Sir Alexander Chapman Ferguson is a Scottish former football manager and player who managed Manchester United from 1986 to 2013. He is considered one of the greatest and most successful managers of all time. Ferguson played as a forward including Dunfermline Athletic and Rangers. While playing for Dunfermline, he was the top goalscorer in the Scottish league in the 1965–66 season. Towards the end of his playing career he worked as a coach started his managerial career with East Stirlingshire and St Mirren. Ferguson enjoyed a successful period as manager of Aberdeen, winning three Scottish league championships, four Scottish Cups and the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1983, he managed Scotland following the death of Jock Stein, taking the team to the 1986 World Cup. Ferguson was appointed manager of Manchester United in November 1986. During his 26 years with Manchester United he won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles, five FA Cups, two UEFA Champions League titles, he was knighted in the 1999 Queen's Birthday Honours list for his services to the game.
Ferguson is the longest-serving manager of Manchester United, having overtaken Sir Matt Busby's record on 19 December 2010. He retired from management at the end of the 2012–13 season, having won the Premier League in his final season. Born to Alexander Beaton Ferguson, a plater's helper in the shipbuilding industry, his wife, Alex Chapman Ferguson was born at his grandmother's home on Shieldhall Road in Govan on 31 December 1941, but grew up in a tenement at 667 Govan Road, where he lived with his parents as well as his younger brother Martin. Ferguson attended Broomloan Road Primary School and Govan High School, he began his football career with Harmony Row Boys Club in Govan, before progressing to Drumchapel Amateurs, a youth club with a strong reputation for producing senior footballers. Ferguson's playing career began as an amateur with Queen's Park, where he made his debut as a striker, aged 16, he described his first match as a "nightmare", but scored Queen's Park's goal in a 2–1 defeat against Stranraer.
His most notable game for Queen's Park was the 7–1 defeat away to Queen of the South on Boxing Day 1959 when ex-England international Ivor Broadis scored four of the Queen of the South goals. Ferguson was the solitary Queen's Park goalscorer. Despite scoring 20 goals in his 31 games for Queen's Park, he could not command a regular place in the side and moved to St Johnstone in 1960. Although he continued to score at St Johnstone, he was still unable to command a regular place and requested transfers. Ferguson was out of favour at the club and he considered emigrating to Canada, however St Johnstone's failure to sign a forward led the manager to select Ferguson for a match against Rangers, in which he scored a hat-trick in a surprise victory. Dunfermline signed him the following summer, Ferguson became a full-time professional footballer; the following season, Dunfermline were strong challengers for the Scottish League and reached the Scottish Cup Final, but Ferguson was dropped for the final after a poor performance in a league game against St Johnstone.
Dunfermline lost the final 3–2 to Celtic failed to win the League by one point. The 1965–66 season saw Ferguson notch up 45 goals in 51 games for Dunfermline. Along with Joe McBride of Celtic, he was the top goalscorer in the Scottish league with 31 goals, he joined Rangers for £65,000 a record fee for a transfer between two Scottish clubs. He performed well in Europe during his two seasons with the club, scoring six goals in nine appearances in the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup including two against 1. FC Köln in the 1967–68 competition, an important strike against Athletic Bilbao in the 1968–69 edition which helped Rangers into the semi-finals, but on both occasions they were knocked out by English opposition, he was blamed for a goal conceded in the 1969 Scottish Cup Final, in a match in which he was designated to mark Celtic captain, Billy McNeill, was subsequently forced to play for the club's junior side instead of for the first team. According to his brother, Ferguson was so upset by the experience that he threw his losers' medal away.
There have been claims that he suffered discrimination at Rangers after his marriage to a Catholic, Cathy Holding, but Ferguson himself makes it clear in his autobiography that Rangers knew of his wife's religion when he joined the club and that he left the club reluctantly, due to the fall-out from his alleged cup final mistake. The following October, Nottingham Forest wanted to sign Ferguson, but his wife was not keen on moving to England at that time so he went to Falkirk instead, he remained at Brockville for four years gaining more league appearances. Ferguson's time at Falkirk was soured by this and he responded by requesting a transfer and moved to Ayr United, where he finished his playing career in 1974. In June 1974, Ferguson was appointed manager of East Stirlingshire, at the comparatively young age of 32, it was a part-time job that paid £40 per week, the club did not have a single goalkeeper at the time. He gained a reputation as a disciplinarian, with club forward Bobby McCulley saying he had "never been afraid of anyone before but Ferguson was a frightening bastard from the start."The following October, Ferguson was invited to manage St Mirren.
While they were below East Stirlingshire in the league, they were a bigger club and although Ferguson felt a degree of loyalty towards East Stirlingshire, he decided to join St Mirren
Director of football
A director of football is a senior management figure at an association football team most in Europe. The exact nature of the role is unclear and causes much debate in the sports media; the presence of a director of football acts as an intermediary between the manager and the board and may relieve pressure on a manager by handling aspects away from day-to-day coaching, allowing a manager to focus on on-pitch performance. The director may help to stabilise the club – many examples exist of director stepping in as a caretaker manager on the departure of the manager; the director – an experienced football figure – may positively advise a less experienced manager or the board of a less well developed club. In contrast, there are many examples of tensions arising between director and manager due to questions over the remit and powers of the two positions; this had led to many well publicised and highly damaging disputes within clubs. In general, directors of football hold a nominal stake; this is opposed to other members of the board with.
While most common in association football, professional gridiron football teams have a similar director of football operations or vice president of football operations position, who serves as the second in command to the general manager or team president. The level of power and influence in the day-to-day and transfer operations of the club held by a director of football may vary considerably. In some cases, the position may be as a figurehead or as a club ambassador, with transfer dealings, team affairs, squad selection and day-to-day operations handled by the manager and his staff; the position in this case is filled by a former famous player. Bobby Charlton at Manchester United is such an example. In such a case, the role of the director of football is more one of club promotion and marketing than that of actual control over footballing operations. Employing a well-known football personality in such a position may be used to enhance the perceived prestige of the club, improving the club's position in the transfer market.
Tension may arise in this role between manager and director if the director is a figurehead – should the role be filled by a former manager, the presence of that individual within the club may act to undermine the authority of the present manager and act to add pressure during periods of poor performance. The presence of Sir Matt Busby at Manchester United as general manager after retirement is considered to have undermined his immediate successors in the 1970s, despite his retirement from day-to-day club affairs (although he did return to the manager's seat on an interim basis 18 months after his original "retirement". Other well known managers have been promoted to director of football or similar roles, including Ron Greenwood at West Ham United in 1974, when first team duties were handed over to coach John Lyall. However, Greenwood returned to frontline management three years with the England national football team. In January 1994, Lawrie McMenemy returned to Southampton nearly a decade after resigning as manager to become the club's first director of football, a role which he held for more than three years, although the actual management of the team was left to Alan Ball, Dave Merrington and Graeme Souness.
In March 2002, Harry Redknapp stepped down as director of football at Portsmouth after a year in the role to succeed Graham Rix as manager. Appointments in this case are long-term due to the negative reaction of fans to the removal of a former club legend. On occasion, the role has been filled until the death of the director – such as the aforementioned Busby, who remained as a director of Manchester United until his death in January 1994 at the age of 84. Others remain in the role. A notable case is Bob Paisley at Liverpool, who after his retirement as manager in 1983 he was given a seat on the board of directors and held this role until 1992, when at the age of 73 he resigned from the club due to the onset of Alzheimer's disease, four years before his death. In this case, the director of football may be sought by a board – or manager – in order to provide advice or technical assistance on footballing or other aspects that are perceived as lacking or desired by the club; this may be the case where the manager is inexperienced or perceived as naive in a particular aspect, allowing the director to advise against costly errors.
This may be the case where a club in a lesser league or lower division with ambitions to develop further and improve their league position seeks an experienced former manager or director from a more prominent league or club in order to use their experience to further the club. Such an example is that of Giovanni Trapattoni at Red Bull Salzburg or Sven-Göran Eriksson at Notts County. In this case, the tag "director of football" may be dropped in order to prevent the "director" from undermining the present manager by his presence at the club with the person taking up a position such as with the youth academy perceived as subordinate to the manager. Appointments in this case are short term – for between 1/2 seasons – with the director imparting their advice and departing to another club. In other cases, the role of the director of football may include control over transfer dealings and targets and aspects outside coaching and squad selection, which are handled by the manager; the director may oversee all levels of the club – youth to first team – with the manager dedica
In sports, a coach is a person involved in the direction and training of the operations of a sports team or of individual sportspeople. A coach may be a teacher; the original sense of the word coach is that of a horse-drawn carriage, deriving from the Hungarian city of Kocs where such vehicles were first made. Students at the University of Oxford in the early nineteenth century used the slang word to refer to a private tutor who would drive a less able student through his examinations just like horse driving. Britain took the lead in upgrading the status of sports in the 19th century. For sports to become professionalized, "coacher" had to become established, it professionalized in the Victorian era and the role was well established by 1914. In the First World War, military units sought out the coaches to supervise physical conditioning and develop morale-building teams. A coach in a professional league, is supported by one or more assistant coaches and specialist support staff; the staff may include coordinators and fitness specialists, trainers.
In elite sport, the role of nutritionists and physiotherapists will all become critical to the overall long-term success of a coach and athlete. They work on the over all responsibility of their athletes. In association football, the duties of a coach can vary depending on the level they are coaching at and the country they are coaching in, amongst others. In youth football, the primary objective of a coach is to aid players in the development of their technical skills, with emphasis on the enjoyment and fair play of the game rather than physical or tactical development. In recent decades, efforts have been made by governing bodies in various countries to overhaul their coaching structures at youth level with the aim of encouraging coaches to put player development and enjoyment ahead of winning matches. In professional football, the role of the coach or trainer is limited to the training and development of a club's "first team" in most countries; the coach is aided by a number of assistant coaches, one of which carries the responsibility for the training and preparation of the goalkeepers.
The coach is assisted by medical staff and athletic trainers. The medium to long term strategy of a football club, with regard to transfer policies, youth development and other sporting matters, is not the business of a coach in most football countries; the presence of a sporting director is designed to give the medium term development of a club the full attention of one professional, allowing the coach to focus on improving and producing performances from the players under their charge. The system provides a certain level of protection against overspending on players in search of instant success. In football, the director of a professional football team is more awarded the position of manager, a role that combines the duties of coach and sporting director; the responsibilities of a European football manager tend to be divided up in North American professional sports, where the teams have a separate general manager and head coach, although a person may fill both roles of general manager and head coach.
While the first team coach in football is an assistant to the manager who holds the real power, the American style general manager and head coach have distinct areas of responsibilities. For example, a typical European football manager would have the final say on player lineups and contract negotiations, while in American sports these duties would be handled separately by the head coach and general manager, respectively. In baseball, at least at the professional level in North America, the individual who heads the coaching staff does not use the title of "head coach", but is instead called the field manager. Baseball "coaches" at that level are members of the coaching staff under the overall supervision of the manager, with each coach having a specialized role; the baseball field manager is equivalent a head coach in other American professional sports leagues. The term manager used without qualification always refers to the field manager, while the general manager is called the GM. At amateur levels, the terminology is more similar to that of other sports.
The person known as the "manager" in professional leagues is called the "head coach" in amateur leagues. S. college baseball. In American football, like many other sports, there are assistant coaches. American football includes a head coach, an assistant head coach, an offensive coordinator, a defensive coordinator, a special teams coordinator and defensive line coaches, coaches for every position, a strength and conditioning coach, among other positions; the Guardian describes the social conservatism that has defined American football coaches for decades: Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the enemies of football were civil rights, the campus protest movement, anti-war activism, long hair, other offenses against grooming. In August 1969 Sports Illustrated devoted a cover story to the plight of “the desperate coach,” adrift in a world unmoored from its old verities and tasked with managing a generation of hirsute, anti-authoritarian “free thinkers”. There was, no struggle to get coaches to go on the record.
Dallas Cowboys coach Tom Landry lamented in the late 1960s that without football, “society would lose on the great strongholds – paying the price. There’s not much discipline left in this country.” Around the same time University of Southern California assistant coach Marv Goux, surveying the alarming growth of his charges’ hair, groused: “The bums eat the
Training ground (association football)
A training ground is an area where professional association football teams prepare for matches, with activities concentrating on skills and fitness. They sometimes form part of a club's youth system, as clubs consider it important to have good facilities to aid the development of young players. Training grounds are separate from a team's stadium, as clubs use the facilities to avoid overusing the stadium's pitch. However, teams train inside the opposing team's stadium on the day before a European away game, both for the benefit of the media and to become familiar with the surface. There have been several high-profile incidents, at training grounds, where players have been injured in disputes between teammates. Joey Barton was given a suspended prison sentence, on 1 July 2008, for an assault on teammate Ousmane Dabo on Manchester City's training ground and Andy Carroll broke teammate Steven Taylor's jaw in a fight. Professional football training exercises and sessionsFootball tactics and skills
A football team is a group of players selected to play together in the various team sports known as football. Such teams could be selected to play in a match against an opposing team, to represent a football club, state or nation, an all-star team or selected as a hypothetical team and never play an actual match. There are several varieties of football, notably association football, gridiron football, Australian rules football, Gaelic football, rugby league and rugby union; the number of players selected for each team within these varieties and their associated codes can vary substantially. Sometimes, the word "team" is limited to those who play on the field in a match and does not always include other players who may take part as replacements or emergency players. "Football squad" may be used to be inclusive of these reserve players. The term football club is the most used for a sports club, an organised or incorporated body with a president, committee and a set of rules responsible for ensuring the continued playing existence of one or more teams which are selected for regular competition play.
The oldest football clubs date back to the early 19th century. The words team and club are sometimes used interchangeably by supporters, although they refer to the team within the club playing in the highest division or competition; the number of players that take part in the sport thus forming the team are: Association football: 11Indoor soccer: 6 Futsal, beach soccer, five-a-side football: 5 American football: 11 Arena football: 8 Canadian football: 12 Rugby league: 13 Rugby union: 15 Rugby sevens: 7 Gaelic football: 15 Australian rules football: 18 List of association football clubs List of men's national association football teams List of women's association football clubs List of women's national association football teams List of Australian rules football clubs
Joachim Löw is a German football coach, former player. He is the head coach of the Germany national team, which he led to victory at the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil and the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup in Russia. In 1978, Löw started his playing career with 2. Bundesliga club SC Freiburg, he holds the club's overall goal scoring record. In 1980, Löw joined VfB Stuttgart in the Bundesliga, but he had difficulties establishing himself in the starting lineup and played only four matches. In the 1981–82 season, Löw played for Eintracht Frankfurt, but he returned to Freiburg the following year. In 1982–83, he scored eight goals in 34 matches, 1983–84 he scored 17 goals in 31 matches in the 2. Bundesliga. Afterwards, he returned to the Bundesliga with Karlsruher SC, but he only scored two goals in 24 matches, he joined Freiburg again for four years, played 116 matches and scored 38 goals. Löw concluded his career in Switzerland, where he played for FC Winterthur. Löw played four times for the Germany national under-21 team.
Löw started his coaching career as a youth coach for FC Winterthur while he was still active as a player. In 1994–95, he served as player-coach of FC Frauenfeld. In 1995–96, he became an assistant coach to VfB Stuttgart head coach Rolf Fringer; as Fringer had the opportunity to become coach of the Switzerland national team, Löw was promoted caretaker manager on 14 August 1996. He became the permanent manager and was at the club until 21 May 1998, his first match as head coach was a 4–0 win against Schalke 04 on 17 August 1996. They finished the 1996–97 Bundesliga season in fourth place; the 1997–98 season started with a 3–0 against Karlsruher SC on 22 July 1997 in the semi–final of the DFB-Ligapokal. They went on to lose in the final against Bayern Munich on 26 July 1997. In the Bundesliga, Stuttgart finished in fourth place. During the season, in the DFB-Pokal, Stuttgart reached the competition's semi-finals, defeating reserve team of Borussia Mönchengladbach, Hertha BSC, SSV Ulm 1846 and KFC Uerdingen 05 en route.
In the semi-final on 17 February 1998, Bayern Munich defeated Stuttgart 3–0. Stuttgart got to the final of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. Stuttgart eliminated IP Vestmannaeyja, Slavia Prague and Lokomotiv Moscow. In the final on 13 May 1998, Stuttgart lost 1–0 to Chelsea; this proved to be his final match. He finished with a record of 20 draws and 23 losses. Löw joined Turkish club Fenerbahçe on 1 July 1998, his first match was a 0–0 draw against Dardanelspor. During the 1998–99 season, Fenerbahçe finished third in the Süper Lig and were eliminated in the first round of the UEFA Cup, they were serving a one-year ban in the Turkish Cup. Löw became manager of Karlsruher SC on 25 October 1999, his first match was a 1–1 draw against Hannover 96 on 31 October 1999. He was manager until 19 April 2000, finishing with a record of seven draws and ten losses, his final match was a 3–1 loss to Hannover on 16 April 2000, while his only win came in a 2–1 win against Fortuna Köln on 19 March 2000. He was sacked, with the club in last place.
Marco Pezzaiuoli replaced Löw for the remainder of the season and only had two wins in the remaining seven matches, finished the season in last place, were relegated. Löw returned to Turkey as manager of Adanaspor from 20 December 2000 to 2 March 2001, he failed to win any matches during this time. When he left Adanaspor, the club was in the relegation zone at 16th place. Löw became manager of Tirol Innsbruck and Austria Wien in Austria. Löw became manager of Tirol Innsbruck on 10 October 2001 and led the team to the 2001–02 Austrian Bundesliga, he finished with a record of five draws and nine losses. The same year, the club was liquidated. Löw was once again unemployed, he was with Austria Wien from 1 July 2003 to 24 March 2004. During the 2003–04 season, Austria Wien were eliminated from Champions League by Marseille in the third qualifying round and eliminated in the UEFA Cup by Borussia Dortmund in the first round, they lost the Austrian Super Cup to FC Kärnten. He left the club on 24 March 2004.
When Jürgen Klinsmann succeeded Rudi Völler as the head coach of the Germany national team following a disappointing UEFA Euro 2004, he brought Löw into the German setup as assistant manager. Klinsmann and Löw had met years earlier at a coaching school and both shared a philosophy focused on attacking football. Under their reign, Klinsmann and Löw's German team reached the semi-final stage at the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup and 2006 FIFA World Cup. Germany lost 3–2 to Brazil in the semi-final of the 2005 Confederations Cup. Germany defeated Mexico 4–3 in the third place encounter. Klinsmann and Löw's new attacking philosophy saw Germany score the most goals of any team in the tournament. Germany opened the 2006 World Cup on 9 June in Munich with a 4–2 victory against Costa Rica in an exciting match. A last minute 1–0 win over Poland and a 3–0 over Ecuador followed. Germany defeated Sweden in the round of 16 with two Lukas Podolski goals, followed by a grueling battle with Argentina. In the penalties after finishing extra time at 1–1, the coaching staff gave Jens Lehmann a prepared list of possible Argentinian penalty takers and their preferred way to shoot, reported to have helped ensure Germany's victory.
The semi-final match with Italy was a disappointment however, with the hosts falling 2–0 after reaching the 119th minute in extra time with the score at 0–0. Germany, turned in a dominant performance again
Formation (association football)
In association football, the formation describes how the players in a team position themselves on the pitch. Association football is a fluid and fast-moving game, a player's position in a formation does not define their role as rigidly as for, for instance, a rugby player, nor are there episodes in play where players must expressly line up in formation. A player's position in a formation defines whether a player has a defensive or attacking role, whether they tend to play towards one side of the pitch or centrally. Formations are described by three or four numbers, which denote how many players are in each row of the formation from the most defensive to the most forward. For example, the popular "4–5–1" formation has four defenders, five midfielders, a single forward. Different formations can be used depending on whether a team wishes to play more attacking or defensive football, a team may switch formations between or during games for tactical reasons; the choice of formation is made by a team's manager or head coach.
Skill and discipline on the part of the players is needed to implement a given formation in professional football. Formations need to be chosen bearing in mind; some formations were created to address strengths in different types of players. In the early days of football, most team members would play in attacking roles, whereas modern formations always have more defenders than forwards. Formations are described by categorising the players according to their positioning along the pitch, with the more defensive players given first. For example, 4–4–2 means four defenders, four midfielders, two forwards. Traditionally, those within the same category would play as a flat line across the pitch, with those out wide playing in a more advanced position. In many modern formations, this is not the case, which has led to some analysts splitting the categories in two separate bands, leading to four- or five-numbered formations. A common example is 4–2–1–3, where the midfielders are split into two defensive and one offensive player.
An example of a five-numbered formation would be 4–1–2–1–2, where the midfield consists of a defensive midfielder, two central midfielders and an offensive midfielder. The numbering system was not present; the choice of formation is related to the type of players available to the coach. Narrow formations. Teams with a surfeit of central midfielders, or teams who attack best through the centre, may choose to adopt narrow formations such as the 4–1–2–1–2 or the 4–3–2–1 which allow teams to field up to four or five central midfielders in the team. Narrow formations, depend on the full-backs to provide width and to advance upfield as as possible to supplement the attack in wide areas. Wide formations. Teams with a surfeit of forwards and wingers may choose to adopt formations such as 4–2–3–1, 3–5–2 and 4–3–3, which commit forwards and wingers high up the pitch. Wide formations allow the attacking team to stretch play and cause the defending team to cover more ground. Teams may change formations during a game to aid their cause: Change to attacking formations.
When chasing a game for a desirable result, teams tend to sacrifice a defensive player or a midfield player for a forward in order to chase a result. An example of such a change is a change from 4–5–1 to 4–4–2, 3–5–2 to 3–4–3, or 5–3–2 to 4–3–3. Change to defensive formations; when a team is in the lead, or wishes to protect the scoreline of a game, the coach may choose to revert to a more defensive structure by removing a forward for a more defensive player. The extra player in defence or midfield adds solidity by giving the team more legs to chase opponents and recover possession. An example of such a change is a change from 4–4–2 to 5–3–2, 3–5–2 to 4–5–1, or 4–4–2 to 5–4–1. Formations can be deceptive in analysing a particular team's style of play. For instance, a team that plays a nominally attacking 4–3–3 formation can revert to a 4–5–1 if a coach instructs two of the three forwards to track back in midfield. In the football matches of the 19th century, defensive football was not played, the line-ups reflected the all-attacking nature of these games.
In the first international game, Scotland against England on 30 November 1872, England played with seven or eight forwards in a 1–1–8 or 1–2–7 formation, Scotland with six, in a 2–2–6 formation. For England, one player would remain in defence, picking up loose balls, one or two players would hang around midfield and kick the ball upfield for the other players to chase; the English style of play at the time was all about individual excellence and English players were renowned for their dribbling skills. Players would attempt to take the ball forward as far as possible and only when they could proceed no further, would they kick it ahead for someone else to chase. Scotland surprised England by passing the ball among players; the Scottish outfield players were organised into pairs and each player would always attempt to pass the ball to his assigned partner. With so much attention given to attacking play, the game ended in a 0–0 draw; the first long-term successful formation was first recorded in 1880.
In Association Football, published by Caxton in 1960, the following