Manama is the capital and largest city of Bahrain, with an approximate population of 157,000 people. Long an important trading center in the Persian Gulf, Manama is home to a diverse population. After periods of Portuguese and Persian control and invasions from the ruling dynasties of Saudi Arabia and Oman, Bahrain established itself as an independent nation during the 19th century period of British hegemony. Although the current twin cities of Manama and Muharraq appear to have been founded in the 1300s, Muharraq took prominence due to its defensive location and was thus the capital of Bahrain until 1337. Manama was the gateway to the main Bahrain Island. In the 20th century, Bahrain's oil wealth helped spur fast growth and in the 1990s a concerted diversification effort led to expansion in other industries and helped transform Manama into an important financial hub in the Middle East. Manama was designated as the 2012 capital of Arab culture by the Arab League, a beta global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2018.
The name is derived from the Arabic word المنامة meaning "the place of rest" or "the place of dreams". There is evidence of human settlement on the northern coastline of Bahrain dating back to the Bronze Age; the Dilmun civilisation inhabited the area in 3000 BC, serving as a key regional trading hub between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilisation. 100,000 Dilmun burial mounds were found across the north and central regions of the country, some originating 5,000 years ago. Despite the discovery of the mounds, there is no significant evidence to suggest heavy urbanisation took place during the Dilmun era, it is believed. Evidence of an ancient large rural population was confirmed by one of Alexander the Great's ship captains, during voyages in the Persian Gulf. A vast system of aqueducts in northern Bahrain helped facilitate ancient horticulture and agriculture; the commercial network of Dilmun lasted for 2,000 years, after which the Assyrians took control of the island in 700 BC for more than a century.
This was followed by Babylonian and Achaemenid rule, which gave way to Greek influence during the time of Alexander the Great's conquests. In the first century AD, the Roman writer Pliny the Elder wrote of Tylos, the Hellenic name of Bahrain in the classical era, its pearls and cotton fields; the island came under the control of the Parthian and Sassanid empires by which time Nestorian Christianity started to spread in Bahrain. By 410–420 AD, a Nestorian bishopric and monastery was established in Al Dair, on the neighbouring island of Muharraq. Following the conversion of Bahrain to Islam in 628 AD, work on one of the earliest mosques in the region, the Khamis Mosque, began as early as the seventh century AD. During this time, Bahrain was engaged in long distance marine trading, evident from the discovery of Chinese coins dating between 600–1200 AD, in Manama. In 1330, under the Jarwanid dynasty, the island became a tributary of the Kingdom of Hormuz; the town of Manama was mentioned by name for the first time in a manuscript dating to 1345 AD.
Bahrain Manama and the nearby settlement of Bilad Al Qadeem, became a centre of Shia scholarship and training for the ulema, it would remain so for centuries. The ulema would help fund pearling expeditions and finance grain production in the rural areas surrounding the city. In 1521, Bahrain fell to the expanding Portuguese Empire in the Persian Gulf, having defeated Hormuz; the Portuguese consolidated their hold on the island by constructing the Bahrain Fort, on the outskirts of Manama. After numerous revolts and an expanding Safavid empire in Persia, the Portuguese were expelled from Bahrain and the Safavids took control in 1602; the Safavids, sidelining Manama, designated the nearby town of Bilad Al Qadeem as the provincial capital. The town was the seat of the Persian governor and the Shaikh al-Islam of the islands; the position of Shaikh al-Islam lay under the jurisdiction of the central Safavid government and as such, candidates were vetted by the Isfahan courts. During the Safavid era, the islands continued to be a centre for Twelver Shi'ism scholarship, producing clerics for use in mainland Persia.
Additionally, the rich agricultural northern region of Bahrain continued to flourish due to an abundance of date palm farms and orchards. The Portuguese traveler Pedro Teixeira commented on the extensive cultivation of crops like barley and wheat; the opening of Persian markets to Bahraini exports pearls, boosted the islands' export economy. The yearly income of exported Bahraini pearls was 600,000 ducats, collected by around 2,000 pearling dhows. Another factor that contributed to Bahrain's agricultural wealth was the migration of Shia cultivators from Ottoman-occupied Qatif and Al-Hasa, fearing religious persecution, in 1537. Sometime after 1736, Nader Shah constructed a fort on the southern outskirts of Manama. Persian control over the Persian Gulf waned during the half of the 18th century. At this time, Bahrain archipelago was a dependency of the emirate of Bushehr, itself a part of Persia. In 1783, the Bani Utbah tribal confederation invaded Bahrain and expelled the resident governor Nasr Al-Madhkur.
As a result, the Al Khalifa family became the rulers of the country, all political relations with Bushehr and Persia/Iran were terminated. Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Khalifa become the dynasty's first Hakim of Bahrain. Political instability in the 19th century had disastrous ef
Silas Hare was a U. S. Representative from Texas. Silas Hare Sr. was born in Ross County, Ohio, to Jacob and Elizabeth Freshour Hare on November 13, 1827, lived the first fourteen years of his life with his grandfather Daniel Hare. His father died in 1835, in 1841, Hare rejoined his mother and other family members in Hamilton County, near Noblesville, where he attended common and private schools, he studied law in Noblesville, was admitted to the Indiana Bar Association in 1850 and commenced practice in Noblesville, Indiana. Hare moved to Texas, in 1853 where he continued the practice of law. In 1852, Hare began traveling to improve his health, he visited Mexico, Central America, Oregon. Hare served during the Mexican–American War in the 1st Indiana Volunteers 1846 and 1847. At the Battle of Buena Vista, Hare was wounded by a lance. During the Civil War Hare served as a captain in the Confederate States Army, he was appointed Captain and Quartermaster to attain the rank of Major in 1863, with the First Regiment of the Arizona Brigade stationed in Texas.
He served as Chief justice of New Mexico in 1862 under the Confederate Government. Hare resumed the practice of law, he served as district judge of the criminal court 1873–1876. He served as delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1884. Hare was elected as a Democrat to the Fifty-first Congresses, he was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1890. In 1890, Hare resumed the practice of law in Washington, D. C. In 1849, he married Octavia Elizabeth Rector of Ohio; the couple had seven children: West Point cadet Luther Rector. Octavia is interred at West Hill Cemetery in Sherman, Texas. In 1903, the 76-year-old Hare married for a second time to 66-year-old Mary Louise Kennedy in a secret ceremony in Baltimore, Maryland taking his friends by surprise; the elopement left the New York Times speculating about the honeymoon, "They have not returned, the ex-Congressman's friends have no idea where they are."Silas Hare died in Washington, D. C. on November 26, 1908, is interred with his first wife in Sherman, Texas.
Mary Louise Kennedy Hare died November 3, 1912. United States Congress. "Silas Hare". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Stefan Grimm was a German biologist and professor of toxicology at Imperial College London. He researched signalling cascades in the development of tumours. Grimm was found dead in Northwood, Middlesex on 25 September 2014 after being told that he was "struggling to fulfil the metrics" of a professorial post by his head of department; the coroner described his death as "needless". Grimm studied for his PhD under the supervision of Patrick Bäuerle at the University of Tübingen, working on the role of NFκB in cell transformation and apoptosis. From 1995 to 1998 he was postdoctoral fellow with Philip Leder at Harvard University, he took up a junior post as a group leader at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry. In 2004 he moved to Imperial College London. Grimm's research programme focused on apoptosis, signalling pathways, tumour-genesis. Here, he made fundamental contributions to the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cell death in connection with the development of cancer.
In 20 years, he published 50 journal articles, two books, filed 5 patent applications. Grimm was found dead at his home in Middlesex on 25 September 2014 with typed notes next to his body, his inquest subsequently ruled. One month after his death, on 21 October, an email with the subject line How Professors are treated at Imperial College set to deliver on a delay timer, was sent from the address firstname.lastname@example.org to senior members of the medical faculty. In the email Grimm, describes how his head of department told him that although he had submitted the highest number of grant applications in the medical faculty, despite acquiring £135,000 in grant income, he needed to obtain a programme grant or'start to give serious consideration as to whether you are performing at the expected level of a Professor at Imperial College.' In his last email Grimm had this to say of the senior staff in his faculty:These formidable leaders are playing an interesting game: They hire scientists from other countries to submit the work that they did abroad under different conditions for the Research Assessment, supposed to gauge the performance of British universities.
Afterwards they leave them alone to either perform with grants or being kicked out. If your work is submitted to this Research Assessment and brings in money for the university, you are targeted if your grant income is deemed insufficient; those submitted to the research assessment hence support those colleagues who are unproductive but have grants. Grant income is all that counts here, not scientific output. Of Imperial College London he said, This is not a university anymore but a business with few up in the hierarchy... profiteering the rest of us are milked for money, be it professors for their grant income or students who pay 100 pounds just to extend their write-up status. The Rector of Imperial College, Alice Gast gave credence to Grimm's analogy, when she described university professors as "really like small business owners... they have their own research and they have their research funding to look after."On 1 December, David Colquhoun, Emeritus Professor of Pharmacology at UCL and long-time critic of managerialism and research assessment in British Universities wrote a blog post entitled “Publish and perish at Imperial College London: the death of Stefan Grimm."
Colquhoun published the emails sent by his head of department. The post was viewed 196,000 times in the year after Grimm's death; the day after it was posted it Colquhoun's web server received so many page requests. Colquhoun described Imperial's performance targets as "a recipe for unoriginal research. It’s an incentive to cut corners... It is a prostitution of science." On 4 December, Imperial issued a statement via Caroline Davis, its Communications and Public Affairs Reporter. The statement expressed sadness at the "tragic loss" of Professor Grimm and reported that "senior colleagues have offered their deepest condolences to Stefan’s family on behalf of the college and all those affected by this tragedy"; the statement denied "claims appearing on the internet... Professor Grimm's work was... under formal review... he had been given any notice of dismissal." Imperial commissioned an internal review into its performance management procedures, commenting:"Professor Grimm had been under review in the informal process for nearly two years.
His line manager was using this period to help Professor Grimm obtain alternative work. The subsequent formal process would have involved a minimum of two formal meetings with time to improve in-between formal meetings before consideration would have been given to the termination of Professor Grimm’s employment. Understandably there is a reluctance to move into formal hearings when the member of staff is hard working and diligent, but the formal stages would have provided more clarity to Professor Grimm on process and support through the written documentation, representation at meetings and HR involvement.""It is recommended that the new capability procedure and ordinance include greater clarity on timescales for informal action and how this might operate in different roles."Colquhoun commented: "It seems to be absurd to describe...... as an attempt to'help' Professor Grimm. It was a direct threat to the livelihood of a competent 51 year-old full professor. Having flow charts for the bullying would not have helped."