Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
A brick is building material used to make walls and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term brick referred to a unit composed of clay, but it is now used to denote any rectangular units laid in mortar. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil and lime, or concrete materials. Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types and sizes which vary with region and time period, are produced in bulk quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are non-fired bricks. Block is a similar term referring to a rectangular building unit composed of similar materials, but is larger than a brick. Lightweight bricks are made from expanded clay aggregate. Fired bricks are one of the longest-lasting and strongest building materials, sometimes referred to as artificial stone, have been used since circa 4000 BC. Air-dried bricks known as mudbricks, have a history older than fired bricks, have an additional ingredient of a mechanical binder such as straw. Bricks are laid in courses and numerous patterns known as bonds, collectively known as brickwork, may be laid in various kinds of mortar to hold the bricks together to make a durable structure.
The earliest bricks were dried brick, meaning that they were formed from clay-bearing earth or mud and dried until they were strong enough for use. The oldest discovered bricks made from shaped mud and dating before 7500 BC, were found at Tell Aswad, in the upper Tigris region and in southeast Anatolia close to Diyarbakir; the South Asian inhabitants of Mehrgarh constructed, lived in, airdried mudbrick houses between 7000–3300 BC. Other more recent findings, dated between 7,000 and 6,395 BC, come from Jericho, Catal Hüyük, the ancient Egyptian fortress of Buhen, the ancient Indus Valley cities of Mohenjo-daro and Mehrgarh. Ceramic, or fired brick was used as early as 3000 BC in early Indus Valley cities like Kalibangan; the earliest fired bricks appeared in Neolithic China around 4400 BC at Chengtoushan, a walled settlement of the Daxi culture. These bricks were made of red clay, fired on all sides to above 600 °C, used as flooring for houses. By the Qujialing period, fired bricks were being used to pave roads and as building foundations at Chengtoushan.
Bricks continued to be used during 2nd millennium BC at a site near Xi'an. Fired bricks were found in Western Zhou ruins; the carpenter's manual Yingzao Fashi, published in 1103 at the time of the Song dynasty described the brick making process and glazing techniques in use. Using the 17th-century encyclopaedic text Tiangong Kaiwu, historian Timothy Brook outlined the brick production process of Ming Dynasty China: "...the kilnmaster had to make sure that the temperature inside the kiln stayed at a level that caused the clay to shimmer with the colour of molten gold or silver. He had to know when to quench the kiln with water so as to produce the surface glaze. To anonymous labourers fell the less skilled stages of brick production: mixing clay and water, driving oxen over the mixture to trample it into a thick paste, scooping the paste into standardised wooden frames, smoothing the surfaces with a wire-strung bow, removing them from the frames, printing the fronts and backs with stamps that indicated where the bricks came from and who made them, loading the kilns with fuel, stacking the bricks in the kiln, removing them to cool while the kilns were still hot, bundling them into pallets for transportation.
It was hot, filthy work." Early civilisations around the Mediterranean adopted the use of fired bricks, including the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The Roman legions operated mobile kilns, built large brick structures throughout the Roman Empire, stamping the bricks with the seal of the legion. During the Early Middle Ages the use of bricks in construction became popular in Northern Europe, after being introduced there from Northern-Western Italy. An independent style of brick architecture, known as brick Gothic flourished in places that lacked indigenous sources of rocks. Examples of this architectural style can be found in modern-day Denmark, Germany and Russia; this style evolved into Brick Renaissance as the stylistic changes associated with the Italian Renaissance spread to northern Europe, leading to the adoption of Renaissance elements into brick building. A clear distinction between the two styles only developed at the transition to Baroque architecture. In Lübeck, for example, Brick Renaissance is recognisable in buildings equipped with terracotta reliefs by the artist Statius von Düren, active at Schwerin and Wismar.
Long-distance bulk transport of bricks and other construction equipment remained prohibitively expensive until the development of modern transportation infrastructure, with the construction of canal and railways. Production of bricks increased massively with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the rise in factory building in England. For reasons of speed and economy, bricks were preferred as building material to stone in areas where the stone was available, it was at this time in London that bright red brick was chosen for construction to make the buildings more visible in the heavy fog and to help prevent traffic accidents. The transition from the traditional method of production known as hand-moulding to a mechanised form of mass-production took place during the first half of the nineteenth century; the first successful brick-making machine was patented by Henry Clayton, employed at the
Malvern Hill stands on the north bank of the James River in Henrico County, Virginia, USA, about eighteen miles southeast of Richmond. On 1 July 1862, it was the scene of the Battle of Malvern Hill, one of the Seven Days Battles of the American Civil War; the name referred to the house built by Thomas Cocke in the 17th century, which remained in his family for many years. It was named after the Malvern Hills in England; the historic home was gutted by a fire in 1905 and all that now remains are end gables, including a fireplace. The ruins are architecturally significant as the remains of one of few known cruciform design houses in Virginia. "The one surviving chimney is the finest example of seventeenth century diaper brickwork in the state."The home site figured in three wars. Lafayette camped there twice in 1781 during the American Revolutionary War. Virginia militia camped there in the War of 1812. However, it is best known as the site of bloody American Civil War Battle of Malvern Hill in 1862.
In August 2016, the 871-acre Malvern Hill Farm was listed for sale for $10.6 Million by the descendants of William H. Ferguson Sr.. It was purchased by the non-profit Capital Region Land Conservancy in Feb 2018 for $6.6 Million. CRLC subsequently recorded conservation easements to protect 465 acres with the Virginia Department of Historic Resources and 25 acres with the Virginia Outdoors Foundation. Portions of the property were gifted to Henrico County for the future site of an open space area for education and passive recreation as well as the James River Association for a canoe/kayak launch into Turkey Island Creek that flows into the James River at Presquile National Wildlife Refuge. Capital Region Land Conservancy is holding the remaining 380 acres to be included into the National Park Service Richmond National Battlefield Park. Malvern Hill — information, with photographs, from the Henrico County Historical Society "Interpretation Update: Archeological Success at Malvern Hill" — The Richmond National Parks Newsletter 6 Malvern Hill, State Route 156 vicinity, Independent City, VA at the Historic American Buildings Survey Malvern Hill — a poem by Herman Melville
Area code 501
Area code 501 is a telephone area code serving central Arkansas, including Little Rock and most of its suburbs. The coverage area includes most communities in Cleburne, Faulkner, Hot Spring, Perry, Saline and Van Buren counties, it is one of the original 86 North American Numbering Plan areas assigned in 1947, covered all of Arkansas. Due to Arkansas' low population density, 501 remained the sole area code for the state until 1995, when area code 870 was created to serve north-central, northeast and southern Arkansas. In 2002, the northwestern part of the state was split off as area code 479. Major cities in area code 501 include: NANPA Area Code Map of Arkansas List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 501 Area Code
Hot Spring County, Arkansas
Hot Spring County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,923; the county seat is Malvern. Hot Spring County was formed on November 1829, from a portion of Clark County, it was named for the hot springs at Hot Springs, which were within its boundaries until Garland County was formed in 1874. It is dry county. However, there is no record of this law. Hot Spring County comprises the Malvern, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Hot Springs-Malvern, AR Combined Statistical Area. Hot Spring County is located in Southwest Arkansas, a region composed of the Ouachita Mountains, deep valleys, the Arkansas Timberlands. Hot Spring County is within the mountainous segment of the region covered in hardwood and pine forests. One of the six primary geographic regions of Arkansas, the Ouachitas are a mountainous subdivision of the U. S. Interior Highlands; the Ouachita River divides the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 622.16 square miles, of which 614.94 square miles is land and 7.22 square miles is water.
The county is located 47 miles southwest of Little Rock, 170 miles northeast of Shreveport, 277 miles northeast of Dallas, Texas. Hot Spring County is surrounded by six counties, including the Ouachitas, Central Arkansas, Lower Arkansas Delta, due to its short and wide shape; the county neighbors Garland County to the north, Saline County in the northeast corner, Grant County to the east, Dallas County to the southeast, Clark County to the south, a small portion with Montgomery County in the northwest. Hot Spring County contains two state parks, DeGray Lake Resort State Park and Lake Catherine State Park, one Wildlife Management Area, DeGray Lake WMA, maintained by the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission; the county contains 320 acres of Ouachita National Forest managed by the National Forest Service. DeGray Lake Resort State Park is a 984-acre in southwest Hot Spring County, Arkansas's only resort state park; the 94-room DeGray Lodge and Convention Center includes a restaurant and 18-hole championship rated golf course.
Traditional state park amentities for camping, fishing, picnic tables, horseback riding are offered. The park is operated by the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism. DeGray Lake WMA bounds the portions of lake shoreline not bounded by the state park; the land extends into Clark County. Near Malvern, Lake Catherine State Park is a small state park on the west side of Lake Catherine; the park offers twenty cabins, including five Civilian Conservation Corps cabins of natural wood and stone built in the 1930s, 70 campsites. In summer, the parks offers a marina, boat rental, visitor center, guided tours, nature center and horseback trail rides. From 2000 to 2010, Hot Spring County saw income growth; the population increased from 30,353 to 32,923, a gain of 8.5%, with incomes rising and poverty declining for every demographic. As of the 2010 census, there were 32,923 people, 12,664 households, 8,969 families residing in the county; the population density was 53.5 people per square mile. There were 14,332 housing units at an average density of 23.3 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 85.6% White, 10.8% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.3% Asian, >0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. 2.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,664 households out of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.6% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 28.3% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.1 years. For every 100 females there were 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.5 males age 18 and over. The median income for a household in the county was $37,150, the median income for a family was $46,090.
Males had a median income of $34,111 versus $27,127 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,248. About 8.2% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.0% of those under age 18 and 8.9% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 census, there were 30,353 people, 12,004 households, 8,834 families residing in the county; the population density was 49 people per square mile. There were 13,384 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.33% White, 10.26% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.44% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races. 1.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,004 households out of which 31.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.20% were married couples living together, 10.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.40% were non-families. 23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, th
U.S. Route 270
U. S. Route 270 is a spur of U. S. Route 70, it runs for 643 miles from Liberal, Kansas at U. S. Route 54 to White Hall, Arkansas at Interstate 530 and U. S. Route 65, it passes through the states of Arkansas and Kansas. It goes through the cities of Oklahoma City, Hot Springs, McAlester, Oklahoma. US 270 begins in the southeast part of Liberal, Kansas, at an intersection with US 83 and US 54. US 270 follows the south leg following US 83 south. US 270 only spends 3 miles in Kansas before crossing into Oklahoma. Seward County is the only Kansas county. US 270 enters Oklahoma in the eastern third of the Oklahoma Panhandle. From here it continues east along US 64 south towards Beaver, the county seat, along SH-23. South of Beaver, the road joins with US 412 and SH-3, the latter of which US 270 will overlap with through most of northwest Oklahoma. After leaving the Panhandle and picking up US 183 near Fort Supply, the highways turn southwest towards Woodward. US 412 splits away in Woodward. US 270, concurrent with US 183 and SH-3, proceed southeast toward Seiling.
West of Seiling, US 183 splits off to the south, but in Seiling, it is replaced by US 281. The routes continue southwest to Watonga, where US 270/281 turn south along SH-8, while SH-3 continues due east to concur with SH-33. In Geary, US 270 splits off on an independent alignment, looping through Calumet before joining with Interstate 40. US 270 remains concurrent with I-40 from Exit 115 through a distance of 66 miles. US 270, attached to I-40, runs through the core of the Oklahoma City Metro area, passing through the western suburbs of El Reno and Yukon into Oklahoma City proper; the partnership runs just south of Downtown and the Bricktown entertainment district on the Crosstown Expressway. Major interchanges with I-44 and I-35 are found in the city. I-40/US 270 serve two eastern suburbs of Oklahoma City, Del City and Midwest City and form the northern boundary between Midwest City's civilian areas and Tinker Air Force Base. US-270 exits from I-40 on the west side of Shawnee. US 270 serves most of the towns anchoring the area east of Oklahoma City, including Shawnee, Seminole and Holdenville.
It continues southeast to the city of a major southeastern Oklahoma city. It serves many of the small towns east of McAlester, such as Krebs, Bache and Hartshorne. After passing through Hartshorne, the roads curves to the northeast before turning onto a due east course taking it through Wilburton, Red Oak, Wister. In Wister, it turns south, running across Wister Lake's dam, proceeding southeast to Heavener. There, it meets US 59; the town highways head south from Heavener, passing through the Wister Wildlife Management Area before entering the Ouachita National Forest. The route serves as the northern terminus of US 259 near Page; the road squeezes into a valley between Black Fork Mountain and Rich Mountain. In this valley, it crosses the state line into Arkansas. US 270 enters Arkansas with US 59, runs east to Acorn, where it meets US 71; the route travels 15 miles north on US 71 to Y City where it splits off and continues east. The route meets AR 88 in Pencil Bluff and AR 27 in Mt. Ida before heading to Hot Springs.
Entering the city, US 270 meets US 70 southwest of town and runs concurrent with it around Hot Springs using the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Expressway before leaving the freeway and running along Malvern Avenue southeast of the city. US 270 intersects with I-30 just outside Malvern, running a short distance northeast on the freeway before interchanging with the George Hopkins Loop bypass and running south around the city. After meeting with US 67 east of town, the alignment turns east-southeast meeting AR 229 in Poyen and AR 190/AR 291 in Prattsville before crossing paths with US 167 in Sheridan; the route trails east towards Pine Bluff terminating at and interchanging with I-530/US 65 in White Hall. Directly east of this interchange, the highway used to continue along Sheridan Road before terminating at AR 365/Dollarway Road in northwest Pine Bluff; this former section of the route is now signed AR 365 Spur. In Arkansas, US-270 was Highway 6. In Arkansas, it has been proposed that part of AR-51 will become part of US-270.
On I-30's current concurrency with US-270, going east, drivers can take exit 99 and make a right on US-270 East. If drivers make a left when they take exit 99, they must make a left to get on I-30 West/US-270 West because there is no outlet past that; that road has been proposed to be extended to AR-51. This will form the future northern terminus of AR-51; this means that drivers can make a left to get on AR-51 South and will have to make a right to get on US-270 West. US-270 will meet the current US-270. Drivers can make a left to get on the future US-270 Business East and must make a right to get on US-270 West, just like AR-51 did. From east to west, the future US-270 will go through the cities of Rockport and Magnet Cove. U. S. Highway 270B is a 9.4-mile-long business route in Arkansas. It runs through Arkansas. Seminole, Oklahoma. S. 270 to OK-9. This highway is disputed as a state or U. S. highway, as both signs are posted. Magnet Cove, Arkansas Malvern, Arkansas Endpoints of U. S. Highway 270