Dracut is a town in Middlesex County. The town's population is 31,352. Before Europeans arrived in the mid-17th century and the surrounding area were known as Augumtoocooke. Important Pennacook Indian settlements were served by fishing at Pawtucket Falls on the Merrimack River and abundant game in the surrounding marsh areas. From the late 16th to mid-17th centuries, the powerful sachem Passaconaway and his family spent much of their lives on this land. Europeans began to settle in the area around 1653, established the town of Chelmsford, incorporated in 1655, on the opposite side of the Merrimack River from modern Dracut. In October 1665, wife of Nobb How and daughter of Passaconaway, sold the Augumtoocooke land to Captain John Evered known as Webb of Draucutt of Norfolk County for four yards of duffill and one pound of tobacco. Webb had months earlier sold 11,000 acres of the land — which he did not own — to Samuel Varnum for 400 four hundred pounds. Webb sold land to Richard Shatswell, who traded it to Edward Colburn for his home and land in Ipswich, Massachusetts.
Colburn and his family were the first settlers in Dracut who owned land with the intention of permanently living on it. Though this area, now known to the new settlers as Dracut, was across the Merrimack River from the Chelmsford town center, they agreed to pay taxes and relied on Chelmsford for protection, according to 1667 Middlesex Court documents. By summer 1669, protection became too costly and difficult, so the Chelmsford Mayor Henchman declared: Wherefore and Worshipful, I judge it needful and necessary that we have relief, that speedily of about twenty men or more for the repulsing of the enemy and guarding some outplaces, which are considerable on each side of the Merrimac, as Messrs. Howard, Coburn & company who must otherwise come in to us, leave what they have to the enemy, or be exposed to the merciless cruelty of bloody and barbarous men. On the morning of March 18, 1676, the Wamesit Indians burned down four of Edward Colburne's buildings attacked Samuel Varnum and family as they crossed the river to milk the cows grazing in the Dracut pastures.
The Indians fired upon their boat, killing Samuel's two sons, one died in his daughter's arms as she sat behind him. The accompanying soldiers and Samuel fired back. By the late 17th century the Varnum, Coburn and other families of the Dracut section of Chelmsford, dissatisfied with the protection provided, began to petition to the General Court to lay out their own township. To the Hon. Council & Representatives of his Majesty's Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England in General Court assembled February 1701; the petition of Samuel Sewall Esq. Benjamin Walker, John Hunt & Jonathan Belcher, proprietors of part of the Tract of Land called Dracut beyond Chelmsford in the County of Middlesex on the North Side of Merrimack River and of Samuel Varnum... Thomas Colburne... James Richardson... Ezra Colburn... Inhabitants and Proprietors of the said Tract of Land called Dracut... lyes commodious for a Township & hath about twenty families settled thereupon in which are about Eighty Souls & Forasmuch as the making said place a Township will not only be a great Encouragement to the Inhabitants thereof & be the means for a settlement of the Ministry among them but will be of considerable benefit to the Publick, be a great strengthening of the Frontier parts by reason of the people which will be desirous to settle at said place when made a Township because of the convenient positionship thereof.
Your Petitioners humbly pray that by the grant of this Honorable Court, the Tract of land aforesaid may be made a Township, that the Inhabitants, which are or shall settle thereupon, may have and enjoy all Libertys, Privileges & Immunities as the Inhabitants of other Towns within this Province have & do enjoy. And... the Tract of Land therein described be made a Township & called by the name of Dracut... Sent up by concurrence Nehemiah Jewett, Speaker. Dracut was granted separation from Chelmsford, was incorporated as a town on February 26, 1701. Parts of the community were part of the Wamiset Praying Town, one of the preserves set aside by the colonists for Christianized Indians; the town has several large ponds and swamps, numerous brooks. Dracut's early economy relied on fishing and milling, which led in turn to the 19th century industries of paper making and cotton textile manufacturing, including the Beaver Brook Mill; these mills attracted French-Canadian immigrants. There has been intense modern development in Dracut with suburban residential pressures from Lowell.
Twice in the 19th century, Lowell annexed large sections of Dracut into its borders. However, some rural landscapes remain intact. One of the better known is the 290-year-old Colburn/Cutter House, with its massive beams, huge center chimney and fireplaces; the building, dating back from about 1717, has served as the site of the annual Dracut Craft Fair. In addition, Dracut holds an annual Old Home Day every September starting in 2001; as of 2010, it is the only town in the world with the name "Dracut". According to the United States Census Bureau, the tow
New Hampshire Turnpike System
New Hampshire Turnpike System is a system of 93 miles of limited access highway, 36 miles of which are part of the National Highway System, within the U. S. state of New Hampshire. The Turnpike System is managed by the New Hampshire Department of Transportation Bureau of Turnpikes. There are three limited access highways that make up the Turnpike System: The Blue Star Turnpike known as the New Hampshire Turnpike; the Spaulding Turnpike. The Everett Turnpike, known as the Central Turnpike or Central New Hampshire Turnpike; the Blue Star and Spaulding Turnpikes are known collectively as the Eastern Turnpike. NHDOT Bureau of Turnpikes
Manchester, New Hampshire
Manchester is a city in the southern part of the U. S. state of New Hampshire. It is the most populous city in northern New England, an area comprising the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont; as of the 2010 census the city had a population of 109,565, up to 111,196 in a 2017 estimate. The combined Manchester-Nashua Metropolitan Area had a 2010 population of 400,721. Manchester is, along with Nashua, one of two seats of Hillsborough County, the state's most populous. Manchester lies near the northern end of the Northeast megalopolis and straddles the banks of the Merrimack River, it was first named by the merchant and inventor Samuel Blodgett, namesake of Samuel Blodget Park and Blodget Street in the city's North End. His vision was to create a great industrial center similar to that of the original Manchester in England, the world's first industrialized city. Manchester appears favorably in lists ranking the affordability and livability of U. S. cities, placing high in small business climate, upward mobility, education level.
Native Pennacook Indians called Amoskeag Falls on the Merrimack River — the area that became the heart of Manchester — Namaoskeag, meaning "good fishing place". In 1722, John Goffe III settled beside Cohas Brook building a dam and sawmill at what was dubbed "Old Harry's Town", it was granted by Massachusetts in 1727 as "Tyngstown" to veterans of Queen Anne's War who served in 1703 under Captain William Tyng. But at New Hampshire's 1741 separation from Massachusetts, the grant was ruled invalid and substituted with Wilton, resulting in a 1751 rechartering by Governor Benning Wentworth as "Derryfield" — a name that lives on in Derryfield Park, Derryfield Country Club, the private Derryfield School. In 1807, Samuel Blodget opened a canal and lock system to allow vessels passage around the falls, part of a network developing to link the area with Boston, he envisioned a great industrial center arising, "the Manchester of America", in reference to Manchester, England at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution.
In 1809, Benjamin Prichard and others built a water-powered cotton spinning mill on the western bank of the Merrimack. Following Blodgett's suggestion, Derryfield was renamed "Manchester" in 1810, the year the mill was incorporated as the Amoskeag Cotton & Woolen Manufacturing Company, it would be purchased in 1825 by entrepreneurs from Massachusetts, expanded to three mills in 1826, incorporated in 1831 as the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company. Amoskeag engineers and architects planned a model company town on the eastern bank, founded in 1838 with Elm Street as its main thoroughfare. Incorporation as a city followed for Manchester in 1846, soon home to the largest cotton mill in the world—Mill No. 11, stretching 900 feet long by 103 feet wide, containing 4,000 looms. Other products made in the community included shoes and paper; the Amoskeag foundry made rifles, sewing machines, textile machinery, fire engines, locomotives in a division called the Amoskeag Locomotive Works. The rapid growth of the mills demanded a large influx of workers, resulting in a flood of immigrants French Canadians.
Many residents descend from these workers. The Amoskeag Manufacturing Company went out of business in 1935, although its red brick mills have been renovated for other uses. Indeed, the mill town's 19th-century affluence left behind some of the finest Victorian commercial and residential architecture in the state. Manchester is in south-central New Hampshire, 18 miles south of Concord, the state capital, the same distance north of Nashua, the second-largest city in the state. Manchester is 51 miles north-northwest of the largest city in New England. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 35.0 square miles, of which 33.1 square miles are land and 1.9 square miles are water, comprising 5.33% of the city. Manchester is drained by the Merrimack River and its tributaries the Piscataquog River and Cohas Brook. Massabesic Lake is on the eastern border; the highest point in Manchester is atop Wellington Hill, where the elevation reaches 570 feet above sea level. The Manchester Planning Board, in its 2010 Master Plan, defines 25 neighborhoods within the city.
LivableMHT has drawn maps of the neighborhoods and neighborhood village centers as defined by the city. Recognition of particular neighborhoods varies, with some having neighborhood associations, but none have any legal or political authority; the major neighborhoods include Amoskeag, Rimmon Heights, Notre Dame/McGregorville and Piscataquog/Granite Square known as "Piscat" on the West Side. In 2007, the city began a Neighborhood Initiatives program to "insure that our neighborhoods are vibrant, livable areas since these are the portions of the city where most of the residents spend their time living, playing and going to school." The purpose of this initiative is to foster vibrancy and redevelopment in the neighborhoods, to restore the sense of neighborhood communities, overlooked in the city for some time. The city began the program with street-scape and infrastructure improvements in the Rimmon Heights neighborhood of the West Side, which has spurred growth and investment in and by the community.
Despite the success of the program in Rimmon Heights, it was unclear in recent years how the city planned to implement similar programs throughout the city. The city announced plans for extending the Neighborhood Initiatives program
Londonderry, New Hampshire
Londonderry is a town in western Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The town sits between the largest and fourth-largest communities in the state; the population was 24,129 at the 2010 census and an estimated 26,126 in 2017. Londonderry is known for its apple orchards and is home to the headquarters of Stonyfield Farm and part of Manchester-Boston Regional Airport; the more densely settled portion of town, where 11,037 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Londonderry census-designated place and occupies the southeastern and southern parts of town, around New Hampshire Route 102. Londonderry lies in an area, first known as "Nutfield" because of the dense woods with nut trees. A petition for the town was submitted to the General Court of the Province of New Hampshire on September 23rd, 1719; that petition stated that the petitioners had settled “at Nutfield about the Eleventh of Aprile last” – i.e. April 11th, 1719; that petition requested “ten miles square” and stated that there were now about seventy families and inhabitants from both Ireland and New England.
Many of the Scots-Irish settlers had left their homes in Londonderry in the Province of Ulster in the north of Ireland, arrived in Boston in 1718 to start a new life without religious wars and persecution. On June 21st, 1722, the town was chartered and given the name "Londonderry"; the grant made by Samuel Shute, Governor of the Province of New Hampshire, was for a tract of land described as follows: "Beginning on the North East Angle at a Beach Tree marked, the south East angle of Chester and Running from thence due South on Kingstown Line four miles and an half and from thence on a West Line one mile and three Quarters and from thence South six miles and an half and from thence West north West nine miles and an half, from thence North Eleven miles and an half from thence north north East Three miles from thence East South East one mile and from thence South South West to the South West Angle of Chester and from thence on an East Line Bounding on Chester Ten miles unto the Beach Tree first mentioned.”
The town was divided into two parishes on February 25th, 1739/40. Windham was set off and incorporated on February 12th, 1741/42; the northwest portion, with other land, was incorporated as Derryfield, now Manchester, on September 3rd, 1751. Derry was incorporated on July 2nd, 1827. Border adjustments and annexations were made throughout this period continuing until June 27th, 1857, when the line with Hudson was established. Approval of the petition submitted to the Province of New Hampshire required the petitioners to obtain an agreement from Col. John Wheelwright for the sale of the land, he held claim to it based on a grant to his grandfather. That agreement was obtained on October 12th, 1719, included a statement of the bounds, extending west as far as the Merrimack River; this conflicted with a grant for the town of Dunstable, now Nashua, made by the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1673. The provincial line between Massachusetts and New Hampshire was not settled in its present location until 1741.
Thus when Londonderry was granted, the westernmost portion lay within the Dunstable grant and the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The resulting land conflicts with "Dunstable encroachers" were still being dealt with by the town in 1783 and 1791. Private owners were resolving these conflicts between each other as late as 1812; the Manchester and Lawrence Railroad was opened in November 1849, with depots at North Londonderry, Wilson's Crossing and Windham. Two months on January 26th, 1850, Dearborn Whittier, a prominent resident, was hit and killed by a railroad car at Wilson's Crossing. On March 12th the town voted to require gates at all crossings, although the issue persisted for a few more years; the Manchester and Derry Street Railroad, sometimes referred to as the Derry and Manchester Street Railroad or trolley car, opened in December 1907 and operated between Broadway in Derry and Elm Street in Manchester until August 1926. In 1719, the first American potato was grown in Derry a part of Londonderry.
The first U. S. census, conducted in 1790, reported the town's population to be 2,622. Londonderry is the westernmost municipality in Rockingham County, it is bordered by the towns of Auburn to the northeast, Derry to the east, Windham to the southeast, all in Rockingham County, by Hudson to the south, Litchfield to the west, Manchester to the north, in Hillsborough County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 42.1 square miles, of which 42.0 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water, comprising 0.31% of the town. The town of Londonderry is drained on the east and south by Beaver Brook and on the west by Little Cohas Brook, Watts Brook, Colby Brook and Nesenkeag Brook, all of which flow to the Merrimack River; the town's highest point is 535 feet above sea level, on Number Eight Hill north of the center of town. The town is crossed by Interstate 93, New Hampshire Route 102, New Hampshire Route 128, New Hampshire Route 28. Half of Manchester–Boston Regional Airport, including the main terminal, is in the northwest corner of the town.
Though Londonderry has grown to become one of the larger towns, by population, in the state, it lacks any concentrated downtown area, central business district, or town center. No village had developed in Londonderry, as it was a rural farming area. Population growth in the town only began in the 1970s, when the construction of I-93 turned Londonderry into a bedroom community and exurb for the Greater Boston area; the major retail district lies in the town's southeastern corner ne
Middlesex County, Massachusetts
Middlesex County is a county in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in the United States. As of 2016, the estimated population was 1,589,774, making it the twenty-first most populous county in the United States, the most populous county in both Massachusetts and New England; as part of the 2010 national census, the Commonwealth's mean center of population for that year was geo-centered in Middlesex County, in the town of Natick at. Middlesex County is included in the Census Bureau’s Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA–NH Metropolitan Statistical Area. On July 11, 1997, the Massachusetts legislature voted to abolish the executive government of Middlesex County due to the county's insolvency. Though Middlesex County continues to exist as a geographic boundary it is used as district jurisdictions within the court system and for other administrative purposes, such as an indicator for elections; the National Weather Service weather alerts continue issuances based upon Massachusetts's counties. The county was created by the Massachusetts General Court on May 10, 1643, when it was ordered that "the whole plantation within this jurisdiction be divided into four shires."
Middlesex contained Charlestown, Watertown, Concord, Medford and Reading. In 1649 the first Middlesex County Registry of Deeds was created in Cambridge. On April 19, 1775, Middlesex was site of the first armed conflict of the American Revolutionary War. In 1855, the Massachusetts State Legislature created a minor Registry of Deeds for the Northern District of Middlesex County in Lowell. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, Boston annexed several of its adjacent cities and towns including Charlestown and Brighton from Middlesex County, resulting in an enlargement and accretion toward Suffolk County. Beginning prior to dissolution of the executive county government, the county comprised two regions with separate county seats for administrative purposes: The Middlesex-North District with its county seat in Lowell under the Registry of Deeds consisted of the city of Lowell, its adjacent towns of Billerica, Chelmsford, Dunstable, Tyngsborough and Wilmington; the Middlesex-South District with the county seat in Cambridge consisted of the remaining 44 cities and towns of Middlesex County.
Since the start of the 21st century much of the current and former county offices have physically decentralized from the Cambridge seat, with the sole exceptions being the Registry of Deeds and the Middlesex Probate and Family Court, which both retain locations in Cambridge and Lowell. Since the first quarter of 2008, the Superior Courthouse has been seated in the city of Woburn; the Cambridge District Court. Of the fourteen counties of Massachusetts, Middlesex is one of eight which have had no county government or county commissioners since July 1, 1998, when county functions were assumed by state agencies at local option following a change in state law. Prior to its dissolution, the executive branch consisted of three County Commissioners elected at-large to staggered four-year terms. There was a County Treasurer elected to a six-year term; the county derived its revenue from document filing fees at the Registries of Deeds and from a Deeds Excise Tax. Budgets as proposed by the County Commissioners were approved by a County Advisory Board that consisted of a single representative of each of the 54 cities and towns in Middlesex County.
The votes of the individual members of the Advisory Board were weighted based on the overall valuation of property in their respective communities. The County Sheriff and two Registers of Deeds are each elected to serve six-year terms. Besides the employees of the Sheriff's Office and the two Registries of Deeds, the county had a Maintenance Department, a Security Department, some administrative staff in the Treasurer's and Commissioners' Offices, the employees of the hospital; the country government owned and operated the Superior Courthouse, one of, in Cambridge and one in Lowell. The legislation abolishing the Middlesex County executive retained the Sheriff and Registers of Deeds as independently elected officials, transferred the Sheriff's Office under the state Department of Public Safety and the two Registry of Deeds offices to the Massachusetts Secretary of State's Office. Additionally, all county maintenance and security employees were absorbed into the corresponding staffs of the Massachusetts Trial Court.
The legislation transferred ownership of the two Superior Courthouses to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The hospital was closed; the office of County Commissioner was abolished and the office of County Treasurer was abolished as of December 31, 2002. Any county roads transferred to the Commonwealth as part
Pelham, New Hampshire
Pelham is a town in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 12,897 at the 2010 census, in 2017 the estimated population was 13,681. Pelham was split from Old Dunstable in 1741, when the border between Massachusetts and New Hampshire was settled, it was incorporated in 1746. The town is named after 1st Duke of Newcastle. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 26.9 square miles, of which 26.4 square miles are land and 0.58 square miles, or 2.09%, are water. The highest point in Pelham is Jeremy Hill, at 577 feet above sea level; the town contains the southernmost point in the state of New Hampshire, at 42°41′49″N 71°17′40″W, a location known as the "Old Boundary Pine", named for a pine tree that marked the difference in definition of the northern boundary of Massachusetts. This point is 3 miles due north of Pawtucket Falls in Lowell, marks the point where the straight-line border to the west meets the 3-mile buffer defined by the Merrimack River.
In addition to being New Hampshire's southernmost town, Pelham is the easternmost town in Hillsborough County. Three New Hampshire towns and three Massachusetts towns border Pelham: Tyngsborough to the southwest, Dracut to the south and east, Methuen to the east, Salem to the northeast, Windham to the north, Hudson to the west; the earliest census data shows the town of Pelham having a population of 543 residents in 1767. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,914 people, 3,606 households, 2,982 families residing in the town; the population density was 412.9 people per square mile. There were 3,740 housing units at an average density of 141.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was: 97.34% White 0.44% African American 0.22% Native American 1.04% Asian 0.25% from other races 0.71% from two or more races Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.96% of the population. In 2000, there were 3,606 households, with an average household size of 3.03 and an average family size of 3.33. 43.6% of households had children under the age of 18 living with them.
71.8% were married couples living together. 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present. 17.3% were non-families. 12.9% of all households were made up of individuals. 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. In 2000, the town's population had a median age of 36 years. 28.9% under the age of 18 6.1% from 18 to 24 34.0% from 25 to 44 23.2% from 45 to 64 7.8% who were 65 years of age or olderFor every 100 females, there were 98.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $68,608.. The median income for a family was $73,365.. Males had a median income of $47,685 versus $33,375 for females; the per capita income for the town was $25,158. About 1.6% of families and 3.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.1% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over. Public schools are managed by the Pelham School District, part of School Administrative Unit #28, whose boundaries are coterminous with the boundaries of the town.
The Superintendent is William Furbush. The schools in the district are: Pelham Elementary School Principal: Tom Adamakos Assistant Principal: Trisha Kaufmann Assistant Principal: Jessica VanVranken Pelham Memorial School Principal: Stacy Maghakian Assistant Principal: Katrina Mackey Pelham High School Principal: Gary Dempsey Assistant Principal: Dawn MeadSt. Patrick School was at one time a parochial school in the town. Pelham is governed by a board of selectmen: Harold Lynde, Chair William McDevitt, Vice-Chair Douglas Viger Amy Spencer Heather Forde Pelham is crossed by three New Hampshire state routes: NH 38 enters the town from the south at the Massachusetts border, curves to the northeast, exiting the town into Salem, it follows Bridge Street through town, serves as the commercial hub of Pelham. NH 111A begins at a junction with NH 128 just north of the Massachusetts border, going northeast, exiting the town into Windham, it is known as Windham Road within Pelham. NH 128 is part of the larger Mammoth Road which connects Lowell, Massachusetts to Hooksett, New Hampshire.
It enters the town from Massachusetts border, goes due north, along the western edge of the town, before exiting the town into Windham. The closest Interstate highway is Interstate 93, accessed 6 miles northeast of the center of Pelham in neighboring Salem. Pelham appears on that highway's signs for Exit 2; the U. S. Route 3 freeway that runs through Nashua is 8 miles west of the center of Pelham, Interstate 495 in Massachusetts is 9 miles south of Pelham, on the south side of Lowell. Pelham has no rail transport within the town limits; the nearest commercial airport is Manchester–Boston Regional Airport along the border of Londonderry and Manchester. The nearest rail service is the Lowell Line of the MBTA Commuter Rail which can be accessed at the Charles A. Gallagher Transit Terminal in Lowell, Massachusetts; the nearest Amtrak station is Haverhill Station in Massachusetts. The park is located northwest of the center of Pelham at 305 Mammoth Road, just north of Nashua Road; the park's land area is surrounded by NH 128, two roads that branch off it, a minor road which intersects NH 111