Manannán or Manann known as Manannán mac Lir, is a warrior and king of the Otherworld in Irish mythology, associated with the sea and interpreted as a sea god as member of the Tuatha Dé Danann. He is seen as the ruler and guardian of the Otherworld, his dominion is referred by such names as Emain Ablach, Mag Mell, or Tír Tairngire, he is described as over-king of the surviving Tuatha Dé after the advent of humans, uses the mist of invisibility to cloak the whereabouts of his home as well as the sidh dwellings of the others. In modern tales, he is said to own a self-navigating boat named Sguaba Tuinne, a horse Aonbharr which can course over water as well as land, a deadly strength-sapping sword named Fragarach, though the list does not end there. Manannán appears in Scottish and Manx legend, where he is known as Manannan mac y Leir; some sources say. He is cognate with the Welsh figure Manawydan fab Llŷr. Manannán is given several names, bynames and surnames, his name is spelt Manandán in Old Irish, Manannán in modern Irish and Scottish Gaelic, Mannan in Manx Gaelic.
Some of the names equated with Manannan include: Oirbsiu, Oirbsen or Orbsen Duartaine O'Duartaine Cathal O'Cein Gilla de Gilla Decair His name is derived from the Isle of Man with the -an suffix indicating "one from the Isle of Man". This itself may come from a Celtic word for "mountain" or "rise", as the Isle of Man rises from the sea on the horizon. Alternatively, it may come from an earlier Indo-European word for water or wetness. In medieval Irish tradition, it appears; the most common epithets for Manannán reinforce his association with the sea. Mac Lir means "son of the sea" or "son of Ler", it has been suggested. Manannán's other surname Mac Alloit or Mac Alloid means "son of the soil or land," so that Manannán is son of the sea and land. Manannán appears in all of the four cycles of Irish mythology, although he only plays a prominent role in a limited number of tales. In the Ulster Cycle: Tochmarc Étaíne, Serglige Con Culainn, Tochmarc Luaine "The Wooing of Luan" In the Cycles of the Kings: Immram Brain maic Febail", Echtra Cormaic maic Airt, Compert Mongáin In the Mythological Cycle: Lebor Gabála Érenn, First Recension, Altram Tige Dá Medar other Old Irish texts: Sanas Cormaic In the Ulster Cycle tale, Serglige Con Culainn Manannán's wife, has an ill-fated affair with the Irish warrior Cúchulainn.
When Fand sees that Cúchulainn's jealous wife, Emer is worthy of him, she decides to return to Manannán, who shakes his cloak between Fand and Cúchulainn which causes them not be able to remember each other. Thus it is a cloak of forgetfulness. Manannán rode his chariot over the sea, meeting with Bran and his crew sailing by ship, in the tale Imram Brain, considered an early work. In late sources, Manannán visits the land of the living, his movement is compared to the wind, a hawk or swallow, sometimes takes the form of a thundering wheel rolling across the landscape, such as in the "Purusit of the Gilla Decair", a 16th century comic tale. There is the local lore the Manannán moved like a wheel turning on his three legs, a tradition widespread on the Isle of Man, but found in some eastern Counties of Leinster according to John O'Donovan, though this folklore was unfamiliar to Whitley Stokes. Manannán is lord and guardian of the Blessed Isles, Mag Mell, Emhain Abhlach, the Isle of Apple Trees.
Manannán sings a verse describing his sea as Mag Mell, in The Voyage of Bran, stating that the steeds on the plain cannot be seen, thus alluding to his concealment of his dwelling using the shroud of invisibility. "Emain" was the place of origin of the magical silver apple branch brought to Bran mac Febail. Manannán is said to dwell in the Land of Promise, as in the tale "Echtra Cormaic". An over-king's role for Manannán among the Tuatha Dé Danann is described in the narrative Altram Tige Dá Medar in the 14th to the 15th century century manuscript, the Book of Fermoy. Máire MacNeill gave a summary of the work. After the Tuatha Dé Danann were defeated by Érimón of the Milesians, Bodb Derg was chosen as king of the TDD, Manannán as co-king or the king's overseer. In one passage Manannán declares he has assumed over-kingship above the petty kings of the TDD. Manannán was tasked with alloting which sídhe or fairy mounds the surviving members of the TDD were to be settled. Manannán's own dwelling was at Emain Ablach, in the city of Cruithin na Cuan, as the tale reveals.
Manannán ensured the welfare of the TDD by concealing in the féth fíada or a mist of invisibility, holding the Feast of Goibniu which conferred eternal youth, feeding them Manannan's Swine which gave an inexhaustible supply of food. Manannán in the tale "Echtra Cormaic" owned two
IJsbrand Chardon is a Dutch equestrian and multiple World Champion at the World Equestrian Games. Chardon competes in the driving disciplines and became World Champion for the first time in 1988, when he won the gold medal in the individual event in Apeldoorn. Two years he added his second world title, this time in the team event in Stockholm 1990. In Riesenbeck, Germany another two years he won his second individual gold, this time in the Four-in-Hand World Championships. In his own country during the 1994 World Equestrian Games in Den Haag, he added two bronze medals from both the team and individual disciplines. In Rome 1998 he was unable to equal his individual bronze, finishing fourth, but with his team mates he won yet another World title, his third in his career, he went on to succeed in the sport when he added two silver medals to his tally at the 2000 Four-in-Hand World Championships in Wolfsburg. His best career achievement came in 2002 when he won two World Championships titles in one season, winning both the team and individual events at the 2002 World Equestrian Games in Jerez de la Frontera.
Four years in 2006 he could not defend his titles, but won a silver medal as an individual and a bronze with his team. Prior to that result he had won a silver in the team and bronze medal in the individual race at the Four-in-Hand World Championships in Kecskemét 2004. Chardon won 19 Dutch national titles, two FEI World Cups and two times the FEI Top Driver Award. Official website Horsesport profile
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