Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into glucose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but sucrose is concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. Sugarcane originated in tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, is known of from before 6,000 BP, sugar beet was first described in writing by Olivier de Serres and originated in southwestern and Southeast Europe along the Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea, in North Africa, Macaronesia, to Western Asia. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. Other disaccharides include lactose. Longer chains of sugar molecules are called polysaccharides.
Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar. Sucrose is used in prepared foods, is sometimes added to commercially available beverages, may be used by people as a sweetener for foods and beverages; the average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, or 33.1 kilograms in developed countries, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar refined sugar, was damaging to human health. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, cardiovascular disease and tooth decay. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of free sugars to less than 10%, encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.
The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. From Sanskrit शर्करा, meaning "ground or candied sugar," "grit, gravel", came Persian shakar, whence Arabic سكر, whence Medieval Latin succarum, whence 12th-century French sucre, whence the English word sugar. Italian zucchero, Spanish azúcar, Portuguese açúcar came directly from Arabic, the Spanish and Portuguese words retaining the Arabic definite article; the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese jágara from the Malayalam ചക്കരാ, itself from the Sanskrit शर्करा. Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and its cultivation spread from there into modern-day Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, it was not plentiful or cheap in early times, in most parts of the world, honey was more used for sweetening. People chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness. Sugarcane was a native of Southeast Asia.
Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating to 8th century BCE, which state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. In the tradition of Indian medicine, the sugarcane is known by the name Ikṣu and the sugarcane juice is known as Phāṇita, its varieties and characterics are defined in nighaṇṭus such as the Bhāvaprakāśa. Sugar remained unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century CE. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda, the source of the word candy. Indian sailors, who carried clarified butter and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar along the various trade routes they travelled.
Traveling Buddhist monks took sugar crystallization methods to China. During the reign of Harsha in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang made known his interest in sugar. China established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, to obtain technology for sugar refining. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts. Nearchus, admiral of Alexander of Macedonia, knew of sugar during the year 325 B. C. because of his participation in the campaign of India led by Alexander. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century CE described sugar in his medical treatise De Materia Medica, Pliny the Elder, a 1st-century CE Roman, described sugar in his Natural History: "Sugar is made in Arabia as well, but Indian sugar is better, it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, it crunches between the teeth.
It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut. Sugar is used only for medical purposes." Crusaders brought sugar back to Europe after their campaigns in the Hol
A kazan or qazan, is a type of large cooking pot used throughout Central Asia and the Balkan Peninsula equivalent to a cauldron, boiler, or Dutch oven. They come in a variety of sizes, are measured by their capacity, such as "a 50-litre kazan", their diameter is half a meter. Kazans are made of cast iron or in modern times aluminum and are used to cook a wide variety of foods, including plov, shorpa and bawyrsaq, as such are an important element in celebrations when food must be prepared for large numbers of guests. Kazans may be suspended over a fire in a variety of ways. Sometimes metal frames are made, or alternatively, a hole may be dug in the ground which will hold the kazan and provide enough space underneath to keep a fire under it—in this case, an access hole is built in the side to allow the fire to be tended, to let in air. Smaller kazans may be used on stoves with the help of a specially designed piece of metal that lets the heat transfer to the kazan while at the same time holding it upright and steady.
Kazan means "the hollowed-out thing" in the Turkic language. Kazans were used as their basic cooking utensil, they resemble in shape the Chinese wok or the Indian karahi but differ from them in shape and lack a handle. The Scythians and other Iranian peoples inhabitants of the western steppes before the Turkic migrations, used different cooking utensils, they used round bottomed clay and bronze pots having a more big-bellied shape than the hemispherical profile of the kazan. Some peoples neighboring. In making pilaf for occasions like weddings. In the Ottoman Empire, the kazan was the common symbol of the janissary regiments and they would overturn it to indicate a quarrel with their superiors; this has led to the Turkish expression of "Kazan devirmek" "to overturn the kazan" as a synonym for mutiny. The kazans of Turkey have adopted the typical flat-bottomed shape of the middle east. Gazandjyk or Kazandzhik Bereket - is a city in Balkan Province in western Turkmenistan; the name is composed of Kazan and -jyk, a diminutive suffix, so the name can be translated into English as cauldron-ette or pot-kin.
Kazan is largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan in Russia. List of cooking vessels List of Uzbek dishes Wok
Ancient Egyptian cuisine
The cuisine of ancient Egypt covers a span of over three thousand years, but still retained many consistent traits until well into Greco-Roman times. The staples of both poor and wealthy Egyptians were bread and beer accompanied by green-shooted onions, other vegetables, to a lesser extent meat and fish. Depictions of banquets can be found in paintings from both New Kingdom, they started sometime in the afternoon. Men and women were separated. Seating varied according to social status, with those of the highest status sitting on chairs, those lower sat on stools and those lowest in rank sat on the raw floor. Before the food was served, basins were provided along with perfumes and cones of scented fat were lit to spread pleasant smells or to repel insects, depending on the type. Lily flowers and flower collars were handed out and professional dancers entertained, accompanied by musicians playing harps, drums and clappers. There were considerable amounts of alcohol and abundant quantities of foods.
The dishes consisted of stews served with great amounts of bread, fresh vegetables and fruit. For sweets there were cakes sweetened with honey; the goddess Hathor was invoked during feasts. Food could be prepared by stewing, boiling, frying, or roasting. Spices and herbs were added for flavor, though the former were expensive imports and therefore confined to the tables of the wealthy. Food such as meats was preserved by salting, dates and raisins could be dried for long-term storage; the staples bread and beer were prepared in the same locations, as the yeast used for bread was used for brewing. The two were prepared either in special bakeries or, more at home, any surplus would be sold. Egyptian bread was made exclusively from emmer wheat, more difficult to turn into flour than most other varieties of wheat; the chaff does not come off through threshing, but comes in spikelets that needed to be removed by moistening and pounding with a pestle to avoid crushing the grains inside. It was dried in the sun and sieved and milled on a saddle quern, which functioned by moving the grindstone back and forth, rather than with a rotating motion.
The baking techniques varied over time. In the Old Kingdom, heavy pottery molds were filled with dough and set in the embers to bake. During the Middle Kingdom tall cones were used on square hearths. In the New Kingdom a new type of a large open-topped clay oven, cylindrical in shape, was used, encased in thick mud bricks and mortar. Dough was slapped on the heated inner wall and peeled off when done, similar to how a tandoor oven is used for flatbreads. Tombs from the New Kingdom show images of bread in sizes. Loaves shaped like human figures, various animals and fans, all of varying dough texture. Flavorings used for bread included coriander seeds and dates, but it is not known if this was used by the poor. Other than emmer, barley was grown to make bread and used for making beer, so were lily seeds and roots, tiger nut; the grit from the quern stones used to grind the flour mixed in with bread was a major source of tooth decay due to the wear it produced on the enamel. For those who could afford there was fine dessert bread and cakes baked from high-grade flour.
In Egypt beer was a primary source of nutrition, consumed daily. Beer was such an important part of the Egyptian diet that it was used as currency. Like most modern African beers, but unlike European beer, it was cloudy with plenty of solids and nutritious, quite reminiscent of gruel, it was an important source of protein and vitamins and was so valuable that beer jars were used as a measurement of value and were used in medicine. Little is known about specific types of beer, but there is mention of, for example, sweet beer but without any specific details mentioned. Globular-based vessels with a narrow neck that were used to store fermented beer from pre-dynastic times have been found at Hierakonpolis and Abydos with emmer wheat residue that shows signs of gentle heating from below. Though not conclusive evidence of early beer brewing it is an indication that this might have been what they were used for. Archeological evidence shows that beer was made by first baking "beer bread", a type of well-leavened baked bread that did not kill the yeasts, crumbled over a sieve, washed with water in a vat and left to ferment.
This "beer bread" resembles the bouza, still consumed in Egypt today. There are claims of dates or malts having been used. Microscopy of beer residue points to a different method of brewing where bread was not used as an ingredient. One batch of grain was sprouted; the next batch was cooked in water, dispersing the starch and the two batches were mixed. The enzymes began to consume the starch to produce sugar; the resulting mixture was sieved to remove chaff, yeast was added to begin a fermentation process that produced alcohol. This method of brewing is still used in parts of non-industrialized Africa. Most beers were made of barley and only a few of emmer wheat, but so far no evidence of flavoring has been found. Vegetables were eaten as a complement to bread. There was lettuce, certain types of cucumber and some types of Old World gourds and
Barley, a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains in Eurasia as early as 10,000 years ago. Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, as a component of various health foods, it is used in soups and stews, in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation. In 2016, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced behind maize and wheat; the Old English word for'barley' was bære, which traces back to Proto-Indo-European and is cognate to the Latin word farina "flour". The direct ancestor of modern English "barley" in Old English was the derived adjective bærlic, meaning "of barley"; the first citation of the form bærlic in the Oxford English Dictionary dates to around 966 CE, in the compound word bærlic-croft. The underived word bære survives in the north of Scotland as bere, refers to a specific strain of six-row barley grown there.
The word barn, which meant "barley-house", is rooted in these words. Barley is a member of the grass family, it is a diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. Spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent area of Western Asia and northeast Africa, is abundant in disturbed habitats and orchards. Outside this region, the wild barley is less common and is found in disturbed habitats. However, in a study of genome-wide diversity markers, Tibet was found to be an additional center of domestication of cultivated barley. Wild barley is the ancestor of domestic barley. Over the course of domestication, barley grain morphology changed moving from an elongated shape to a more rounded spherical one. Additionally, wild barley has distinctive genes and regulators with potential for resistance to abiotic or biotic stresses to cultivated barley and adaptation to climatic changes. Wild barley has a brittle spike. Domesticated barley has nonshattering spikes.
The nonshattering condition is caused by a mutation in one of two linked genes known as Bt1 and Bt2. The nonshattering condition is recessive, so varieties of barley that exhibit this condition are homozygous for the mutant allele; each plant gets a set of genes from both parents, so two copies of each gene are in every plant. If one gene copy is a nonworking mutant, but the other gene copy works, the mutation has no effect. Only when the plant is homozygous with both copies of the gene as nonworking mutants does the mutation show its effect by exhibiting the nonshattering condition. Domestication in barley is followed by the change of key phenotypic traits at the genetic level. Little is known about the genetic variation among domesticated and wild genes in the chromosomal regions. Spikelets are arranged in triplets. In wild barley, only the central spikelet is fertile; this condition is retained in certain cultivars known as two-row barleys. A pair of mutations result in fertile lateral spikelets to produce six-row barleys.
Recent genetic studies have revealed that a mutation in one gene, vrs1, is responsible for the transition from two-row to six-row barley. Two-row barley has a lower protein content than six-row barley, thus a more fermentable sugar content. High-protein barley is best suited for animal feed. Malting barley is lower protein which shows more uniform germination, needs shorter steeping, has less protein in the extract that can make beer cloudy. Two-row barley is traditionally used in English ale-style beers, with two-row malted summer barley being preferred for traditional German beers. Six-row barley is common in some American lager-style beers when adjuncts such as corn and rice are used. Hulless or "naked" barley is a form of domesticated barley with an easier-to-remove hull. Naked barley is an ancient food crop, but a new industry has developed around uses of selected hulless barley to increase the digestible energy of the grain for swine and poultry. Hulless barley has been investigated for several potential new applications as whole grain, for its value-added products.
These include flour for multiple food applications. In traditional classifications of barley, these morphological differences have led to different forms of barley being classified as different species. Under these classifications, two-row barley with shattering spikes is classified as Hordeum spontaneum K. Koch. Two-row barley with nonshattering spikes is classified as H. distichum L. six-row barley with nonshattering spikes as H. vulgare L. and six-row with shattering spikes as H. agriocrithon Åberg. Because these differences were driven by single-gene mutations, coupled with cytological and molecular evidence, most recent classifications treat these forms as a single species, H. vulgare L. VocabularyDON: Acronym for deoxynivalenol, a toxic byproduct of Fusarium head blight known as vomitoxin Heading date: A parameter in barley cultivation Lodging: The bending over of the stems near ground level Nutans: A designation for a variety with a lax ear, as opposed to'erectum' (with an erect ea
In brewing and distilling, mashing is the process of combining a mix of grains – malted barley with supplementary grains such as corn, rye, or wheat – known as the "grain bill" with water and heating the mixture. Mashing allows the enzymes in the malt to break down the starch in the grain into sugars maltose to create a malty liquid called wort; the two main methods of mashing are infusion mashing, in which the grains are heated in one vessel, decoction mashing, in which a proportion of the grains are boiled and returned to the mash, raising the temperature. Mashing involves pauses at certain temperatures and takes place in a "mash tun" – an insulated brewing vessel with a false bottom; the term "mashing" originates from the Old English noun masc, which means "soft mixture", the Old English verb mæscan, which means "to mix with hot water". Usage of the term to refer to "anything reduced to a soft, pulpy consistency" is recorded as early as the late 16th century; the end product is called a "mash".
Most breweries use infusion mashing, in which the mash is heated directly to go from rest temperature to rest temperature. Some infusion mashes achieve temperature changes by adding hot water, some breweries do single-step infusions, performing only one rest before lautering. Decoction mashing involves boiling a portion of the grains and returning them to the mash, raising the temperature; the boiling extracts more starches from the grains by breaking down the cell walls. It can be classified into one-, two-, three-step decoctions, depending on how many times part of the mash is drawn off to be boiled. Decoction is common in German and Central European breweries, it was used out of necessity before the invention of thermometers allowed for simpler step mashing, but the practice is still in use for many traditional beers because of the unique malty flavor it lends to the end product. Boiling part of the grain results in Maillard reactions, which create melanoidins that create rich, malty flavors.
In large breweries where optimal utilization of the brewery equipment is economically necessary, there is at least one dedicated vessel for mashing. For decoction processes, there must be at least two; the vessel needs a good stirring mechanism known as a mash rake to keep the temperature of the mash uniform, an efficient heating method that will not scorch the malt – steam – and proper insulation to maintain rest temperatures for up to one hour. A spray ball for clean-in-place operation helps with periodic deep cleaning. Sanitation is not a major concern before wort boiling, so a rinse-down is all, necessary between batches. Smaller breweries use a boil kettle or a lauter tun for mashing; the latter either limits the process to single-step infusion mashing or results in a mash tun, not appropriate for the lautering process. Mixing of the strike water used for mashing in and milled grist must be done in a way that minimizes clumping and oxygen uptake; this was traditionally done by first adding water to the mash vessel and introducing the grist from the top of the vessel in a thin stream, but this led to a lot of oxygen absorption and loss of flour dust to the surrounding air.
A premasher, which mixes the grist with mash-in temperature water while it's still in the delivery tube, reduces oxygen uptake and prevents dust from being lost. Mashing in – sometimes called "doughing-in" – is done between 35–45 °C, but for single-step infusion mashes, mashing in must be done between 62–67 °C for amylases to break down the grain's starch into sugars; the weight-to-weight ratio of strike water and grain varies from one-half for dark beers in single-step infusions to one-quarter or one-fifth ratios that are more suitable for light-colored beers and decoction mashing, where much of the mash water is boiled off. In step infusion and decoction mashing, the mash is heated to different temperatures to allow specific enzymes to work optimally; the table at right shows the optimal temperature ranges for key enzymes and what materials those enzymes break down. There is some contention in the brewing industry as to the optimal temperatures for these enzymes, as it is very dependent on the pH of the mash and its thickness.
A thicker mash acts as a buffer for the enzymes. Once a step is complete, the enzymes active in that step are denatured by the increasing heat and become permanently inactive; the time spent transitioning between rests is preferably as short as possible. Β-glucan is a general term for polysaccharides, such as cellulose, made up of chains of glucose molecules connected by beta glycosidic bonds, as opposed to the alpha glycosidic bonds in starch. They are a major constituent of the cell walls of plants and make up a large part of the bran in grains. A β-glucanase rest done at 40 °C is practiced in order to break down cell walls and make starches more available, thus raising the extraction efficiency. Should the brewer let this rest go on too long, it's possible that a large amount of β-glucan will dissolve into the mash, which could lead to a stuck mash on brew day and cause filtration problems in beer production. Protein degradation via a proteolytic rest plays many roles: production of free-amino nitrogen for yeast nutrition, freeing of small proteins from larger proteins for foam stability in the finished product, reduction of haze-causing proteins for easier filtration and increased beer clarity.
In all-malt beers, the malt provides enough protein for good head retention, the brewer
The daf is a large Middle Eastern frame drum used in popular and classical music. The frame is made of hardwood with many metal ringlets attached, the membrane is fish skin but other skin types such as cow and horse are used; the Daf is used in the Middle East, Greater Iran, Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, accompanies singers and players of the tanbur, oud and other Middle Eastern instruments. Some dafs are equipped with small cymbals; the earliest evidence of the dap dates back to Sassanid Iran. The Pahlavi name of the daf is dap; the word daf is therefore the Arabicized form of the word dap. Some pictures of dap have been found in paintings; the presence of Iranian dap in the reliefs of Behistun suggests the daf existed before the rise of Islam. Dafs were part of religious music in Iran much before Sufism. Iranian music has always been a spiritual tool, it shows that dafs played an important role in Mazdean Iran emerging as an important element during the Sassanian times during the Kâvusakân dynasty.
There is a kind of square frame drum in the stonecutting of Taq-e Bostan. These frame drums were played in the ancient Middle East and Rome and reached medieval Europe through Islamic culture. Nowruz and other festive occasions have been accompanied by dap in Sassanid periods. In this period the dap was played in order to accompany Iranian classical music. Daps were used in the court to be played in the modes and melodies of traditional music; this traditional or classical music was created by Barbod the Great and was named the khosravani after the mythical king Khosrow. Recent research reveals; the modes were passed down from master to student and are today known as the radif and dastgah system. Many of the melodies were most of those that remain date to the Sassanid period. Dafs can be played to produce complex and intense rhythms, causing one to go under a trance and reach an ecstatic and spiritually-high state. For this reason, they have always been connected with religion in Iran; the Arabs introduced the daf and other Middle Eastern musical instruments to Spain, the Spanish adapted and promoted the daf and other musical instruments in medieval Europe.
In the 15th century, the daf was only used in Sufi ceremonies. The art of daf playing in Iranian Kurdistan and other parts of Iran has reached us by the effort of Iranian Sufis; the daf still functions as an important part of Persian art music. It encourages many young Iranians to take up learning this ancient instrument; the dayereh is an instrument, used to keep the rhythm of the music. This instrument is smaller than daf; the membrane is made of goatskin stretched over a wooden ring. Along the edge of the dayereh there are several pairs of loosely attached metal disks, which produce short crisp sounds as the player strikes the dayereh with the wrist and the fingers. Traditionally, the dayereh is a female instrument, it is sometimes used on festive occasions. The defi is a large frame drum with metal bangles. Similar to a tambourine in construction, the defi is made with a metal screw system so that the head can be tightened and tuned, it is popular in many forms all over Greece in the mainland klarino music.
The defi is popular in the Epirus region of northwestern Greece, where they are still handmade today. They have a low tone, the bangles are low pitched as well. In the history of Iran, daf had important usage specially in celebrations. In Pakistan it is used in wedding celebrations. Many poems in Persian mention the daf. A daf is depicted on the reverse of the Azerbaijani 1 qəpik coin minted since 2006 and on the obverse of the Azerbaijani 1 manat banknote issued since 2006. Frame drum Tar Bodhrán Bendir Riq Mazhar Davul Innaby, Azerbaijani dance Nasehpour, Peyman. "On Persian Daf, the Spiritual Frame Drum and Sufi Music". Nasehpour.com. Peyman Nasehpour. Media related to Dafs at Wikimedia Commons
Whoppers are malted milk balls covered with an artificially flavored "chocolatey coating" produced by The Hershey Company. The candy is a round ball about 3/4 of an inch in diameter, they are sold either in a small cardboard candy box, in a larger box that resembles a cardboard milk carton, the “Fun Size” variety, a tube-shaped plastic package sealed at the sides, containing twelve Whoppers weighing 21 grams, or the smaller variety of a tube containing three Whoppers weighing 6.8 grams. In 1939, the Overland Candy Company introduced the predecessor to Whoppers, a malted milk candy called Giants. Overland merged with Chicago Biscuit Company, Leaf Gum, Leaf Machinery, in 1947. Two years Leaf Brands reintroduced malted milk balls under the name of Whoppers. All products manufactured by Leaf Brands were purchased by W. R. Grace in the 1960s. Hershey Foods Corporation acquired the Leaf North America confectionery operations from Huhtamaki Oy of Helsinki, Finland, in 1996; the company produces the Whoppers candy to this day.
Whoppers were first sold two pieces for one cent. But after the creation of cellophane wrapping machines, smaller Whoppers were packaged and sold five for one cent known as Fivesomes. Leaf soon introduced the first confectionery milk carton package which would become a hallmark of the candy. Sometime between 1949 and 1952 an egg-shaped Whoppers candy was introduced for Easter, they differ from the traditional Whoppers in having a speckled candy shell. In 2000, Hershey introduced Mini Whoppers. Traditionally chocolate in flavor, a new strawberry milkshake flavored variant became available in 2006. Soon after they released Reese's Peanut Butter Cups flavored Whoppers. For Easter 2009, three new milkshake flavors were released, which were vanilla and orange cream; the vanilla ones were reintroduced in 2016. Listed in decreasing order by weight: sugar, corn syrup hydrogenated palm kernel oil, malted milk, cocoa, 2% or less of: resinous glaze, sorbitan tristearate, soy lecithin, salt and artificial flavors, calcium carbonate, tapioca dextrin.
"Maltesers", manufactured by Mars, Inc. in the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, Italy, the Netherlands and Austria. "Mighty Malts", malted milk balls manufactured by Necco. "Malt Balls" manufactured by Brach's Confections in the United States