Manannán mac Lir
Manannán or Manann, also known as Manannán mac Lir ("son of the sea"), is a sea god in Irish mythology. He is affiliated with both the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Fomorians. In the tales, he is said to own a boat named Scuabtuinne ("wave sweeper"), a sea-borne chariot drawn by the horse Enbarr ("water foam"), a powerful sword named Fragarach ("the answerer"), and a cloak of invisibility (féth fíada). He is seen as the ruler and guardian of the Otherworld and one who ferries souls to the afterlife. Manannán is furthermore identified with the trickster figure Bodach an Chóta Lachtna ("the churl in the drab coat").
Manannán appears also in Scottish and Manx legend, where he is known as Manannan mac y Leir. Some sources say the Isle of Man (Mannin) is named after him, while others say he is named after the island. He is cognate with the Welsh figure Manawydan fab Llŷr.
Names and eponymy
His name is spelt Manandán in Old Irish, Manannán in modern Irish and Scottish Gaelic, and Mannan in Manx Gaelic. He is also given two surnames. The most common is Mac Lir, which may mean "son of the sea" or "son of Ler". It has been suggested that Ler was a sea god whose role was taken over by Manannán. The other is Mac Alloit or Mac Alloid. Allot or Allod may be another name for Ler.
The late medieval Yellow Book of Lecan (written c. 1400) says there were four individuals called Manandán who lived at different times. They are: Manandán mac Alloit, a "druid of the Tuath Dé Danann" whose "proper name was Oirbsen"; Manandán mac Lir, a great sailor, merchant and druid; Manandán mac Cirp, king of the Isles and Mann; and Manandán mac Atgnai, who took in the sons of Uisnech and sailed to Ireland to avenge their deaths. The 9th century Sanas Cormaic (Cormac's Glossary) euhemerizes Manannán as "a famous merchant" of the Isle of Man and the best sailor in western Europe, who knew by "studying the heavens" when the weather would be good and bad.
His name is derived from that of the Isle of Man. This itself may come from a Celtic word for "mountain" or "rise", as the Isle of Man rises from the sea on the horizon. Alternatively, it may come from an earlier Indo-European word for water or wetness. In medieval Irish tradition, it appears that Manannán came to be considered eponymous of the island (rather than vice versa).
There are places named after Manannán in Ireland, the Isle of Man and Scotland. In Ireland, most of them are on the coast or contain water features. They include Mannin Lake (Loch Mhanainn) in County Mayo, Mannin Bay (Cuan Mhanainn) in County Galway, Mannin Island (Manainn) in County Cork, Cashelmanannan (Caiseal Mhanannáin, "Manannán's ringfort") and Sheevannan (Sí Mhanannáin, "Manannán's fairy mound") in County Roscommon, Derrymannin (Doire Mhanainn, "Manann's oak") in County Mayo, and Carrickmannan (Carraig Mhanainn, "Manann's rock") in County Down. The placenames Clackmannan (Clach Mhanainn) and Slamannan (Sliabh Mhanainn) in Scotland may also refer to Manann.
In Irish mythology
Manannán appears in all of the four cycles of Irish mythology, although he only plays a prominent role in a limited number of tales.
- In the Ulster Cycle: Tochmarc Étaíne ("The Wooing of Étaín"), Serglige Con Culainn ("The Wasting Sickness of Cúchulainn"), Tochmarc Luaine "The Wooing of Luan"
- In the Cycles of the Kings: Immram Brain maic Febail ("The Voyage of Bran son of Febal)", Echtra Cormaic maic Airt ("The Adventure of Cormac mac Airt"), Compert Mongáin ("The Birth of Mongán")
- In the Mythological Cycle: Lebor Gabála Érenn ("The Book of Invasions"), First Recension, Altram Tige Dá Medar ("The Nourishment of the Houses of Two Milk-Vessels")
- other Old Irish texts: Sanas Cormaic ("Cormac's Glossary"), The Voyage of Bran, Compert Mongáin, His Three Calls to Cormac ("Cormac's Adventure in the Land of Promise")
In the Ulster Cycle tale, Serglige Con Culainn ("The Sickbed of Cúchulainn") Manannán's wife, Fand, has an ill-fated affair with the Irish warrior Cúchulainn. When Fand sees that Cúchulainn's jealous wife, Emer is worthy of him (and accompanied by a troop of armed women), she decides to return to Manannán, who then shakes his magical cloak of mists between Fand and Cúchulainn so that they may never meet again.
In The Voyage of Bran, Manannán prophesied to Bran that a great warrior would be descended from him.
According to the Book of Fermoy, a manuscript of the 14th to the 15th century, "he was a pagan, a lawgiver among the Tuatha Dé Danann, and a necromancer possessed of power to envelope himself and others in a mist, so that they could not be seen by their enemies." It was by this method that he was said to protect the Isle of Man from discovery.
Manannán was associated with a "cauldron of regeneration". This is seen in the tale of Cormac mac Airt, among other tales. Here, he appeared at Cormac's ramparts in the guise of a warrior who told him he came from a land where old age, sickness, death, decay, and falsehood were unknown (the Otherworld was also known as the "Land of Youth" (Tír na nÓg) ).
Manannán had many magical items. He gave Cormac mac Airt his magic goblet of truth; he had a ship that did not need sails named "Wave Sweeper"; he owned a cloak of mists that granted him invisibility, a flaming helmet, and a sword named Fragarach ("Answerer" or "Retaliator") that could slice through any armour and upon command when pointed at a target could make that target answer any question asked truthfully. He also owned a horse called "Enbarr of the Flowing Mane" which could travel over water as easily as land. Some sources say that, to Manannán, the sea is like a flowery plain.
Manannán's father is the sea-god Ler ("Sea; Ocean"; Lir is the genitive form), whose role he seems to take over. According to Táin Bó Cúailnge (the Cattle Raid of Cooley), his wife is the beautiful goddess, Fand ("Pearl of Beauty" or "A Tear" – later remembered as a "Fairy Queen", though earlier mentions point to her also being a sea deity). Other sources say his wife was the goddess Áine, though she is at other times said to be his daughter. Manannán had a daughter, whose name was Niamh of the Golden Hair. It is also probable that another daughter was Clídna, but sources treat this differently. Either way, she is a young woman from Manannán's lands, whose epithet is "of the Fair Hair". Mongán mac Fiachnai is a late addition to the mac Lir family tree. The historical Mongán was a son of Fiachnae mac Báetáin, born towards the end of the 6th century. According to legend Fiachnae, who was at war in Scotland, came home with a victory because of a bargain made with Manannán (either by him, or by his wife) to let Manannán have a child by his wife. This child, Mongán, was supposedly taken to the Otherworld when he was very young, to be raised there by Manannán. The Compert Mongáin tells the tale. In the Dinsenchas Manannán is also described as the father of Ibel, after whose death Manannán cast draughts of grief from his heart that became Loch Ruidi, Loch Cuan, and Loch Dacaech.
Manannán appears to have etymological ties to the Isle of Man. An early Manx poem, dated to 1504, identifies the first king of the island as one Manannan-beg-mac-y-Lheirr, "little Manannan, son of the Sea" (or, "son of Leir"):
- Manannan beg va Mac y Leirr / Shen yn chied er ec row rieau ee; / Agh myr share oddym's cur-my-ner, / Cha row eh hene agh An-chreestee.
- "Little Manannan was a son of Leirr; he was the first that ever had it [the island]; but as I can best conceive, he was himself a heathen."
The poem goes on to describe how Manannan defended the island by magic, by conjuring up mists and creating the illusion of a defending army. In Manx Fairy Tales (1911), this theme is developed into Manannan creating the illusion of a fleet against the Viking invaders.
Manx legends also tell of four items that he gave to Lugh as parting gifts, when the boy went to aid the people of Dana against the Fomorians. These were: "Manannan's coat, wearing which he could not be wounded, and also his breastplate, which no weapon could pierce. His helmet had two precious stones set in front and one behind, which flashed as he moved. And Manannan girt him for the fight with his own deadly sword, called the Answerer, from the wound of which no man ever recovered, and those who were opposed to it in battle were so terrified that their strength left them." Lugh also took Enbarr of the Flowing Mane, and was joined by Manannan's own sons and Fairy Cavalcade. When he looked back on leaving, Lugh saw "his foster-father's noble figure standing on the beach. Manannan was wrapped in his magic cloak of colours, changing like the sun from blue-green to silver, and again to the purple of evening. He waved his hand to Lugh, and cried: 'Victory and blessing with thee!' So Lugh, glorious in his youth and strength, left his Island home."
Gods and Fighting Men
The tale "Manannan at Play" (IV.9) features the god as a clown and beggar who turns out to be a harper. Manannán (here in his trickster guise of the Bodach), plays a number of pranks, some of which result in serious trouble; by the end of the tale, he compensates for the pranks that got him in trouble.
In the tale "His Three Calls to Cormac" (IV.11), Manannán tempts the Irish King Cormac mac Airt with treasure, specifically a "shining branch having nine apples of red gold," in exchange for his family. Cormac is led into the Otherworld and taught a harsh lesson by Manannán, but in the end his wife and children are restored to him. Also, Manannán rewards him with a magic cup which breaks if three lies are spoken over it and is made whole again if three truths are spoken.
- Irish mythology in popular culture: Manannán mac Lir
- Charon – Ferryman of the dead from Greek mythology.
- The return of sea god sculpture Manannán Mac Lir, Derry Journal, 26 June 2015.
- Wallace, Patrick F., O'Floinn, Raghnall eds. Treasures of the National Museum of Ireland: Irish Antiquities, 2002, Gill & Macmillan, Dublin, p. 138.
- Charles Squire. Celtic Myth and Legend
- Bodach an Chóta Lachtna in the Oxford Dictionary of Irish Mythology. Eachtra Bhodaigh an Chóta Lachtna ("Tale of the Carle in the Drab Coat") is the title of a 17th-century Fenian tale.
- by misdivision from Loch Oirbsean. Macalister, Vol. 4 (1941), p. 104.
- Skene, William F. "Chapter VI. Manau Gododin and the Picts" in The Four Ancient Books of Wales
- Sanas Chormaic – Cormac's Glossary, translated by John O'Donovan. Irish Archaeological and Celtic Society, 1868. p.114
- Kneale, Victor (2006). "Ellan Vannin (Isle of Man). Britonia". In Koch, John T. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 676. If the name of Man reflects the generic word for "mountain", it is impossible to distinguish this from a generic "he of the mountain"; but the patronymic mac Lir, interpreted as "son of the Sea", is taken to reinforce the association with the island. e.g. Wagner, Heinrich. "Origins of Pagan Irish Religion". Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie. v. 38. 1-28.
- Olmsted, Garrett. The gods of the Celts and the Indo-Europeans. University of Innsbruck, 1994. p.306
- Carrickmannan. Place-Names NI.
- Mannin Lake. Placenames Database of Ireland.
- Mannin Bay. Placenames Database of Ireland.
- Mannin Island. Placenames Database of Ireland.
- Cashelmanannan. Placenames Database of Ireland.
- Sheevannan. Placenames Database of Ireland.
- Derrymannin. Placenames Database of Ireland.
- Serglige Con Culainn, ed. Myles Dillon (1953). Serglige Con Culainn. Mediaeval and Modern Irish Series 14. Dublin: DIAS.; tr. Jeffrey Gantz (1981). Early Irish Myths and Sagas. London: Penguin. pp. 155–78.
- "Serglige Con Culainn", Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition
- The Sick-Bed of Cuchulain transcribed from The Lost Yellow Book of SlaneBy Maelmuiri mac Ceileachair into the Leabhar na h-Uidhri in the Eleventh Century
- "Folk-lore of the Isle of Man: Chapter I. Myths Connected with the Legendary History of the Isle of Man". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- This tale exists in several manuscripts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; i. e. Book of Ballymote, and Yellow Book of Lecan, as edited and translated by Stokes, in Irische Texts, III. i. 183-229; cf. Voy. of Bran, i. 190 ff.; cf. Le Cycle Myth. Irl., pp. 326-33.
- Koch, John T. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2006. p.959
- David B. Spaan, "The Place of Manannan Mac Lir in Irish Mythology," Folklore 76 (1965), p. 185; Miranda J. Green, Animals in Celtic Life and Myth (Routledge 1998), p. 170 online and Celtic Myths (University of Texas Press, 1995), p. 17 online. See also J.G. Oosten, The War of the Gods (Routledge, 1985), p. 73 online.
- White, Nora (2006). Compert Mongáin and Three Other Early Mongán Tales: A Critical Edition with Introduction, Translation, Textual Notes, Bibliography and Vocabulary. Department of Old and Middle Irish, National University of Ireland. ISBN 978-0-901519-66-5.
- The Dublin Review 57 (1865), 83f.
- "So Manannan made little boats of the sedge, a good number of them, and sailed his boats in the stream. And when the little fleet floated out of the harbour, he caused them to look like great ships of war, well manned with fighting men. Then terror seized on the Northmen when they saw the Manx fleet, and they cut their cables, hoisted sails, and cleared away as fast as they could, and Manannan and his island were left in peace." Morrison, Sophia (1911) "Manannan Mac Y Leirr" in Manx Fairy Tales. London, David Nutt / Long Acre
- Evans Wentz, W.Y. "IV. In the Isle of Man" in The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries (1911).
- Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. Myth, Legend & Romance: An encyclopaedia of the Irish folk tradition. Prentice Hall Press, 1991. pp.286-288
- Boyhood of Lugh: Manx Fairy Tales, Peel, L. Morrison, 1929
- Gods and Fighting Men, Lady Gregory. 1904.
- Gregory (1903) "Part I Book IV: Manannan at Play"
- Gregory, Lady Augusta (1903) online "Part I Book IV: His Three Calls to Cormac" in Gods and Fighting Men. Buckinghamshire, Colyn Smyth
- Moore, A.W. (1891). Folklore of the Isle of Man.
- Busse, Peter E., and John T. Koch (2006). "Manannán mac Lir". In Koch, John T. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Denver, and Oxford: ABC-CLIO. pp. 1244–5.
- MacQuarrie, Charles W. (2004) The Biography of the Irish God of the Sea from the Voyage of Bran (c.700 A.D.) to Finnegans Wake (1939): The Waves of Manannán. Lampeter, Wales: The Edwin Mellen Press.