Army of the Mughal Empire
The Army of the Mughal Empire was the force by which the Mughal emperors established their empire in the 15th century and expanded it to its greatest extent at the beginning of the 18th century. Although its origins, like the Mughals themselves, were in the cavalry-based armies of central Asia, its essential form and structure was established by the empire's third emperor, Akbar; the army had no regimental structure and the soldiers were not directly recruited by the emperor. Instead, such as nobles or local leaders, would recruit their own troops, referred to as a mansab, contribute them to the army; the Mughals originated in Central Asia. Like many Central Asian armies, the mughal army was horse-oriented; the ranks and pay of the officers were based on the horses. Babur's army looked like an army of Afghan origin. Akbar introduced a new system called the mansabdari system. Emperors followed this system. Mughal emperors maintained a small standing army, they numbered only in thousands. Instead the officers called.
The Mughal Emperors maintained small standing armies. The emperor's own troops were called Ahadis, they were directly recruited by the Mughal emperor himself from the emperor's own blood relatives and tribesmen. They had their own pay roll and pay master, were better paid than regular hormen sowars, they are gentlemen soldiers on administrative duties in the palace. They included palace guards, emperor's own body guards shahiwalas, gatekeepers, they had their own horses. The emperor maintained a division of foot soldiers and had his own artillery brigade. Akbar introduced this unique system; the Mughal army had no regimental structure. In this system each officer worked for government was a military officer, responsible for recruiting and maintaining his quota of horsemen, his rank was based on the horsemen he provided, from ten, the lowest, up to 5000. A prince had the rank of 25000; this called as sowar system. An officer must keep a 1:2 ratio of men to horses. Horses must be verified and branded, preferably an Arabian breed.
He must maintain his quota of horses and cots for transportation, as well as foot soldiers and artillery. Soldiers were paid in cash or jagir, cash paid for month to maximum one year; the emperor allocated jagir for maintenance of mansabs. The Mughal army had no real divisions, though it had four types of warriors: cavalry, infantry and navy; the cavalry held the primary role, the others were auxiliary. The cavalry was the superior branch of the Mughal army; the horsemen recruited by mansabdars were high class people, better paid than foot soldiers and artillery men. They must have at least two of good equipment, they used swords, shields, more guns. Their armour was made up of steel or leather, they wore the traditional dress of their tribes; the regular horseman was called a sowar. Mughal cavalry included elephants used by generals, they bore well good armour. They were used for transportation to carry heavy goods and heavy guns; some of rajput mansabdar provided camel cavalry also. They were men from desert areas like Rajastan.
Emperors' Own infantry called as Ahsam. Mansabadars provided infantrymen, they are ill-paid and ill-equipped. They lacked discipline; this group included swordsmen, as well as servants and artisans. They used a wide variety of weapons like swords, lances, pistols, muskets, etc, they wore no armour. It was an important branch of mughal army. Earlier mughal rulers made good use of it, it was used by babur to achieve an empire Hindustan. Mughal artillery consisted of light artillery. Heavy cannon were expensive and heavy for transportation. Used in battlefield was somewhat risky, they were dragged by elephants to battlefields. They sometimes exploded, killing the crew members. Light artillery was most useful in battle field, they were made up of bronze and drawn with horses. This included camel bear swivel guns, they were effective in battlefield. But time to time the emperors show no interest in development of cannons, they became much out of date. Granadiers and raketies came under this category, it was the poorest branch of the Mughal military.
The Empire did maintain warships, however they were small. The fleet consisted of transport ships; the Navy's main duty was controlling piracy, but they were used in war. Mughal weapons Tipu Sultan Edwardes, Stephen Meredyth. Mughal Rule In India. Sharma, S. R. Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material
Tajiks are a Persian-speaking Iranian ethnic group native to Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. Tajiks are the largest ethnicity in Tajikistan, the second largest in Afghanistan which constitutes over half of the global Tajik population, they speak varieties of a Western Iranian language. In Tajikistan, since the 1939 Soviet census, its small Pamiri and Yaghnobi ethnic groups are included as Tajiks. In China, the term is used to refer to its Pamiri ethnic groups, the Tajiks of Xinjiang, who speak the Eastern Iranian Pamiri languages. In Afghanistan, the Pamiris are counted as a separate ethnic group; as a self-designation, the literary New Persian term Tajik, which had some previous pejorative usage as a label for eastern Persians or Iranians, has become acceptable during the last several decades as a result of Soviet administration in Central Asia. Alternative names for the Tajiks are Eastern Persian, Fārsīwān, Dīhgān which translates to "farmer or settled villager", in a wider sense "settled" in contrast to "nomadic" and was used to describe a class of land-owning magnates as "Persian of noble blood" in contrast to Arabs and Romans during the Sassanid and early Islamic period.
The Tajiks are an Iranian people, speaking a variety of Persian, concentrated in the Oxus Basin, the Farḡāna valley and on both banks of the upper Oxus, i.e. the Pamir Mountains and northeastern Afghanistan and western Afghanistan. The ancient Tajiks were chiefly agriculturalists before the Arab Conquest of Iran. While agriculture remained a stronghold, the Islamization of Iran resulted in the rapid urbanization of historical Khorasan and Transoxiana that lasted until the devastating Mongolian invasion. Several surviving ancient urban centers of the Tajik people include Herat, Bukhara, Khujand and Kabul. Contemporary Tajiks are the descendants of ancient Eastern Iranian inhabitants of Central Asia, in particular, the Sogdians and the Bactrians, other groups, with an admixture of Western Iranian Persians and non-Iranian peoples. According to Richard Nelson Frye, a leading historian of Iranian and Central Asian history, the Persian migration to Central Asia may be considered the beginning of the modern Tajik nation, ethnic Persians, along with some elements of East-Iranian Bactrians and Sogdians, as the main ancestors of modern Tajiks.
In works, Frye expands on the complexity of the historical origins of the Tajiks. In a 1996 publication, Frye explains that many "factors must be taken into account in explaining the evolution of the peoples whose remnants are the Tajiks in Central Asia" and that "the peoples of Central Asia, whether Iranian or Turkic speaking, have one culture, one religion, one set of social values and traditions with only language separating them." Regarding Tajiks, the Encyclopædia Britannica states:The Tajiks are the direct descendants of the Iranian peoples whose continuous presence in Central Asia and northern Afghanistan is attested from the middle of the 1st millennium bc. The ancestors of the Tajiks constituted the core of the ancient population of Khwārezm and Bactria, which formed part of Transoxania. Over the course of time, the eastern Iranian dialect, used by the ancient Tajiks gave way to Farsi, a western dialect spoken in Iran and Afghanistan; the geographical division between the eastern and western Iranians is considered and to be the desert Dasht-e Kavir, situated in the center of the Iranian plateau.
According to John Perry The most plausible and accepted origin of the word is Middle Persian tāzīk'Arab', or an Iranian cognate word. The Muslim armies that invaded Transoxiana early in the eighth century, conquering the Sogdian principalities and clashing with the Qarluq Turks consisted not only of Arabs, but of Persian converts from Fārs and the central Zagros region. Hence the Turks of Central Asia adopted a variant of the Iranian word, täžik, to designate their Muslim adversaries in general. For example, the rulers of the south Indian Chalukya dynasty and Rashtrakuta dynasty referred to the Arabs as "Tajika" in the 8th and 9th century. By the eleventh century, the Qarakhanid Turks applied this term more to the Persian Muslims in the Oxus basin and Khorasan, who were variously the Turks' rivals, models and subjects. Persian writers of the Ghaznavid, Seljuq and Atābak periods adopted the term and extended its use to cover Persians in the rest of Greater Iran, now under Turkish rule, as early as the poet ʿOnṣori, ca.
1025. Iranians soon accepted it as an ethnonym, as is shown by a Persian court official's referring to mā tāzikān "we Tajiks"; the distinction between Turk and Tajik became stereotyped to express the symbiosis and rivalry of the nomadic military executive and the urban civil bureaucracy. According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the oldest known usage of the word Tajik as a reference to Persians in Persian literature can be found in the writings of the Persian poet Jalal ad-Din Rumi; the 15th century Turkic-speaking poet Mīr Alī Šer Navā'ī used Tajik as a reference to Persians. An exampl
Sayyid (Arabic: سيد, Persian:. Female sayyids are given the titles Sayyida, Alawiyah or Sharifa. In some regions of the Islamic world, such as in India, the descendants of Muhammad are given the title Amir or Mir, meaning commander, general; the descendents of Muhammed honour the possession of family trees tracing back their ancestry. In other regions, they are called Shah. Children of a Sayyida mother but a non-Sayyid father are referred to as Mirza. In the Arab world, sayyid is the equivalent of the English word "liege lord" or "master" when referring to a descendant of Muhammad, as in Sayyid Ali Sultan; the word sidi is used in Arabic. Although not verified, many Arabic language experts state that it has its roots in the word Al Asad الأسد, meaning lion because of the qualities of valour and leadership. Although reliable statistics are unavailable, conservative estimates put the number of Sayyids in the tens of millions; the Sayyids are by definition a branch of the Banu Hashim, that traces its lineage to Adnan and therefore it is directly descended from Ishmael, as well as being collaterally descended from his paternal half brother Isaac, the sons of Abraham.
Banū Hāshim is the clan of Muhammad. Members of this clan are referred to as Hashemites. Descendants of Muhammed carry the titles Sayyid, Hashmi and Sharif, or the Ashraf clan. Today, two sovereign monarchs – Abdullah II of Jordan and Muhammad VI of Morocco – and the erstwhile royal family of Libya are considered to be a part of Banu Hashim; the Hashemites are the ruling royal family of Jordan. The House was the royal family of Syria and Iraq; the family belongs to the Dhawu Awn, one of the branches of the Hasanid Sharifs of Mecca – referred to as Hashemites – who ruled Mecca continuously from the 10th century until its conquest by the House of Saud in 1924. Their eponymous ancestor is great-grandfather of Muhammad. Traditionally, Islam has had a rich history of the veneration of relics of those attributed to the Muhammad; the most genuine prophetic relics are believed to be those housed in Istanbul's Topkapı Palace, in a section known as Hirkai Serif Odasi. In the early period, the Arabs used the term Sayyid and Sharif to denote descendants from both Hasan and Husayn.
However, in the modern era, the term'Sharif' has been used to denote descendants from Hasan, the term'Sayyid' has been used to denote descendants from Husayn. Sayyids include the following titles in their names to indicate the figure from whom they trace their descent; the descendants of Ali and his other wives are called Alevi sayyid. Note: When transliterating Arabic words into English there are two approaches. 1. The user may transliterate the word letter for letter, e.g. "الزيدي" becomes "a-l-z-ai-d-i". 2. The user may transcribe the pronunciation of the word, e.g. "الزيدي" becomes "a-zz-ai-d-i". This is; when the user sees the prefixes an, ar, as, ash, at, az, etc... this means the word is the transcription of the pronunciation. An i, wi, or vi ending could be translated by the English suffixes -ite or -ian; the suffix transforms a personal name or place name into the name of a group of people connected by lineage or place of birth. Hence Ahmad al-Hassani could be translated as Ahmad, the descendant of Hassan, Ahmad al-Manami as Ahmad from the city of Manami.
For further explanation, see Arabic names.1Also, El-Husseini, Al-Husseini and Hussaini. 2Those who use the term Sayyid for all descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib regard Allawis or Alavis as Sayyids. However, Allawis are not descendants of Muhammad, as they are descended from the children of Ali and the women he married after the death of Fatima, such as Umm ul-Banin; those who limit the term Sayyid to descendants of Muhammad through Fatima, Allawis/Alavis are the same how Sayyids. Some Sayyids claim to be "Najeeb Al Tarfayn", meaning "Noble on both sides", which indicates that both of their parents are Sayyid, but in actuality this term is applied only to those Sayyids who have both Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain in their ancestry. These Sayyids in the Arab world, would keep the prefix of Sayyid Alshareef or Shareefayn, or Sayyidayn or Sheikh Assayyid before their names, followed by their father's and grandfather's names and the clan's and tribe's names followed by AlHasani bil Hussaini or Al Hussaini bil Hasani, depending on which Imam is patrilineal or matrilineal.
Many Sayyids in South Asia and Shia Sayyids, think that only the progeny of both Sayyid parents are called Najeeb Al Tarfayn, but this idea may be attributed to a lack of knowledge in Arabic language and Genealogy. The importance of this concept of Najeeb AlTarfayn has its source in the Hadeeth of M
Raja, is a title for a monarch or princely ruler in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. The title has a long history in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, being attested from the Rigveda, where a rājan- is a ruler, see for example the dāśarājñá, the "Battle of Ten Kings". While most of the Hindu salute states were ruled by a Maharaja exclusively from 13 guns up, a number had Rajas: Hereditary salutes of 11-guns the Raja of Rajouri the Raja of Ali Rajpur the Raja of Bilaspur the Raja of Chamba the Raja of Faridkot the Raja of Jhabua the Raja of Mandi the Raja of Manipur the Raja of Narsinghgarh the Raja of Pudukkottai the Raja of Rajgarh the Raja of Sailana the Raja of Samthar the Raja of Sitamau the Raja of SuketHereditary salutes of 9-guns the Raja of Dharampur the Raja of SangliHereditary salute of 9-guns the Raja of SavantwadiHereditary salutes of 9-guns the Raja of Baraundha the raja of Jawhar, Hereditory salute of 9-guns the Raja of Bhor the Raja of Chhota Udepur the Raja of Khilchipur the Raja of Maihar the Raja of Mudhol the Raja of Nagod the Raja of Sant the Raja of ShahpuraPersonal salute of 9-guns the Raja of Bashahr Rajadharma is the dharma which applies to the king, or the Raja.
Dharma is that which upholds, supports, or maintains the order of the universe and is based on truth. It is of central importance in achieving order and balance within the world and does this by demanding certain necessary behaviors from people; the king served two main functions as the Raja: Religious. The religious functions involved certain acts for propitiating gods, removing dangers, guarding dharma, among other things; the secular functions involved helping prosperity, dealing out even-handed justice, protecting people and their property. Once he helped the Vibhore to reach his goal by giving the devotion of his power in order to reduce the poverty from his kingdom. Protection of his subjects was seen as the foremost duty of the king; this was achieved by punishing internal aggression, such as thieves among his people, meeting external aggression, such as attacks by foreign entities. Moreover, the king possessed executive and legislative dharmas, which he was responsible for carrying out.
If he did so wisely, the king believed that he would be rewarded by reaching the pinnacle of the abode of the sun, or heaven. However, if the king carried out his office poorly, he feared that he would suffer hell or be struck down by a deity; as scholar Charles Drekmeier notes, "dharma stood above the king, his failure to preserve it must accordingly have disastrous consequences". Because the king's power had to be employed subject to the requirements of the various castes' dharma, failure to "enforce the code" transferred guilt on to the ruler, according to Drekmeier some texts went so far as to justify revolt against a ruler who abused his power or inadequately performed his dharma. In other words, Danda as both the king's tool of coercion and power, yet his potential downfall, "was a two-edged sword"; the executive duty of the king was to carry out punishment, or danda. For instance, a judge who would give an incorrect verdict out of passion, ignorance, or greed is not worthy of the office, the king should punish him harshly.
Another executive dharma of the king is correcting the behavior of brahmanas that have strayed from their dharma, or duties, through the use of strict punishment. These two examples demonstrated how the king was responsible for enforcing the dharmas of his subjects, but was in charge of enforcing rulings in more civil disputes; such as if a man is able to repay a creditor but does not do so out of mean-spiritedness, the king should make him pay the money and take five percent for himself. The judicial duty of the king was deciding any disputes that arose in his kingdom and any conflicts that arose between dharmasastra and practices at the time or between dharmasastra and any secular transactions; when he took the judgment seat, the king was to abandon all selfishness and be neutral to all things. The king would hear cases such as thefts, would use dharma to come to a decision, he was responsible for making sure that the witnesses were honest and truthful by way of testing them. If the king conducted these trials according to dharma, he would be rewarded with wealth, respect, an eternal place in heaven, among other things.
However, not all cases fell upon the shoulders of the king. It was the king's duty to appoint judges that would decide cases with the same integrity as the king; the king had a legislative duty, utilized when he would enact different decrees, such as announcing a festival or a day of rest for the kingdom. Rajadharma portrayed the king as an administrator above all else; the main purpose for the king executing punishment, or danda, was to ensure that all of his subjects were carrying out their own particular dharmas. For this reason, rajadharma was seen as the root of all dharma and was the highest goal; the whole purpose of the king was to make everyone prosper. If they were not prospering, the king was not fulfilling his dharma, he had to carry out his duties as laid down in the science of government and "not act at his sweet will." Indeed, in the major writings on dharma, the dharma of the king was regarded as the "capstone" of the other castes' dharma both due to the king's goal of securing the happiness and prosperity of his people as well as his ability to act as the "guarantor" of the whole social structure through the enforcement of Danda.
Bhama Shah was a noted general and close aide of Maharana Pratap. Bhama Shah is well known for providing his wealth to Maharana Pratap, when Maharana had become financial weak and were to the point of starvation; the funds provided by much of his territory. Bhama shah was born in 1542 in an Oswal Teli family, his father Bharmal Kavdia was Qiledar of Ranthambore Fort appointed by Rana Sanga and was prime minister under Maharana Udai Singh II. Bhama Shah was a great general, minister of Mewar, promoted to post of Prime Minister of Mewar by Maharana Pratap, to whom he served as close aide and confidant, he along with his younger brother Tarachand fought in several battles for Mewar. Tarachand, four years younger to Bhama shah was an able administrator, valiant fighter and commanded the forces of Mewar on several occasions like his elder brother Bhamashah. Both of them were noted for their statesmanship, war skills and generosity. Bhama shah was the nagar seth of Chittor. After Maharana Pratap was defeated by Akbar in the Battle of Haldighati,had no funds at all to carry on the fight, his family was close to starvation.
At this point, Bhama shah and his brother Tarachand, presented their wealth consisting of 20,000 gold coins and 2,500,000 silver rupees to maharana Pratap, overwhelmed. They, being skilled in war-fare, won a lot of wealth from Mughals. With this help Maharana Pratap could organize an army and carried on his further fights against Mughals. Bhama shah was promoted to the post of the Prime Minister by Maharana Pratap and Tarachand was appointed as a Governor of'Godwad' region after the battle of Haldighati in which he fought bravely side by side of Bhama Shah. Tarachand governed the region of'Godwad' ably up to the time of his death, he was given an independent charge of this region and hence was bestowed the title of'Thakur'.'Sadri' was founded by Tarachand where he had constructed many buildings.'Sadri' is considered as gate way of Mewar to Marwar. Bhama shah died in 1600 and at the time of his death he was in-charge of Mewar's treasury under Amar Singh I. Descendants of Bhama Shah served as prime ministers of the Maharanas of Udaipur for a few generations.
His son Jiwashah was the chief during the rule of Maharana Amar Singh, grandson Akshayraj was the prime minister during the rule of Maharana Karan Singh and his descendant Rana Jagat Singh. His descendants still live in Udaipur. There is a memorial in Udaipur in honour of the great patriot. Government of India has issued a postage stamp in his honor in year 2000; the Maharana Mewar Charitable Foundation has instituted the "Bhama shah Award". This award was instituted to honour Rajasthan students achieving the top position by securing the highest percentage in select facilities from amongst all the universities of Rajasthan, in recognition of selfless sacrifice, astute financial management, devotion to duty; the Annual State Award consists of a cash award of ₹2,001, a commemorative medal and a Merit certificate. A Bhamashah Yojana bas been started on his name by government of Rajasthan. DeshGaurav BhamaShah - Late Shri Harilal Upadhyay, 1976 The tribes and Cates of the Central Provinces of India, 1916, by Robert Vane Russell, See p. 111-161, history and origins of the Shrimal Oswal Jain and other bania castes
Mirza is a name of Persian origin. It is used as a prefix to identify patriarchal lineage, it is derived from a historical title of Persian origin, denoting the rank of a royal prince, high nobleman, distinguished military commander, or a scholar. It was used as a title by and today signifies patriarchal lineage to the various Persian Empires, the Shirvanshahs and Circassians of the Caucasus, the Mughals / Moguls or Muslim Rajputs of the Indian Subcontinent, it was a title bestowed upon members of the highest aristocracies in Tatar states, such as the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan and the Nogai Horde. The word Mīrzā is derived from the Persian term Amīrzādeh which means child of the Amīr or child of the ruler. Amīrzādeh in turn consists of the Arabic title Amīr, meaning "commander" and the Persian suffix zādeh, meaning "son of" or "lineage of". Due to vowel harmony in Turkic languages, the alternative pronunciation Morza is used. Variant spellings in English include mirzya, mirize, mosey, murse, mirzey, murze, mirza, meerza.
The titles themselves were given by the Kings and Emperors to their sons and grandsons, or distant kins. Noblemen loyal to the kings received this Title; the title itself is derived from the title Emir. Emir, meaning "commander" or "Prince", is derived from the Semitic root "Amr", meaning "command", it meant "commander" or "leader" in reference to a group of people. It came to be used as a title of governors or rulers in smaller states, renders the English word "prince"; the word entered English in 1595, from the French émir. Padeshah Ali Mirza Prince Alqas Mirza Prince Mohammad Baqer Mirza Vizier Mirza Shokrollah Isfahani Vizier Mirza Salman Jaberi Vizier Mirza Shah Hossein Prince Reza Qoli Mirza Prince Shahrokh Mirza Prince Ebrahim Mirza Statesman Mirza Mehdi Khan Prince Nader Mirza His Highness Prince Iraj Mirza His Highness Prince Malek Mansur Mirza Shao es-Saltaneh His Highness Prince Bahram Mirza Sardar Mass'oud His Highness Prince Abbas Mirza His Highness Prince Abdol Majid Mirza Highness Prince Ali-Mohammad Mirza His Highness Prince Bahram Mirza His Highness Prince Djahangir Mirza His Highness Prince Eskandar Mirza His Highness Prince Hamid Mirza His Highness Prince Khanlar Mirza His Highness Prince Khosrow Mirza His Highness Prince Muhammad Mirza His Highness Prince Mahmoud Mirza His Highness Prince Mohammad Hassan Mirza His Highness Prince Mohammad Hassan Mirza II His Highness Prince Ahmad Shah Qajar His Highness Prince Nosrat-od-Dowleh Firouz Mirza His Highness Prince Firouz Mirza Nosrat-ed-Dowleh Farman Farmaian III His Highness Prince Ali Mirza Qajar His Highness Prince Nosrat al-Din Mirza Salar es-Saltaneh His Highness Prince Abdol-samad Mirza Ezz ed-Dowleh Saloor His Highness Prince Mass'oud Mirza Zell-e Soltan His Highness Prince Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah His Highness Prince Mohammad Taqi Mirza His Highness Prince Kamran Mirza Nayeb es-Saltaneh Three consecutive titular kings of Shirvan, of the Shirvanshah Dynasty, adopted the title as well following the death of Gurban Ali.
Gasim Mirza Kavus Mirza Abu Bakr Mirza The hereditary title of Mirza was adopted by the nobility class of the Circassians. Idar of Kabardia known as "Mirza Haydar Temruk Bey", was the great-grandson of Prince Inal - Sultan of Egypt the founder of the "Temruk dynasty" of the Kabardian princes, known in Russia as the "Cherkassky" a Circassian princely family. Circassian nobility with the name Mirza include: Mirza Haydar Temruk Bey Princely Issues: Temruk Mirza Kambulat Mirza Zhelegot Mirza Under Catherine the Great, empress of Russia, the Mirzas gained equal rights with the Russian nobility due to their extreme wealth. Abdul Mirza was given the title Prince Yusupov, his descendant Prince Felix Yusupov married Princess Irina Alexandrovna of Russia, the only niece of Tsar Nicholas II. In the Indian Subcontinent, the title Mirza was borne by an imperial prince, it was adopted as part of ones name, implying relationship to the Turk dynasties like the Mughal Dynasty. In the traditional naming sequence of the Indian royal families, the title can be placed both before the name and after it, such as Prince Mirza Mughal or Prince Kamran Mirza.
Prince Khusrau Mirza was the grandson of Emperor Babur, son of Emperor Jahangir and a brother of Emperor Shah Jahan. Emperor Akbar Shah II was known as Prince Mirza Akbar before his coronation. Emperor Babur took the imperial title of Padishah on 6 March 1508, before which he used the title Mirza. Mirza Zahiruddin 1523–1530, first Mughal Emperor. Mirza Nasiruddin 1530–1539 & 1554–1555, second Mughal Emperor. Mirza Jalaluddin 1555–1605, third Mughal Emperor. Mirza Nuruddin 1605–1627, fourth Mughal Emperor. Mirza Khurram 1627–1658, fifth Mughal Emperor. Mirza Muhiuddin 1658–1707, sixth Mughal Emperor. Mirza Azam 1707, seventh Mughal Emperor. Mirza Mu'Azzam 1707–1712, eighth Mughal Emperor. Sultan Muizuddin Mirza 1712–1713, ninth Mughal Emperor. Mouinudd'in Muhammad Mirza 1712–1719, tenth Mughal Emperor. Sultan Shamsuddin Mirza 1719, eleventh Mughal Emperor. Sultan Rafiuddin Mirza 1719, twelfth Mughal Emperor. Sultan Nekusiyar Mirza 1719, thirteenth Mughal Emperor. Sultan Akhtar Mirza, fourteenth Mughal Emperor.
Ahmad Shah Mirza 1720–1748, fifteenth Mughal Emperor. Aziz'ud-Din Beg Mirza 1754–1759, sixteenth Mughal Emperor. Jalal'ud-Din Mirza 1759–1760, seventeenth Mughal Emperor. Muhi-ul-millat Mirza 1788–1806, eighteenth Mugha
The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan but are found as a minority group in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and China. Uzbek diaspora communities exist in Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan; the origin of the word Uzbek remains disputed. One view holds that it is eponymously named after Oghuz Khagan known as Oghuz Beg, became the word Uzbek. Another states that the name means independent or the lord itself, from Oʻz and the Turkic title Bek/Bey/Beg. There is another theory which holds that the pronunciation of Uz comes from one of the Oghuz Turks variously known as Uz or Uguz united with the word Bey or Bek to form uguz-bey, meaning "leader of an oguz". Before, 5th century, what is today's Uzbekistan was part of Sogdia inhabited by Sogdians, an Indo-Iranian people, it was part of the Achaemenid Empire and part of Sasanian Empire. From 5th to 6th century, what is today's Uzbekistan was part of the Hephthalite Empire. From 6th to 8th century, what is today's Uzbekistan.
Turkic and Chinese migration into central Asia occurred during the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Chinese armies commanded by Turkic generals stationed in large parts of central Asia. But Chinese influence ended with the An Lushan rebellion. From the 9th century on, Transoxania was under the rule of Turkic Kara-Khanid Khanate, their arrival in Transoxania signalled a definitive shift from Iranian to Turkic predominance in Central Asia. Kara-Khanid ruler Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan was the first Turkic ruler to convert Islam, most people of Central Asia soon followed. In the 12th century, Transoxania was conquered by Qara Khitai, a sinicized Khitan dynasty, they brought to Central Asia the Chinese system of government. In the 13th century, Kara-Khanid Khanate was destroyed by the Turkic Khwarazmian dynasty, a vassal of the Qara Khitai. Although Turko-Mongol infiltration into Central Asia had started early, as late as the 13th century when Turkic and Mongol armies conquered the entire region, the majority of Central Asia's peoples were Iranian peoples such as Sogdians, Bactrians and, more ancient, the Saka–Massagetae tribes.
It is believed that these ancient Indo-European-speaking peoples were linguistically assimilated by smaller but dominant Turkic-speaking groups while the sedentary population adopted the Persian language, the traditional lingua franca of the eastern Islamic lands. The language-shift from Middle Iranian to Turkic and New Persian was predominantly the result of an elite dominance process; this process was boosted during the Mongol conquest when millions were either killed or pushed further south to the Pamir region. The modern Uzbek language is derived from the Chagatai language which gained prominence in the Timurid Empire; the position of Chagatai was further strengthened after the fall of the Timurids and the rise of the Shaybanid Uzbek Khaqanate that shaped the Turkic language and identity of modern Uzbeks, while the unique grammatical and phonetical features of the Uzbek language as well as the modern Uzbek culture reflect the more ancient Iranian roots of the Uzbek people. The modern Uzbek population represents varying degrees of diversity derived from the high traffic invasion routes through Central Asia.
Once populated by Iranian tribes and other Indo-European people, Central Asia experienced numerous invasions emanating out of Mongolia that would drastically affect the region. According to recent genetic genealogy testing from a University of Oxford study, the genetic admixture of the Uzbeks clusters somewhere between the Iranian peoples and the Mongols. From the 3rd century B. C. Central Asia experienced nomadic expansions of Altaic-speaking oriental-looking people, their incursions continued for hundreds of years, beginning with the Hsiung-Nu, in ~300 B. C. and followed by the Turks, in the 1st millennium A. D. and the Mongol expansions of the 13th century. High levels of haplogroup 10 and its derivative, haplogroup 36, are found in most of the Altaic-speaking populations and are a good indicator of the genetic impact of these nomadic groups; the expanding waves of Altaic-speaking nomads involved not only eastern Central Asia—where their genetic contribution is strong, —but regions farther west, like Iran, Iraq and the Caucasus, as well as Europe, reached by both the Huns and the Mongols.
In these western regions, the genetic contribution is low or undetectable though the power of these invaders was sometimes strong enough to impose a language replacement, as in Turkey and Azerbaijan. The difference could be due to the population density of the different geographical areas. Eastern regions of Central Asia must have had a low population density at the time, so an external contribution could have had a great genetic impact. In contrast, the western regions were more densely inhabited, it is that the existing populations were more numerous than the conquering nomads, therefore leading to only a small genetic impact. Thus, the admixture estimate from North-East Asia is high in the east, but is detectable west of Uzbekistan. Uzbeks are said to have included 92 tribes in their orbit: Manghit, Qipchaq, Qanghli, Durman, Shoran, Tama, Girai, Anghit, Tubin, Ramdan, Busa, Qilwai, Jaurat, Mehdi, Sakhtiiyan, Ming, Saroi, Qushchi, Chaqmaq, Turcoman, Kait, Qalan, Ormaq, Lechi, Qari