Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Winged Victory of Samothrace
The Winged Victory of Samothrace called the Nike of Samothrace, is a marble Hellenistic sculpture of Nike, created in about the 2nd century BC. Since 1884, it has been prominently displayed at the Louvre and is one of the most celebrated sculptures in the world. H. W. Janson described it as "the greatest masterpiece of Hellenistic sculpture", it is one of a small number of major Hellenistic statues surviving in the original, rather than Roman copies; the context of the Winged Victory of Samothrace, discovered in 1863, is controversial, with proposals ranging from the Battle of Salamis in 306 BC to the Battle of Actium in 31 BC as the event being celebrated. Datings based on stylistic evaluation have been variable, ranging across the same three centuries, but tending to an earlier date. For much of the 20th century, the prevailing theory, based on the works of Hermann Thiersch and Karl Lehmann, considered it a Rhodian monument dedicated following the victories at Side and Myonessos in 190 BC, suggested that it might have been carved by the Rhodian sculptor Pythocritus.
However, by the mid-2010s, the reconstructions of the monument proposed by Lehmann have been shown to be false, the question of why the statue was dedicated on Samothrace, which at the time was dominated by the Greek Kingdom of Macedonia, remains unanswered. The statue is 244 centimetres high, it was created not only to honor the goddess, but to honor a sea battle. It conveys a sense of action and triumph as well as portraying artful flowing drapery, as though the goddess were descending to alight upon the prow of a ship. Modern excavations suggest that the Victory occupied a niche above a theater and suggest it accompanied an altar, within view of the ship monument of Demetrius I Poliorcetes. Rendered in grey and white Thasian and Parian marble, the figure formed part of the Samothrace temple complex dedicated to the Great gods, Megaloi Theoi, it stood on a rostral pedestal of gray marble from Lartos representing the prow of a ship, represents the goddess as she descends from the skies to the triumphant fleet.
Before she lost her arms, which have never been recovered, Nike's right arm is believed to have been raised, cupped round her mouth to deliver the shout of Victory. The work is notable for its convincing rendering of a pose where violent motion and sudden stillness meet, for its graceful balance and for the rendering of the figure's draped garments, compellingly depicted as if rippling in a strong sea breeze. Similar traits can be seen in the Laocoön group, a reworked copy of a lost original, close both in time and place of origin to Nike, but while Laocoön, vastly admired by Renaissance and classicist artists, has come to be seen as a more self-conscious and contrived work, Nike of Samothrace is seen as an iconic depiction of triumphant spirit and of the divine momentarily coming face to face with man; the statue's outstretched right wing is a symmetric plaster version of the original left one. The stylistic portrayal of the wings is a source of scholarly discussion, as the feather pattern resembles neither the wings of birds in nature nor wings in Greek art.
As with the arms, the figure's head has never been found, but various other fragments have since been found: in 1950, a team led by Karl Lehmann unearthed the missing right hand of the Louvre's Winged Victory. The fingerless hand had slid out of sight under a large rock, near where the statue had stood; the different degree of finishing of the sides has led scholars to think that it was intended to be seen from three-quarters on the left. A partial inscription on the base of the statue includes the word "Rhodios", indicating that the statue was commissioned to celebrate a naval victory by Rhodes, at that time the most powerful maritime state in the Aegean which in itself would date the statue to 288 BC at the earliest; the sculptor is unknown, although Paul MacKendrick suggests that Pythokritos of Lindos is responsible. When first discovered on the island of Samothrace and published in 1863, it was suggested that the Victory was erected by the Macedonian general Demetrius Poliorcetes after his naval victory at Cyprus, between 295 and 289 BC.
The Archaeological Museum of Samothrace continues to follow these established provenance and dates. Ceramic evidence discovered in recent excavations has revealed that the pedestal was set up about 200 BC, though some scholars still date it as early as 250 BC or as late as 180; the parallels with figures and drapery from the Pergamon Altar seem strong. The evidence for a Rhodian commission of the statue has been questioned and the closest artistic parallel to the Nike of Samothrace are figures depicted on Macedonian coins. Samothrace was an important sanctuary for the Hellenistic Macedonian kings; the most battle commemorated by this monument is the Battle of Cos in 255 BC, in which Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedonia won over the fleet of Ptolemy II of Egypt. In April 1863, the Victory was discovered by the French consul in Adrianopolis and amateur archaeologist Charles Champoiseau, who sent it to Paris in the same year; the statue has been
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National
Yevgeny Viktorovich Vuchetich was a prominent Soviet sculptor and artist. He is known for his heroic monuments of allegoric style, including The Motherland Calls, the largest sculpture in the world at the time. Vuchetich was born in Yekaterinoslav, Russian Empire, the son of Viktor Vučetić, of Serbian ethnicity, Anna Andreevna Stewart, of Russian and of French descent, he was a prominent representative of the Socialist Realism style and was awarded with the Lenin Prize in 1970, the Stalin Prize, Order of Lenin, Order of the Patriotic War, Hero of Socialist Labor and People's Artist of the USSR. One of his step-granddaughters is Israeli politician Ksenia Svetlova. Soviet War Memorial in Treptower Park, overseen by a 13m tall monument of a Soviet soldier holding a German child, with a sword, over a broken swastika; this war memorial design was used on coins and medals commemorating the end of fascist rule in 1945. Let Us Beat Swords into Plowshares in the United Nations garden Let Us Beat Swords into Plowshares in front of the plant "Gazoapparat" in Volgograd.
A sculpture of Felix Dzerzhinsky, colloquially known as "Iron Felix", used to be in Moscow at the Lubyanka Square. The Motherland Calls! at Mamayev Kurgan List of Russian artists
The Tatars are a Turkic-speaking people living in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries. The name Tatar first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as; the term Tatars was applied to anyone originating from the vast Northern and Central Asian landmass known as the Tartary, dominated by various Turco-Mongol semi-nomadic empires and kingdoms. More however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic languages; the Mongol Empire, established under Genghis Khan in 1206, allied with the Tatars. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan, the Mongols moved westwards, driving with them many of the Mongol tribes toward the plains of Kievan Rus'; the "Tatar" clan still exists among the Mongols and Uzbeks. The largest group by far that the Russians have called "Tatars" are the Volga Tatars, native to the Volga region, who for this reason are also known as "Tatars", they compose 53% of population in Tatarstan. Their language is known as the Tatar language.
As of 2002 they had an estimated population around 5 million in Russia as a whole. There is a common belief that Russians and Tatars are intermingled, illustrated by the famous saying "scratch any Russian just a little and you will discover a Tatar underneath" and the fact that a number of noble families in Tsardom of Russia and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had Tatar origins. In modern-day Tatarstan, Russian-Tatar marriages are common. Owing to their diverse heritage, Tatars have a vast range of appearances, ranging from East Asian to European; the name "Tatar" originated amongst the nomadic Mongolic-speaking Tatar confederation in the north-eastern Gobi desert in the 5th century. The name "Tatar" was first recorded on the Orkhon inscriptions: Kul Tigin and Bilge Khagan monuments as:: Otuz Tatar Bodun and: Tokuz Tatar referring to the Tatar confederation. "Tatar" became a name for populations of the former Golden Horde in Europe, such as those of the former Kazan, Astrakhan and Siberian Khanates.
The form "Tartar" has its origins in either Latin or French, coming to Western European languages from Turkish and the Persian language. From the beginning, the extra r was present in the Western forms, according to the Oxford English Dictionary this was most due to an association with Tartarus; the Persian word is first recorded in the 13th century in reference to the hordes of Genghis Khan and is of unknown origin, according to OED "said to be" from tata, a name of the Mongols for themselves. The Arabic word for Tatars is تتار. Tatars themselves wrote their name as تاتار or طاطار; the Chinese term for Tatars was Dada 韃靼 after the end of the Yuan period, but recorded as a term for Mongolian-speaking peoples of the northern steppes during the Tang period. The name "Tatars" was used as an alternative term for the Shiwei, a nomadic confederation to which these Tatar people belonged. Russians and Europeans used the name Tatar to denote Mongols as well as Turkic peoples under Mongol rule, it applied to any Turkic or Mongolic-speaking people encountered by Russians.
However, the name became associated with the Turkic Muslims of Ukraine and Russia, namely the descendants of Muslim Volga Bulgars, Kipchaks and Turkicized Mongols or Turko-Mongols, as well as other Turkic-speaking peoples in the territory of the former Russian Empire. Nowadays Tatar is used to refer to the people, but Tartar is still always used for derived terms such as tartar sauce, steak tartare, the Tartar missile. All Turkic peoples living within the Russian Empire were named Tatar; some of these populations still use Tatar as a self-designation, others do not. Kipchak groups Kipchak–Bulgar branch, or "Tatar" in the narrow sense Volga Tatars Astrakhan Tatars Lipka Tatars Kipchak–Cuman branch Crimean Tatars Karachays and Balkars: Mountain Tatars Kumyks: Daghestan Tatars Kipchak–Nogai branch: Nogais: Nogai Tatars, includes the Karagash subgroup of Nogais—Kundrov Tatars Siberian branch: Siberian Tatars Altay people: Altay Tatars, including the Tubalar or Chernevo Tatars Chulyms or Chulym Tatars Khakas people: Yenisei Tatars, still use the Tatar designation Shors: Kuznetsk Tatars Oghuz branch Azerbaijani people: Caucasus Tatars The name Tatar is an endonym to a number of peoples of Siberia and Russian Far East, namely the Khakas people.
As various nomadic groups became part of Genghis Khan's army in the early 13th century, a fusion of Mongol and Turkic elements took place, the invaders of Rus' and the Pannonian Basin became known to Europeans as Tatars or Tartars. After the breakup of the Mongol Empire, the Tatars became identified with the western part of the empire, known as the Golden Horde; the various Tatar khanates of the early modern period represent the remnants of the breakup of the Golden Horde and of its successor, the Great Horde. These include: the Khanate of Kazan, conquered by the Tsardom of Russia in 1552.
13th Guards Rifle Division
The 13th Poltava Guards Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army that earned honours during the Great Patriotic War. On 6 November 1941, the 87th Rifle Division was re-formed and placed under the command of former corps commander Alexander Rodimtsev. On 19 January 1942, the 87th Rifle Division was awarded Guards status and was re-designated as the 13th Guards Rifle Division. In May 1942, the 13th Division was involved in the Soviet counter-offensive at Kharkov, where they fought on its northern axis, thus escaping the encirclement and destruction of a substantial portion of the Soviet forces engaged, followed by the Russian defeat. During this offensive, the division suffered more than fifty-percent casualties, most of which were sustained in the repelling of fierce German counter-attacks, it was during one of these attacks that an Artillery Captain of the 13th earned the first Order of the Great Patriotic War 1st Class to be awarded. Following his unit's success during this offensive, Colonel Rodimtsev was subsequently promoted to Major General.
On 13 September of that year, German infantry divisions made their first advance into Stalingrad, marking the opening salvos of the Battle of Stalingrad. By the end of the day the German 71st Infantry Division had reached the city centre, north of the Tsaritsa Gorge. A Stavka directive ordered the 13th Guards Division to the Volga River and Stalingrad. After being briefed by Lieutenant General Vasily Chuikov, the commander of the 62nd Army, Rodimtsev famously and determinedly declared:"I am a Communist! I have no intention of abandoning the city!" Because of the recent influx of new recruits, the division was now inexperienced and untrained, lacked both maps and knowledge of Stalingrad's rubble-strewn streets, which would prove enormously difficult to overcome in the struggle ahead. However, thanks to his experience fighting in the Spanish Civil War, Major General Rodimtsev was well versed in urban warfare. At 17.00, 14 September, the forward elements of the 13th Guards swiftly crossed the river to reinforce a line, being held by a mere 15 tanks and few hastily assembled combat groups.
It is estimated that more than half of the first wave perished during the river crossing, more than 3,000 being killed in just the first 24 hours. After heavy losses on both sides, the German advance was repelled. Rodimtsev's soldiers recaptured the Mill and secured the central river crossing for other regiments of the 13th Guards; the following morning one of Rodimtsev's junior officers, Lieutenant Anton Kuzmich Dragan was ordered by Chuikov to hold a key railroad station in downtown Stalingrad against an impending German assault. Dragan proceeded to gather a platoon of less than fifty men and moved them over to the railroad station. Here, the small but determined force prepared itself for the German attack. Soon after digging in, a substantial force of German infantrymen arrived to seize control of the station; the Russians proceeded to frustrate the Germans in an epic room-by-room struggle for control of the depot for nearly three weeks. Breaking through walls, crawling over rafters, burrowing under the floorboards, the Russians would yield but a portion of the structure to the Germans, only to emerge elsewhere and start the struggle all over again.
Exchanging gunfire down hallways, hurling grenades back and forth between rooms, Dragan's men inflicted significant casualties on the Germans. In spite of this heroic resistance, Dragan's platoon was reduced to a handful of men. After running out of ammunition, with their rations gone, one of the Soviet Guardsmen took out his bayonet and carved on a wall, Rodimtsev's Guardsmen fought and died for their country here. Under cover of darkness and the five remaining soldiers under his command slipped out of the building, made their way through the German lines, were reunited with the remainder of the division; the Battle at the Mamaev Kurgan Park began three weeks after the brutal fighting between the German and Russian infantrymen had begun in the outskirts of Stalingrad, on 15 September. During this portion of the battle, the division fought several Wehrmacht divisions for control of the park's central hilltop summit, which changed hands multiple times. Meanwhile, other divisional units fought in different sectors of Stalingrad.
The division was in the midst of the combat throughout the city in the remains of the bombed-out buildings and factories, on the slopes of the Mamaev Kurgan hills, in the Red October Tractor Plant and in the key strategic building known as "Pavlov's House". Most accounts state that of the 10,000 men of the division that crossed the Volga into the Battle of Stalingrad, only between 280 and 320 of them survived the struggle; this profligacy with life seems incredible to Western eyes, but was unremarkable during the conflict on the Eastern front. Following the Soviet victory at Stalingrad and the destruction of the German 6th Army, the 13th Guards are again pulled from the lines for re-fit and re-supply. Alongside the 5th Guards Army, the Division were held in reserve south of Kursk, in order to counter the forthcoming German offensive there – Operation Citadel; the original intention was for these two formations to counter-attack the Germans after the German assault had been ground down by the front line Soviet units, but both formations were committed to prevent a possible breakthrough.
After several days of continuous fierce fighting (including the tank b
A pedestal or plinth is the support of a statue or a vase. Although in Syria, Asia Minor and Tunisia the Romans raised the columns of their temples or propylaea on square pedestals, in Rome itself they were employed only to give greater importance to isolated columns, such as those of Trajan and Antoninus, or as a podium to the columns employed decoratively in the Roman triumphal arches; the architects of the Italian revival, conceived the idea that no order was complete without a pedestal, as the orders were by them employed to divide up and decorate a building in several stories, the cornice of the pedestal was carried through and formed the sills of their windows, or, in open arcades, round a court, the balustrade of the arcade. They would seem to have considered that the height of the pedestal should correspond in its proportion with that of the column or pilaster it supported. In the imperial China, a stone tortoise called bixi was traditionally used as the pedestal for important stele those associated with emperors.
According to the 1396 version of the regulations issued by the Ming Dynasty founder, the Hongwu Emperor, the highest nobility and the officials of the top 3 ranks were eligible for bixi-based funerary tablets, while lower-level mandarins' steles were to stand on simple rectangular pedestals. An elevated pedestal or plinth which bears a statue and, raised from the substructure supporting it is sometimes called an acropodium; the term is from the Greek akros or "topmost" and pous or "foot". Pedestal crater Pedestal desk Pedestal table, a table with a single central leg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pedestal". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press