Malpighia emarginata is a tropical fruit-bearing shrub or small tree in the family Malpighiaceae. Common names include acerola cherry (Spanish pronunciation:, Brazilian Portuguese:, European Portuguese:, Barbados cherry, West Indian cherry, wild crepe myrtle and seriz. Acerola is native to South America, southern Mexico, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Central America, but is now being grown as far north as Texas and in subtropical areas of Asia, such as India, it is known for being rich in vitamin C as much as camu camu, although M. emarginata contains vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, as well as carotenoids and bioflavonoids, which provide important nutritive value and have antioxidant uses. Malpighia emarginata is from Yucatán, can be found in Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, South America as far south as Peru, the southeast region of Brazil, in the southernmost parts of the contiguous United States. In Florida, it can be grown in protected locations as far north as Cape Canaveral.
It is cultivated in the tropics and subtropics throughout the world, including the Canary Islands, Ethiopia, Zanzibar, Sri Lanka, India, Java and Australia. Acerola can be propagated by cutting, or other methods, it prefers dry, sandy soil and full sun, cannot endure temperatures lower than 30 °F/-1 °C. Because of its shallow roots, it has low tolerance to winds. Acerola is an evergreen small tree with spreading branches on a short trunk, it is 2–3 m tall, but sometimes reaches 6 m in height. The leaves are simple ovate-lanceolate, 2–8 cm long, 1–4 cm, are attached to short petioles, they are opposite, ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, have entire or undulating margins with small hairs, which can irritate skin. Flowers are bisexual and 1–2 cm in diameter, they have five pale to deep pink or red fringed petals, 10 stamens, six to 10 glands on the calyx. The three to five flowers per inflorescence are short-peduncled axillary cymes. After three years, trees produce significant numbers of bright red drupes 1–3 cm in diameter with a mass of 3–5 g.
Drupes are in pairs or groups of three, each contains three triangular seeds. The drupes are juicy and high in vitamin C and other nutrients, they are divided into three obscure lobes and are acidic to subacidic, giving them a sour taste, but may be sweet if grown well. While the nutrient composition depends on the strain and environmental conditions, the most common components of acerola and their concentration ranges, per 1000 g, are: proteins, carbohydrates, phosphorus, pyridoxine, thiamine and dietary fibre; the fruit is edible and consumed in the species' native area, is cultivated elsewhere for its high vitamin C content. About 1677 mg of vitamin C are in 100 g of fruit; the fruit can be used to make juices and pulps, vitamin C concentrate, baby food, among other things. A comparative analysis of antioxidant potency among a variety of frozen juice pulps was carried out, including the acerola fruit. Among the 11 fruit pulps tested, acerola was the highest-scoring fruit, meaning it had the most antioxidant potency, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity score of 53.2 mg. Acerola is a popular bonsai subject because of its small leaf and fruit, fine ramification.
It is grown as an ornamental and for hedges. It is one of three ingredients in a proprietary herbal medicine for allergic rhinitis. Malpighia emarginata is a host plant for the caterpillars of the white-patched skipper, Florida duskywing, brown-banded skipper. Larvae of the acerola weevil feed on the fruits. Pollination by wild insects is known to increase the fruit yield. Data related to Malpighia emarginata at Wikispecies University of Florida: Acerola
Superstar Leo is an Irish-bred, British-trained retired champion Thoroughbred racehorse and successful broodmare. She was named European Champion Two-Year-Old Filly at the Cartier Racing Awards and was the highest-rated two-year-old filly in the International Classification for 2000. In her championship season she finished second in the other three, she failed to win in five starts as a three-year-old and was retired to stud. Superstar Leo, a small bay filly, was sired by the sprinter College Chapel out of the mare Council Rock, she was bred at the Cheval Court Stud, Surrey by the eleven-times Champion Jockey Lester Piggott who named her after the cruise ship now known as the Norwegian Spirit. College Chapel won the Cork and Orrery Stakes and the Prix Maurice de Gheest in 1993. At stud he was not a notable success: he sired the winners of more than two hundred winners, but none at Group One level. Apart from Superstar Leo, his best offspring were the Greenlands Stakes winner Final Exam and the good handicapper Tolpuddle.
Council Rock never won a race but apart from Superstar Leo, she produced ten winners from eighteen foals. She died of a suspected heart attack at the age of twenty-five; the yearling filly was sent to the Tattersalls sales in October 1999 where she was bought in for 3,400 gns by Maureen Haggas. She was registered as being owned by "The Superstar Leo Partnership", a syndicate including Piggott, Maureen Haggas and others. Superstar Leo was trained throughout her career by William Haggas at Suffolk, she was ridden in eight of her thirteen races by Michael Hills. Superstar Leo began her racing career in a maiden race at Windsor in May, in which she led a furlong out but was caught in the closing stages and beaten a head by Flying Millie. Two weeks she recorded her first win at Catterick. On this occasion she took the lead from the start, went several lengths clear, was eased down in the closing stages to win by three quarters of a length. A week she returned to the same course and won again, pulling clear inside the last furlong to win by five lengths.
Superstar Leo was sent to Royal Ascot where she was moved up to Group Three class for the Norfolk Stakes. She was sent to the lead a furlong out, she won by one and three quarter lengths from Bouncing Bowdler. Haggas commented that she had won "a bit easily" After the race she was sold to Roy Jackson's Pennsylvania-based Lael Stable after her connections received an offer, "too good to refuse", her next target was the Weatherbys Super Sprint at Newbury. This race is restricted to two-year-olds who have been sold at auction, with the basic weights being set by the sale price; as Superstar Leo had been a cheap yearling, the race was an obvious target. The race attracted the Queen Mary Stakes winner Romantic Myth, made 10/11 favourite ahead of Superstar Leo on 9/2. Haggas admitted that he had avoided taking on Romantic Myth at levels at Royal Ascot, but was prepared to take her on with a five-pound weight advantage. Michael Hills held Superstar Leo up in the early stages before making a challenge in the last quarter mile.
The filly took the lead and went clear, being driven out by Hills to win by three and a half lengths with Romantic Myth sixth. The winning time of 59.19 broke the track record by over a second. All of Superstar Leo's starts so far had been at the minimum distance of five furlongs: in her next race she was moved up to six furlongs for the Group One Phoenix Stakes at Leopardstown in which her main rivals were expected to be the Cherry Hinton Stakes winner Dora Carrington and the Aidan O'Brien-trained colt Minardi, she finished second of the ten runners. She was returned to five furlongs for the Flying Childers Stakes at Doncaster, she was made 2/1 favourite and led all the way to win the Group Two race by three-quarters of a length. Haggas paid tribute to the filly afterwards saying, "horses like her come around only and we're lucky to have her."Two-year-old racehorses race against their own age group. The absence of Group One races restricted to two-year-olds over five furlongs however, has led some trainers to try their sprinting juveniles in open age competition.
Notable successes for this strategy have included Sigy in the Prix de l'Abbaye de Longchamp and Lyric Fantasy in the Nunthorpe Stakes. This was the plan adopted by William Haggas for Superstar Leo, entered for the Prix de l'Abbaye. In the Longchamp race Superstar Leo was prominent from the start, Michael Hills moved her up to take the lead at half way. A furlong out she was caught and overtaken by the Irish-trained four-year-old Namid but she ran on well to finish second, one and a half lengths behind Namid, but three lengths clear of the rest of the field, headed by the Haydock Sprint Cup winner Pipalong. Haggas called her performance "a fantastic run" and added that he was "absolutely thrilled" with the filly; as a three-year-old, Superstar Leo failed to recapture he two-year-old form. She was unplaced behind Cassandra Go in the Temple Stakes and the King's Stand Stakes, before being dropped down to Listed level to finish second in a race at Chester in July. A week she finished fourth to Invincible Spirit in the Listed Hackwood Stakes before ending her career by running unplaced in the King George Stakes at Goodwood.
In August it was announced. In the International Classification for 2000, Superstar Leo was rated on 123, making her the best two-year-old filly in
Edward Gulian was an American football and baseball player, coach of football and basketball, college athletics administrator. He served as the head football coach at State Teachers College at Shippensburg—now known as Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania—from 1933 to 1946 and at Albright College from 1949 to 1954, compiling a career college football coaching record of 72–57–9, he was the head basketball coach at Shippensburg from 1933 to 1943 and at Albright from 1949 to 1955, tallying a career college basketball coaching record of 139–151. Gulian attended Norristown High School in Norristown and Gettysburg College, he was named he athletic director at Shippensburg in 1933. Gulian served as an assistant football coach in charge of the backfield at Lafayette College for two seasons before being hired at Albright in 1949. Gulian served in the United States Navy as a commander during World War II, he taught physical education at Modesto Junior College in Modesto, California. He remained in Modesto during his retirement, until his death on November 10, 1991.
Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Eddie Gulian at Find a Grave
Vladimir Vasilyevich Kadannikov is a Russian businessman and politician who served as a Deputy Prime Minister of Russia in charge of economic policy replacing Anatoly Chubais, under President Boris Yeltsin. By the early 1990s Vladimir Kadannikov was the head of AvtoVAZ, a Russian automobile manufacturing company. In January 1996 he was appointed to the cabinet as deputy head of government for economic affairs, replacing the architect of the privatization reforms, Anatoly Chubais. Kadannikov was viewed as an advocate of Russian industry, which suffered due to the reforms which favored foreign companies, being an ally of Oleg Soskovets, First Deputy Prime Minister and fellow "industrialist." He attempted to take measures to defend the industry, including the introduction of import tariffs, but this was blocked by the IMF. Kadannikov's appointment caused Western analysts to believe it was a shift away from the economic reforms overseen by Chubais. In August 1996 he was removed and replaced by Vladimir Potanin, returned to working at AvtoVAZ as its CEO.
Guatemala faces substantial resource and institutional challenges in managing its national water resources. Deforestation is increasing as the global demand for timber exerts pressure on the forests of Guatemala. Soil erosion and sedimentation of surface water is a result of deforestation from development of urban centers, agriculture needs, conflicting land and water use planning. Sectors within industry are growing and the prevalence of untreated effluents entering waterways and aquifers has grown alongside. Untreated wastewater contaminates water resources as well. Populations are unequally distributed and this creates challenges of conveyance. In a mountainous country this can be mitigated with gravity fed systems. Where water pumps are needed, water delivery is much more expensive and can be a barrier to consistent access. Guatemala is facing institutional challenges due to a lack of coordination among the different agencies responsible for water resources management where duplication of efforts and responsibility gaps exist.
SEGEPLAN and the Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos de la Presidencia are other ministry level institutions that highlight possible overlaps in duties as both are within the office of the president and have water resources management responsibilities. Guatemala is blessed with ample amounts of rainwater and groundwater. While surface water is abundant, they are seasonal and polluted. Groundwater from wells and springs is important to the national supply resource meeting demands for potable water for public and domestic needs. Groundwater is used for the agricultural and industrial sectors as well. Hydroelectricity output is the key component of Guatemala's electricity generation and is highlighted by the Chixoy hydroelectric project; the National Institute of Electricity implements hydroelectric projects in Guatemala. Management of water resources in Guatemala is shared by several government agencies and institutions. Most of these agencies conduct their work with little or no coordination with other agencies, which creates duplication of work and inefficient use of resources.
In addition, there is a need for the enactment of watershed management plans aimed at integrating different water uses, controlling deforestation and water quality. Water resources in Guatemala are stressed by domestic users. Populations are larger in regions where water availability is low due to altitude or rainfall deficit, the opposite is true in regions where water resources are abundant. Guatemala City is a prime example; the city is home to more than 20% of the countries population. However, the valley where Guatemala City is located is in a south central region of the country and spans the Continental Divide; the location of Guatemala city near the continental divide is at the origin of all nearby rivers where flows are minimal. This equates to small quantities of surface water and inadequate groundwater sources that cannot supplement the needs of the city; the hydrographic system is divided into three primary drainage basins. First, the Pacific Ocean drainage basin counts 18 watersheds.
Some of the rivers in this zone transport volcanic sediments to be deposited along the coast and contributes to coastal flooding due to reduced depths of tidal marshes. Annual surface runoff in this basin is 25.5 km3. The Caribbean Sea drainage basin has 10 watersheds. Average annual surface runoff in this basin is calculated at 31.9 km3. The Gulf of Mexico basin covers 47 % of 10 watersheds; the rivers in this basin have the largest flows in the drain towards Mexico. Surface runoff in this basin is 43.3 km3. Guatemala, as its name indicates, is a land of forests; the country is mountainous and rainfall is influenced by Pacific and Atlantic ocean weather patterns such as El Niño, La Niña, hurricanes. The Caribbean Sea influences rainfall patterns in Guatemala in the same way. Average rainfall varies from 700 mm per year in the eastern regions of the country to around 1,000 mm in the central regions, 5,000 mm of rainfall in the northeastern regions; the current population in the mountainous northwestern zone numbers around five million inhabitants and this region has high levels of rainfall and steep slopes that are susceptible to erosion.
This region is an area with great water potential, but subject to irreversible damage from soil loss and the alteration of the water cycle. Surface water covers about 1,000 km2 of the 108,900 km2 of land area across Guatemala. Although surface water resources are abundant, they are unequally distributed seasonal, polluted. Fresh ground water from wells and springs is an essential resource and a major source of potable water and used for agricultural, industrial and domestic demand. Ground water is plentiful from sedimentary aquifers throughout the plains and lowlands of the country; the two most substantial aquifers are the Pacific Coastal Plain alluvium and the karstic and fractured limestone that extend beneath the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Sierra de Chama, Peten Lowlands. Other more limited aquifers are important for small-scale local demands; the mountains and hills of Guatemala contain many other types of aquifers, including volcanic pyroclastic and lava deposits, low permeability sediments and metamorphic aquifers.
Alluvial plains and lowlands make up about 50% of the countries territory and contain about 70% of the available ground water reserves. Guatemala has 23 major lakes and another 119 that all encompass an area of 950 km2
The 2018 German Darts Championship was the tenth of thirteen PDC European Tour events on the 2018 PDC Pro Tour. The tournament took place at Halle 39, Germany from 31 August–2 September 2018, it featured a field of 48 players and £ 135,000 with £ 25,000 going to the winner. Peter Wright was the defending champion after defeating Michael van Gerwen 6–3 in the 2017 final, but he withdrew the day before the event. Van Gerwen won the event for the second time and his 27th European Tour title in total, beating James Wilson 8–6 in the final, only dropping seven legs in the whole tournament. During the event, Dave Chisnall broke the record for the highest 3-dart average on the European Tour, with an average of 118.66 in his 6–0 defeat of Mark Webster in the second round. This is how the prize money is divided: Prize money will count towards the PDC Order of Merit, the ProTour Order of Merit and the European Tour Order of Merit, with one exception: should a seeded player lose in the second round, their prize money will not count towards any Orders of Merit, although they still receive the full prize money payment.
The top 16 entrants from the PDC ProTour Order of Merit on 8 June will automatically qualify for the event and will be seeded in the second round. The remaining 32 places will go to players from five qualifying events – 18 from the UK Qualifier, eight from the West/South European Qualifier, four from the Host Nation Qualifier, one from the Nordic & Baltic Qualifier and one from the East European Qualifier. Peter Wright, who would have been the number 2 seed, withdrew from the tournament prior to the draw. Steve Beaton, the highest-ranked qualifier, was promoted to 16th seed, which meant an extra place was made available in the Host Nation Qualifier; the following players will take part in the tournament