Piangil, once spelled "Pyangil", is a town in the Mallee region of northern Victoria, Australia. It is 382 kilometres north west of the state capital, Melbourne and 46 kilometres north west of the regional centre of Swan Hill. At the 2016 census and the surrounding rural area had a population of 259. Piangil Post Office opened on 17 June 1907 and was renamed Piangil North in 1918 when Piangil was relocated adjacent to the railway station. A new Piangil Post Office is still in operation. Piangil Primary School closed in September 2015. Media related to Piangil, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere. Conversely, immigration describes the movement of persons into one country from another. Both are acts of migration across other geographical boundaries. Demographers examine push and pull factors for people to be pushed out of one place and attracted to another. There can be a desire to escape negative circumstances such as shortages of land or jobs, or unfair treatment. People can be pulled to the opportunities available elsewhere. Fleeing from oppressive conditions, being a refugee and seeking asylum to get refugee status in a foreign country, may lead to permanent emigration. Forced displacement refers to groups that are forced to abandon their native country, such as by enforced population transfer or the threat of ethnic cleansing. Patterns of emigration have been shaped by numerous economic and political changes throughout the world in the last few hundred years. For instance, millions of individuals fled poverty and political turmoil in Europe to settle in the Americas and Oceania during the 18th, 19th, 20th centuries.
Millions left South China in the Chinese diaspora during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Demographers distinguish factors at the origin that push people out, versus those at the destination that pull them in. Motives to migrate can be either incentives attracting people away, known as pull factors, or circumstances encouraging a person to leave. Lack of employment or entrepreneurial opportunities. Lack of freedom to choose religion, or to choose no religion. Favourable letters relatives or informants who have moved. Regarding lists of positive or negative factors about a place, Jose C. Moya writes "one could compile similar lists for periods and places where no migration took place." Unlike immigration, few if any records are maintained in regard to persons leaving a country either on a temporary or permanent basis. Therefore, estimates on emigration must be derived from secondary sources such as immigration records of the receiving country or records from other administrative agencies; some countries restrict the ability of their citizens to emigrate to other countries.
After 1668, the Qing Emperor banned Han Chinese migration to Manchuria. In 1681, the emperor ordered construction of the Willow Palisade, a barrier beyond which the Chinese were prohibited from encroaching on Manchu and Mongol lands; the Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union began such restrictions in 1918, with laws and borders tightening until illegal emigration was nearly impossible by 1928. To strengthen this, they set up internal passport controls and individual city Propiska permits, along with internal freedom of movement restrictions called the 101st kilometre, rules which restricted mobility within small areas. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Soviet Union occupied several Central European countries, together called the Eastern Bloc, with the majority of those living in the newly acquired areas aspiring to independence and wanted the Soviets to leave. Before 1950, over 15 million people emigrated from the Soviet-occupied eastern European countries and immigrated into the west in the five years following World War II.
By the early 1950s, the Soviet approach to controlling national movement was emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. Restrictions implemented in the Eastern Bloc stopped most East-West migration, with only 13.3 million migrations westward between 1950 and 1990. However, hundreds of thousands of East Germans annually immigrated to West Germany through a "loophole" in the system that existed between East and West Berlin, where the four occupying World War II powers governed movement; the emigration resulted in massive "brain drain" from East Germany to West Germany of younger educated professionals, such that nearly 20% of East Germany's population had migrated to West Germany by 1961. In 1961, East Germany erected a barbed-wire barrier that would be expanded through construction into the Berlin Wall closing the loophole. In 1989, the Berlin Wall fell, followed by German reunification and within two years the dissolution of the Soviet Union. By the early 1950s, the Soviet approach to controlling international movement was emulated by China and North Korea.
North Korea still restricts emigration, maintains one of the strictest emigration bans in the world, although some North Koreans still manage to illegally emigrate to China. Other countries with tight emigration restrictions at one time or another included Angola, Ethiopia, Somalia, Burma, Democratic
Swan Hill is a city in the northwest of Victoria, Australia on the Murray Valley Highway and on the south bank of the Murray River, downstream from the junction of the Loddon River. At the 2016 census, Swan Hill had a population of 10,905. In the Dreamtime, Totyerguil ran out of spears; this chase is part of the mythology of the creation of the Murray River. Based on evidence from Coobool Creek and Kow Swamp, it appears that Aboriginal people have lived in the area for the last 13,000–9,000 years; the area is inhabited by the Wati-Wati people. Swan Hill was "place of the Platypus" by the Wemba Wemba people; the area was given its current name by explorer Thomas Mitchell, while camping beside a hill on 21 June 1836. Among the reeds on the point of ground between the two rivers was a shallow lagoon where swans and other wild fowl so abounded that, although half a mile from our camp, their noise disturbed us through the night. I therefore named this somewhat remarkable and isolated feature Swan Hill, a point which may be found to mark the junction of two fine streams.
The European community grew up around a punt river crossing, established as early as 1846. This crossing serviced the growing agricultural area, was the only river crossing for 100 km; the Post Office opened here on 1 February 1849. In 1853 Francis Cadell navigated the Murray river from its mouth in South Australia to Swan Hill in his paddle steamer, Lady Augusta, he arrived on 17 September 1853, narrowly beating William Randell of Mannum, who arrived 4 hours in the PS Mary Ann. This demonstrated the feasibility of river traffic, which flourished until the introduction of the railway. In 1876 Swan Hill was described in the following terms: Swan-hill is a small, notwithstanding its 20 or 25 years of existence, not flourishing, township… The population does not exceed 100 persons, but the township can boast of a substantial post and telegraph office, the principal building in the place. There is a church built of brick, belonging to the Church of England, a small wooden chapel owned by some other denomination.
The hospital, for Swan-hill can boast of a hospital, is prettily situated at the junction of the Little Murray with the main stream. The district around the town is principally pastoral. About 10 or 12 miles distant there is a salt lake, from which a coarse salt is obtained and exported to Riverina and the Upper Murray. There is a mail three times a week, the township is connected with the metropolis by telegraph. In 1883 the first of several red brick water towers were built to supply the growing town with water. Water was pumped out of the river and into the top of the tower by a wood-fired steam engine, flowed by gravitation to surrounding businesses and private residences. Many of these towers can still be seen around town; the railway from Bendigo was extended from Kerang to Swan Hill station in May 1890, being extended to Piangil in 1915. The punt river crossing was replaced by a timber truss, steel lift span bridge in 1896; the first six telephones were connected in Swan Hill on 2 October 1911.
The National Bank was phone number 1. In 1914, Isaburo Takasuka produced the first commercial rice crop in Australia, he grew Japanese varieties on 200 acres of flood prone land on the Murray River near Swan Hill. The Chinese had been growing rice in Australia since at least 1877. Swan Hill became a city in 1965; the Burke and Wills expedition reached Swan Hill on Thursday, 6 September 1860 on their journey across Australia from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria. They made Camp XV in the police paddock on the banks of the Murray River in an area, now Riverside Park; the expedition stayed in Swan Hill until 10 September while they reorganised the stores. Burke dismissed four men, he hired Alexander McPherson, a saddler from Epsom and Charlie Gray, a former sailor from Scotland who had worked as an ostler for Cobb and Co between Bendigo and Swan Hill and, now employed at the Lower Murray Inn in Swan Hill. The party was strengthened further by the arrival from Melbourne of journalist, William Hodgkinson, scientist Georg von Neumayer.
The local inhabitants gave the expedition a rousing farewell. Folklore alleges Burke and Wills planted a Moreton Bay Fig tree in the garden of the local doctor, Dr B W Gummow; the tree is now 27 metres high and has a branch spread of 44 metres and can be seen in Curlewis Street. The Murray River road bridge over the Murray River connects McCallum Street in Swan Hill to the Swan Hill Road in Murray Downs in New South Wales; the bridge is listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register. Swan Hill gives its name to a wine region straddling the Murray River; the vines are predominantly irrigated from the river. Swan Hill cool to mild winters. Around 88% of the people living in Swan Hill were born in Australia. Migrants account for around 12 per cent, these include Italy. 3.2% of the population are Indigenous. In Swan Hill there are four primary schools, two secondary schools and three schools which run both primary and secondary syllabuses; these are Swan Hill College, MacKillop College, St Mary's Primary School, Swan Hill Primary School, Swan Hill North Primary School, Sun Centre Christian School, Victorian P-12 College of Koorie Education - Payika Campus and Swan Hill Specialist School.
Swan Hill College is well known for its anti-drug program. Tertiary education is delivered
Ouyen is a town in Victoria, located in the Rural City of Mildura at the junction of the Calder Highway and Mallee Highway, 105 kilometres south of Mildura, 441 km northwest of Melbourne. At the 2016 census, the town had a population of 1,045; the area was first occupied by the Wergaia Aborigines. The name is believed to be derived from the Wergaia word "wuya-wuya", which some believe means "pink-eared duck", whilst others claim it means "ghost waterhole"; the town was established around the Ouyen railway station, built in 1906 on the Mildura Line. The Post Office opened on 22 October 1907 It is the junction for a railway line west parallel to the Mallee Highway; this line is in poor condition and used only for collecting grain from silos in small towns between Ouyen and the South Australian border, as the Victorian part is broad gauge, but the line from Pinnaroo to Tailem Bend has been converted to standard gauge, with no facility for handling the break of gauge. The line was used for interstate freight and The Overland as a broad gauge connection while the main Melbourne to Adelaide line was being converted from broad to standard gauge in 1995.
Property became available for purchase in 1910, much of it was cleared for sheep grazing, crops of wheat and oats. Ouyen is the commercial and transport centre for the surrounding grain farming region. Trucks arrive at harvest time to transport grain to Portland or Adelaide, South Australia for shipping, or to flour mills for processing. Ouyen has an Australian rules football team, Ouyen United, competing in the Sunraysia Football League. Golfers play at the Ouyen Golf Club on Daker Street; the clubhouse houses the Ouyen Tennis Club. The area includes a number of previous localities which existed when the population was larger: on the Mallee Highway, Galah about 15 kilometres to the west which had a post office open from 1911 until 1976, Galah North34°59′S 142°10′E with a post office from 1925 until 1927 and Tiega 35°05′S 142°13′E with a post office from 1911 until 1961. Between 1998 and 2011 the Great Australian Vanilla Slice Triumph was held in Ouyen. Judging criteria include "when tasted, should reveal a custard with a creamy smooth texture and a balance of vanilla taste with a crisp, crunchy pastry topped with a smooth and shiny glaze/fondant".
The town hosts an Autumn Art Show in April and the Mallee Wildflower Festival in October. It was the location for the 2003 Ouyen Raindance where 500 women danced naked in a secret location in an attempt to raise the spirits of the town suffering from a prolonged drought; the Roxy Theatre, in the main street, Oke Street, was built in 1936 and owned by Hugh Ingwersen, a local business man. The theatre is a significant building being of a tropical style, it closed in 1971. After a major community project the Roxy re-opened in 2007 with a gala opening featuring Bill Hunter and Neil Paine as the guest speakers and 150 guests. Volunteers run the theatre on behalf of the community; the town is the site of the Big Mallee Root, symbolizing the time when the roots of Eucalyptus dumosa were a mainstay of the economy of soldier settlers of the area, being collected for sale as firewood. Ouyen has a reunion of past and present residents on the second Sunday of February each year at Fitzroy Gardens, Melbourne.
A special anniversary on Sunday, February 9, 2014 marked the 50th gathering at the venue. The town has big art scenes with sculptures and contemporary artworks appearing in the gallery and around the town. Australian folk rock band, Weddings Parties Anything, name-checks Ouyen in their 1987 song, "Hungry Years", from their debut album, Scorn of the Women. "Hungry Years" describes itinerant fruit pickers travelling via train up to Mildura. Ouyen has a semi-arid climate with cool winters. There is a wetter tendency in winter and early spring. Media related to Ouyen, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons
The domestic pigeon is a pigeon subspecies, derived from the rock dove. The rock pigeon is the world's oldest domesticated bird. Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets mention the domestication of pigeons more than 5,000 years ago, as do Egyptian hieroglyphics. Research suggests. Pigeons have made contributions of considerable importance to humanity in times of war. In war the homing ability of pigeons has been put to use by making them messengers. So-called war pigeons have carried many vital messages and some have been decorated for their services. Medals such as the Croix de guerre, awarded to Cher Ami, the Dickin Medal awarded to the pigeons G. I. Joe and Paddy, amongst 32 others, have been awarded to pigeons for their services in saving human lives. Domestic pigeons reproduce in a similar way to the wild rock pigeon. Humans will select breeding partners. Crop milk or pigeon milk produced by both male and female parent birds may be replaced with artificial substitutes. Pigeons are protective of their eggs, in some cases will go to severe lengths to protect their productive eggs and have been known to seek revenge on those who interfere with their productive process.
Baby pigeons are called squabs. Trained domestic pigeons are able to return to the home loft if released at a location that they have never visited before and that may be up to 1000 km away. A special breed, called homing pigeons has been developed through selective breeding to carry messages and members of this variety of pigeon are still being used in the sport of pigeon racing and the white release dove ceremony at weddings and funerals; the ability a pigeon has to return home from a strange location necessitates two sorts of information. The first, called "map sense" is their geographic location; the second, "compass sense" is the bearing they need to fly from their new location in order to reach their home. Both of these senses, respond to a number of different cues in different situations; the most popular conception of how pigeons are able to do this is that they are able to sense the Earth's magnetic field with tiny magnetic tissues in their head. This is all the more surprising as they are not a migratory species, a fact used by some ornithologists to dispute this theory.
Another theory is that pigeons have compass sense, which uses the position of the sun, along with an internal clock, to work out direction. However, studies have shown that if magnetic disruption or clock changes disrupt these senses, the pigeon can still manage to get home; the variability in the effects of manipulations to these sense of the pigeons indicates that there is more than one cue on which navigation is based and that map sense appears to rely on a comparison of available cuesOther potential cues used include: The use of a sun compass Nocturnal navigate by stars Visual landmark map Navigation by infrasound map Polarised light compass Olfactory stimulisee: Olfactory navigation Pigeons are bred for meat called squab and harvested from young birds. Pigeons grow to a large size in the nest before they are fledged and able to fly, in this stage of their development they are prized as food. For commercial meat production a breed of large white pigeon, named "King pigeon," has been developed by selective breeding.
Breeds of pigeons developed for their meat are collectively known as utility pigeons. Pigeon fanciers developed many exotic forms of pigeon; these are classed as fancy pigeons. Fanciers compete against each other at exhibitions or shows and the different forms or breeds are judged to a standard to decide who has the best bird. Among those breeds are the English carrier pigeons, a variety of pigeon with wattles and a unique vertical, stance. There are many ornamental breeds of pigeons, including the "Duchess" breed, which has as a prominent characteristic feet that are covered by a sort of fan of feathers; the fantail pigeons are very ornamental with their fan-shaped tail feathers. Pigeons are kept by enthusiasts for the enjoyment of Flying/Sporting competitions. Breeds such as tipplers are flown in endurance contests by their owners. Domestic pigeons are commonly used in laboratory experiments in biology and cognitive science. Pigeons have been trained to distinguish for instance. In Project Sea Hunt, a US coast guard search and rescue project in the 1970s/1980s, pigeons were shown to be more effective than humans in spotting shipwreck victims at sea.
Research in pigeons is widespread, encompassing shape and texture perception and prototype memory, category-based and associative concepts, many more unlisted here. Pigeons are able to acquire orthographic processing skills, which form part of the ability to read, basic numerical skills equivalent to those shown in primates. In the United States, some pigeon keepers illegally trap and kill hawks and falcons to protect their pigeons. In American pigeon-related organizations, some enthusiasts have shared their experiences of killing hawks and falcons, although this is frowned upon by the majority of fanciers. None of the major clubs condone this practice, it is estimated that 1,000 birds of prey have been killed in Oregon and Washington, that 1,000–2,000 are killed in southern California annually. In June 2007, three Oregon men were indicted with misdemeanour violations of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act for killing birds of prey. Seven Californians and a Texan were charged in the case. In the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom pigeon
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories