Malmstrom Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base and census-designated place in Cascade County, United States, adjacent to the city of Great Falls. It was named in honor of World War II POW Colonel Einar Axel Malmstrom, it is the home of the 341st Missile Wing of the Air Force Global Strike Command. As a census-designated place, it had a population of 3,472 at the 2010 census. Malmstrom Air Force Base traces its beginnings back to 1939. Concern about the war caused the local Chamber of Commerce to contact two Montana senators, Burton K. Wheeler and James E. Murray and request they consider development of a military installation in Great Falls. In addition, appeals were made to the Secretary of Harry H. Woodring. In 1941, the Civil Aeronautics Authority provided the money for the development of the Great Falls Municipal Airport. In May 1942, construction began on an Army Air Corps base six miles east of Great Falls; the base was known as East Base. In November 1942, a survey team evaluated an area near the Green Mill Dance Club and Rainbow Dam Road six miles east of Great Falls.
Great Falls, along with ten other northern tier sparsely populated sites, was considered for a heavy bomber training base. Construction began on Great Falls Army Air Base on 8 June 1942; the base was informally known as East Base since the 7th Ferrying Group was stationed at Great Falls Municipal Airport on Gore Hill. Its mission was to establish an air route between Great Falls and Ladd Field, Alaska, as part of the United States Lend-Lease Program that supplied the Soviet Union with aircraft and supplies needed to fight the German Army. Great Falls AAB was assigned to Second Air Force, its initial base operating unit was Air Base Squadron. Airfield operations began on 30 November 1942 when the first B-17 Flying Fortress landed at the new base. Four Bombardment Groups, the 2nd, 385th, 390th, 401st, trained at Great Falls AAB from November 1942 to October 1943 under Army Air Force Training Command. Group Headquarters and one of the Groups' four squadrons were stationed in Great Falls with the other squadrons stationed on sub-bases at Cut Bank and Lewistown, Montana.
Aircraft would take off at a predetermined time, form up in squadron formation over their respective location, over central Montana, join up in group formation. These bombardment groups went on to participate in decisive raids over Germany as part of Eighth Air Force opening the door for Allied daylight precision bombing. Upon completion of the B-17 training program, in October 1943, Great Falls Army Air Base was transferred to the Air Transport Command and units from Gore Field were transferred to the base; the base was expanded with more buildings were constructed including a consolidated mess, a post exchange, a theater, a 400-bed hospital. Air Transport Command established aerial port facilities for passengers and cargo, as well as a flight service center; the ATC 90th Ferrying Squadron was assigned to the base which performed operations in support of the Lend Lease Program with the Soviet Union. At Great Falls, P-39 Airacobras, C-47 Skytrains, B-25 Mitchells, A-20 Havocs aircraft. B-25 Mitchell Bombers arrived by rail and were assembled on base, along with others that were flown in by both military and Women Airforce Service Pilots.
These aircraft were flown by U. S. pilots by way of the Northwest Staging Route through Canada, to Fairbanks and transferred to Soviet pilots who in turn flew them into Siberia via the Alaskan-Siberian Route. A total of 1,717,712 pounds of cargo containing aircraft parts, tools miscellaneous equipment and medical supplies were shipped through Great Falls Army Air Base to the Soviet Union; this included one of the greatest technology transfers in the history of the world. According to Richard Rhodes the plans for the atomic bomb, hundreds of tons of nuclear weapons materials, strategic intelligence reports, the plans for much of the most advanced aviation and heavy industrial technology was transferred through Gore Field and East Base in sealed diplomatic containers. Dozens, if not hundreds, of Soviet agents entered the U. S. through Great Falls as part of the Soviet Lend-lease delegation and staff. Aircraft shipments to the Soviet Union stopped in September 1945, when World War II ended, with 8,000 aircraft having been processed in a 21-month period.
Following World War II, Great Falls Army Air Base played an important role in US defense during the Cold War era. The base was assigned or attached to several major commands, its assigned units performed a wide variety of missions. After World War II ended Great Falls AAB assumed a support mission for military personnel assigned to Alaskan military installations. A reserve training unit was established by the Continental Air Forces Fourth Air Force under the 418th Army Air Force Base Unit on 10 October 1946. In September 1947, the United States Air Force became a separate service and the base's name was changed to Great Falls Air Force Base. Tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union increased when the Soviet Union closed all land travel between the western occupation sectors of Germany and the American and British sectors of Berlin; the Western allies decided to try to supply Berlin by air. On 25 June 1948 "Operation Vittles," the strategic airlift of supplies to Berlin's 2,000,000 inhabitants, was initiated, beginning what became known as the Berlin Airlift.
Great Falls AFB played a criti
Lovelytheband is an American indie pop band that formed in 2016 in Los Angeles. The band consists of vocalist Mitchy Collins, guitarist Jordan Greenwald, drummer Sam Price; the band is most known for their single "Broken". The band debuted in April 2017 with their single "Broken" which earned over three million streams on Spotify; the single charted on several Billboard charts. It topped the Billboard Alternative Songs chart and Billboard Rock Airplay chart for several weeks; the single became the band's first top 10 on the Billboard Radio Songs chart and first top 40 on the Billboard Hot 100. In September 2017, the band released their first EP, Everything I Could Never Say.... They released the single "These Are My Friends" in May 2018. On August 3, 2018, they released their debut album Finding It Hard to Smile. Mitchy Collins, Jordan Greenwald, Sam Price met and formed the band while at a nightclub in West Hollywood; the band released their debut single, "Broken", in April 2017."Broken" charted on several Billboard charts.
It topped the Billboard Alternative Songs chart, dated April 21, 2018, stayed on top for seven consecutive weeks. It topped the Billboard Rock Airplay chart, dated June 9, 2018, remained on top for nine consecutive weeks, it peaked at number 10 on the Billboard Radio Songs chart, number 14 on the Mainstream Top 40 chart, number 29 on the Billboard Hot 100. The single became the band's first top 10 on the Billboard Radio Songs chart and first top 40 on the Hot 100, it was one of the four songs in 2018 that managed to chart in both the Alternative Songs chart and the Top 10 of the Radio Songs chart. After signing with Another Century Records, they released their debut EP, Everything I Could Never Say... in September 2017. The band toured with The Wrecks and La Bouquet. On May 11, 2018, the band released the single "These Are My Friends" from their upcoming debut album; the album, Finding It Hard to Smile, was released on August 3, 2018. The band went on their first headlining tour, the Broken Like Me Tour, which started on August 15, 2018.
The tour visited the United States. They toured as the opening act for the European leg of 5 Seconds of Summer's Meet You There Tour; the band is scheduled to go on their second headlining tour, Finding It Hard to Smile Tour, to support their debut album. The tour will visit cities across the US and Canada, starting March 2019. Finding It Hard to Smile Everything I Could Never Say... Sam Price - drums Jordan Greenwald - guitar, keyboards Mitch Collins - guitar, vocals Billboard Music Awards iHeartRadio Music Awards Broken Like Me Tour Finding It Hard to Smile Tour The Wrecks - Robot Army Tour Vance Joy - Nation of Two World Tour AWOLNATION - Here Come The Runts Tour 5 Seconds of Summer – Meet You There Tour LANY World Tour Official website
Pulmonary hypoplasia is incomplete development of the lungs, resulting in an abnormally low number or size of bronchopulmonary segments or alveoli. A congenital malformation, it most occurs secondary to other fetal abnormalities that interfere with normal development of the lungs. Primary pulmonary hypoplasia is rare and not associated with other maternal or fetal abnormalities. Incidence of pulmonary hypoplasia ranges from 9–11 per 10,000 live births and 14 per 10,000 births. Pulmonary hypoplasia is a common cause of neonatal death, it is a common finding in stillbirths, although not regarded as a cause of these. Causes of pulmonary hypoplasia include a wide variety of congenital malformations and other conditions in which pulmonary hypoplasia is a complication; these include congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, fetal hydronephrosis, caudal regression syndrome, mediastinal tumor, sacrococcygeal teratoma with a large component inside the fetus. Large masses of the neck can cause pulmonary hypoplasia by interfering with the fetus's ability to fill its lungs.
In the presence of pulmonary hypoplasia, the EXIT procedure to rescue a baby with a neck mass is not to succeed. Fetal hydrops can be a cause, or conversely a complication. Pulmonary hypoplasia is associated with oligohydramnios through multiple mechanisms. Both conditions can result from blockage of the urinary bladder. Blockage prevents the bladder from emptying, the bladder becomes large and full; the large volume of the full bladder interferes with normal development of other organs, including the lungs. Pressure within the bladder becomes abnormally high, causing abnormal function in the kidneys hence abnormally high pressure in the vascular system entering the kidneys; this high pressure interferes with normal development of other organs. An experiment in rabbits showed that PH can be caused directly by oligohydramnios. Pulmonary hypoplasia is associated with dextrocardia of embryonic arrest in that both conditions can result from early errors of development, resulting in Congenital cardiac disorders.
PH is a common direct cause of neonatal death resulting from pregnancy induced hypertension. Medical diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia in utero may use imaging ultrasound or MRI; the extent of hypoplasia is a important prognostic factor. One study of 147 fetuses found that a simple measurement, the ratio of chest length to trunk length, was a useful predictor of postnatal respiratory distress. In a study of 23 fetuses, subtle differences seen on MRIs of the lungs were informative. In a study of 29 fetuses with suspected pulmonary hypoplasia, the group that responded to maternal oxygenation had a more favorable outcome. Pulmonary hypoplasia is diagnosed clinically. Management has three components: interventions before delivery and place of delivery, therapy after delivery. In some cases, fetal therapy is available for the underlying condition. In exceptional cases, fetal therapy may include fetal surgery. A 1992 case report of a baby with a sacrococcygeal teratoma reported that the SCT had obstructed the outlet of the urinary bladder causing the bladder to rupture in utero and fill the baby's abdomen with urine.
The outcome was good. The baby had normal kidneys and lungs, leading the authors to conclude that obstruction occurred late in the pregnancy and to suggest that the rupture may have protected the baby from the usual complications of such an obstruction. Subsequent to this report, use of a vesicoamniotic shunting procedure has been attempted, with limited success. A baby with a high risk of pulmonary hypoplasia will have a planned delivery in a specialty hospital such as a tertiary referral hospital with a level 3 neonatal intensive-care unit; the baby may require immediate advanced therapy. Early delivery may be required in order to rescue the fetus from an underlying condition, causing pulmonary hypoplasia. However, pulmonary hypoplasia increases the risks associated with preterm birth, because once delivered the baby requires adequate lung capacity to sustain life; the decision whether to deliver early includes a careful assessment of the extent to which delaying delivery may increase or decrease the pulmonary hypoplasia.
It is a choice between active management. An example is congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation with hydrops. Severe oligohydramnios of early onset and long duration, as can occur with early preterm rupture of membranes, can cause severe PH. After delivery, most affected babies will require supplemental oxygen; some affected babies may be saved with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Not all specialty hospitals have ECMO, ECMO is considered the therapy of last resort for pulmonary insufficiency. An alternative to ECMO is high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. In 1908, Maude Abbott documented pulmonary hypoplasia occurring with certain defects of the heart. In 1915, Abbott and J. C. Meakins showed. In 1920, decades before the advent of prenatal imaging, the presence of pulmonary hypoplasia was taken as evidence that diaphragmatic hernias in babies were congenital, not acquired. Potter sequence Prune belly syndrome