeated General Charles Ash Windham at Cawnpore II, which occurred from November 27, 1857n to November 28, 1857.
However and his army was defeated at Cawnpore III when the British counterattacked under Sir Colin Campbell. Tantia Tope and the other rebels fled and took shelter with the Rani of Jhansi, while aiding her as well. On Tantia and Rao sahib, helped Jhansi during British assault on Jhansi helping Rani Lakshmibai escape the attack. Together with Rani Lakshmibai, they took control of Gwalior Fort declaring Hindvi Swaraj under the name of Nana Sahib Peshwa from Gwalior. After losing Gwalior to the British and Rao Sahib, nephew of Nana Sahib, fled into the Rajputana, he was able to induce the army of Tonk to join him. He was unable to enter the town of Bundi and though announcing he would go south in fact went west towards Nimach. A British flying column commanded by Colonel Holmes was in pursuit of him and the British commander in Rajputana, General Abraham Robert was able to attack the rebel force when they had reached a position between Sanganer and Bhilwara. Tope again fled from the field towards Udaipur and, after visiting a Hindu shrine on 13 August, he drew up his forces on the Banas River.
They were defeated again by Roberts's forces and Tope fled. He reached the town of Jhalrapatan in the state of Jhalawar. After the Revolt was 1857 was put down by the British, Tatya Tope continued resistance as a guerrilla fighter in the jungles, he induced the state forces to rebel against the raja and was able to replace the artillery he had lost at the Banas River. Tope took his forces towards Indore but was pursued by the British now commanded by General John Michel as he fled towards Sironj, he was still accompanied by Rao Sahib and they decided to divide their forces so that Tope could move to Chanderi, Rao Sahib, with a smaller force, to Jhansi. However they suffered another defeat at Chota Udaipur. By January 1859 they experienced two more defeats. Tope escaped alone into the jungles of Paron. At this point he met Man Singh, raja of Narwar, his household and decided to stay with them. Man Singh was in dispute with the maharaja of Gwalior and the British were successful in negotiating with him to surrender to them in return for his life and protection of his family from any reprisals by the maharaja.
After this Tope was alone. Tope admitted the charges brought before him saying that he was answerable to his master the Peshwa only, he was executed at the gallows on 18 April 1859 in Shivpuri. Bahadur Shah Zafar Begum Hazrat Mahal Nana Sahib Rani of Jhansi Rainer Jerosch; the Rani of Jhansi, Rebel Against Will: A Biography of the Legendary Indian Freedom Fighter in the Mutiny of 1857-1858. Aakar Books. ISBN 8189833146. Paul, E Jaiwant; the Greased Cartridge: The Heroes and Villains of 1857-58. ISBN 9351940101. Caleb Wright. Historic Incidents and Life in India. J. A. Brainerd. P. 239. ISBN 978-1-135-72312-5. Parag Tope. Operation Red Lotus. ISBN 978-8-129-11562-1
Yoga is a group of physical and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India. Yoga is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophical traditions. There is a broad variety of yoga schools and goals in Hinduism and Jainism; the term "yoga" in the Western world denotes a modern form of Hatha yoga, consisting of the postures called asanas. The origins of yoga have been speculated to date back to pre-Vedic Indian traditions; the chronology of earliest texts describing yoga-practices is unclear, varyingly credited to Upanishads. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali date from the first half of the 1st millennium CE, but only gained prominence in the West in the 20th century. Hatha yoga texts emerged around the 11th century with origins in tantra. Yoga gurus from India introduced yoga to the West, following the success of Swami Vivekananda in the late 19th and early 20th century with his adaptation of yoga tradition, excluding asanas. In the 1980s, a different form of modern yoga, with an increasing number of asanas and few other practices, became popular as a system of exercise across the Western world.
Yoga in Indian traditions, however, is more than physical exercise. One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, is related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy. Many studies have tried to determine the effectiveness of modern yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia and heart disease; the results of these studies have been inconclusive. On December 1, 2016, yoga was listed by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage; the Sanskrit noun योग yoga is derived from the root yuj "to attach, harness, yoke". The word yoga is cognate with English "yoke"; the spiritual sense of the word yoga first arises in Epic Sanskrit, in the second half of the 1st millennium BCE, is associated with the philosophical system presented in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, with the chief aim of "uniting" the human spirit with the Divine. The term kriyāyoga has a technical meaning in the Yoga Sutras, designating the "practical" aspects of the philosophy, i.e. the "union with the supreme" due to performance of duties in everyday life.
According to Pāṇini, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga or yuj samādhau. In the context of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the root yuj samādhau is considered by traditional commentators as the correct etymology. In accordance with Pāṇini, Vyasa who wrote the first commentary on the Yoga Sutras, states that yoga means samādhi. According to Dasgupta, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga or yuj samādhau. Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi or yogini; the term yoga has been defined in various ways in the many different Indian philosophical and religious traditions. The ultimate goal of Yoga is moksha, although the exact definition of what form this takes depends on the philosophical or theological system with which it is conjugated. According to Jacobsen, Yoga has five principal meanings: a disciplined method for attaining a goal. According to David Gordon White, from the 5th century CE onward, the core principles of "yoga" were more or less in place, variations of these principles developed in various forms over time: a meditative means of discovering dysfunctional perception and cognition, as well as overcoming it for release from suffering, inner peace and salvation.
White clarifies that the last principle relates to legendary goals of "yogi practice", different from practical goals of "yoga practice," as they are viewed in South Asian thought and practice since the beginning of the Common Era, in the various Hindu and Jain philosophical schools. The origins of yoga are a matter of debate. There is no consensus on its chronology or specific origin other than that yoga developed in ancient India. Suggested origins are the Indus Valley Civilization and pre-Vedic Eastern states of India, the Vedic period (1500–5
Chinese poles are vertical poles on which circus performers climb, slide down and hold poses. The poles are between 3 and 9 metres in height and 2 to 3 inches in diameter; some poles have a larger pole that rotates around the static central pole using ball bearings. This rotating pole allows a performer to spin on the vertical axis, giving a performer the ability to incorporate rate of spin into what would otherwise be static moves. Bringing the body closer into the pole causes the performer to spin faster. A few Chinese pole tricks have been incorporated with pole dancing techniques; the poles are sometimes covered with rubber to improve grip. However, the rubber can cause friction burns on parts of the Chinese pole artists' bodies. Acrobats wear multiple layers of clothing to prevent such burns and bruises; the most famous trick is "the flag" where the artist hangs straight out from the pole with his or her hands. This requires a strong upper body. A few people are able to do push ups in this position, fewer can rotate the legs around in a circle—this requires enormous core strength
Pole dance combines dance and acrobatics centered on a vertical pole. This performance art form takes place not only in gentleman's clubs as erotic dance, but has recently gained popularity as a mainstream form of fitness, practiced by many enthusiasts in gyms and in dedicated dance studios. Amateur and professional pole dancing competitions are held in countries around the world. Pole dance requires significant muscular coordination. Today, pole performances by exotic dancers range from basic spins and striptease in more intimate clubs, to athletic moves such as climbs and body inversions in the "stage heavy" clubs of Las Vegas and Miami. Dancer Remy Redd at the King of Diamonds, for example, is famous for flipping herself upside down into a split and hanging from the ceiling. Pole dance requires significant flexibility. Upper body and core strength are required to attain proficiency, proper instruction, rigorous training is necessary. Since the mid 2000s, promoters of pole dance fitness competitions have been trying to change peoples' perception of pole dance to include pole fitness as a non-sexual form of dance and acrobatics, are trying to move pole into the Olympics as pole sports.
Pole dance is regarded as a form of exercise which can be used as both an aerobic and anaerobic workout. Recognized schools and qualifications are now commonplace; the use of pole for sports and exercise has been traced back at least eight hundred years to the traditional Indian sport of mallakhamb, which utilizes principles of endurance and strength using a wooden pole, wider in diameter than a modern standard pole. The Chinese pole, originating in India, uses two poles on which men would perform "gravity defying tricks" as they leap from pole to pole, at twenty feet in the air, further information can be seen in the old vintage documentary series of mallakhamb, by yasho purush film on YouTube. Pole dance in America has its roots in the "Little Egypt" traveling sideshows of the 1890s, which featured sensual "Kouta Kouta" or "Hoochie Coochie" belly dances, performed by Ghawazi dancers making their first appearance in America. In an era where women dressed modestly in corsets, the dancers, dressed in short skirts and richly adorned in jewelry, caused quite a stir.
During the 1920s, dancers introduced pole by sensually gyrating on the wooden tent poles to attract crowds. The rock and roll invasion in the 1950s saw the introduction of the pole to a wider audience, with Elvis Presley's "Jailhouse Rock" movie and video in 1957; the video featured Presley's famous gyrating hips as well as numerous pole slides and twirls. The pole dancing moved from tents to bars, combined with burlesque dance. Since the 1980s, pole dancing has incorporated athletic moves such as climbs and inversions into striptease routines, first in Canada and in the United States. In the 1990s, pole dancing commenced to be taught as an art by Fawnia Mondey, a Canadian who moved to Las Vegas, US, she created the first pole training video to use in fitness exercises. Since pole dancing classes have become a popular form of recreational and competitive sport and performed in a variety of sexual, non-sexual, athletic settings. K. T. Coates, a famed competitive pole dancer, the International Pole Sports Federation, are promoting a campaign to include competitive pole dance in the Olympics and an application was made to the International Olympic Committee to recognise pole as a sport in September 2016.
Numerous competitions exist, including the World Pole Sport Championship, U. S. Pole Federation Championship, Pole Art, Miss Pole Dance America, the International Pole Masters Cup Championship; the standard dance pole consists of a hollow chrome, steel, or brass pole with a circular cross section, running from floor to ceiling. Affixing at the ceiling gives more stability, but is not always realized at night clubs with higher ceilings or at transportable devices. In most countries, including the United States, the diameter is 50 mm, or the now more popular 45 mm, allowing it to be gripped comfortably with one hand. In Asia, the diameter is 45 mm or less. In Australia a 38 mm pole is popular. There are a variety of different dance pole types to suit different performance situations. Dance poles can be permanent or portable, be different sizes, have spinning and/or static modes and they have different coatings or made from different materials. Dance poles that are permanent are fixed to the ceiling supported by a beam located the roof and they are fixated to the floor by different brackets and bearings.
The way poles are fixed to the ceiling and the floor varies by which pole brand is purchased. Portable poles are attached to a base or a portable stage and do not need to be attached to the ceiling; these poles can be removed and transported into cases to different locations. Poles come in a variety of diameters – 50 mm, 48 mm, 45 mm, 42 mm, 40 mm and 38 mm. Diameters depend on personal preferences and what the pole will be used for e.g. competitions or studio use. Dance poles have two different modes and static; the spinning mode is. This mode can be used to complete more experienced pole moves, make moves easier to complete and to add a more dramatic effect to the move. Most spinning poles can be fixed to static too; the static mode is when the pole is in a fixed position. The static mode is used when pole dancing is first taught as beginners have little confidence. Poles come in a variety of materials and coatings where each material possesses its own properties and disadvantages; the materials pole
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of Indian Armed Forces. The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Army, it is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff, a four-star general. Two officers have been conferred with the rank of field marshal, a five-star rank, a ceremonial position of great honour; the Indian Army originated from the armies of the East India Company, which became the British Indian Army, the armies of the princely states, which became the national army after independence. The units and regiments of the Indian Army have diverse histories and have participated in a number of battles and campaigns across the world, earning a large number of battle and theatre honours before and after Independence; the primary mission of the Indian Army is to ensure national security and national unity, defending the nation from external aggression and internal threats, maintaining peace and security within its borders. It conducts humanitarian rescue operations during natural calamities and other disturbances, like Operation Surya Hope, can be requisitioned by the government to cope with internal threats.
It is a major component of national power alongside the Indian Air Force. The army has been involved in four wars with neighbouring one with China. Other major operations undertaken by the army include: Operation Vijay, Operation Meghdoot and Operation Cactus. Apart from conflicts, the army has conducted large peace time exercises like Operation Brasstacks and Exercise Shoorveer, it has been an active participant in numerous United Nations peacekeeping missions including those in: Cyprus, Congo, Cambodia, Namibia, El Salvador, Mozambique, South Sudan and Somalia; the Indian Army has a regimental system, but is operationally and geographically divided into seven commands, with the basic field formation being a division. It comprises more than 80 % of the country's active defence personnel, it is the 2nd largest standing army in the world, with 1,237,117 active troops and 960,000 reserve troops. The army has embarked on an infantry modernisation program known as Futuristic Infantry Soldier As a System, is upgrading and acquiring new assets for its armoured and aviation branches.
A Military Department was created within the Government of the East India Company at Kolkata in the year 1776. Its main function was to sift and record orders relating to the Army that were issued by various Departments of the East India Company for the territories under its control. With the Charter Act of 1833, the Secretariat of the Government of the East India Company was reorganised into four Departments, including a Military Department; the army in the Presidencies of Bengal and Madras functioned as respective Presidency Armies until 1 April 1895 when they were unified into a single Indian Army. For administrative convenience, it was divided into four commands at that point, namely Punjab, Bengal and Bombay; the British Indian Army was a critical force for the primacy of the British Empire both in India and across the world. Besides maintaining the internal security of the British Raj, the Army fought in many other theatres: the Anglo-Burmese Wars and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars, First and Third Anglo-Afghan Wars and Second Opium Wars in China and the Boxer Rebellion in China.
In the 20th century, the Indian Army was a crucial adjunct to the British forces in both world wars. 1.3 million Indian soldiers served in World War I with the Allies, in which 74,187 Indian troops were killed or missing in action. In 1915 there was a mutiny by Indian soldiers in Singapore; the United Kingdom made promises of self-governance to the Indian National Congress in return for its support but reneged on them after the war, following which the Indian Independence movement gained strength. The "Indianisation" of the British Indian Army began with the formation of the Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College at Dehradun in March 1912 with the purpose of providing education to the scions of aristocratic and well-to-do Indian families, to prepare selected Indian boys for admission into the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Indian officers were given a King's commission after passing out and were posted to one of the eight units selected for Indianisation; because of the slow pace of Indianisation, with just 69 officers being commissioned between 1918 and 1932, political pressure was applied leading to the formation of the Indian Military Academy in 1932 and greater numbers of officers of Indian origin being commissioned.
In World War II Indian soldiers fought alongside the Allies. In 1939, British officials had no plan for expansion and training of Indian forces, which comprised about 130,000 men, their mission was internal security and defence against a possible Soviet threat through Afghanistan. As the war progressed, the size and role of the Indian Army expanded and troops were sent to battlefronts as soon as possible; the most serious problem was lack of equipment. Indian units served in Burma, where in 1944–45, five Indian divisions were engaged along with one British and three African divisions. Larger numbers operated in the Middle East; some 87,000 Indian soldiers died in the war. By the end of the war it had become the largest volunteer army in history, rising to over 2.5 million men in August 1945. In the African and Middle-Eastern Campaigns, captured Indian troops were given a choice to join the German Army to "liberate" India from Great