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Manassas, Virginia

Manassas is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 37,821; the city borders Prince William County, the independent city of Manassas Park, Virginia. The Bureau of Economic Analysis includes both Manassas and Manassas Park with Prince William County for statistical purposes. Manassas serves as the seat of Prince William County, it surrounds the 38-acre county courthouse. The City of Manassas has several important historic sites from the period 1850–1870; the City of Manassas is part of the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area and it is situated in the Northern Virginia region. In July 1861, the First Battle of Manassas – known as the First Battle of Bull Run – was fought nearby, the first major land battle of the American Civil War. Manassas commemorated the 150th anniversary of the First Battle of Manassas from July 21–24, 2011; the Second Battle of Manassas was fought near Manassas from August 28–30, 1862.

At that time, Manassas Junction was little more than a railroad crossing, but a strategic one, with rails leading to Richmond, Washington, D. C. and the Shenandoah Valley. Despite these two Confederate victories, Manassas Junction was in Union hands for most of the war. Following the war, the crossroads grew into the town of Manassas, incorporated in 1873. In 1894, Manassas was designated as the county seat of Prince William County, replacing Brentsville. In 1975, Manassas was incorporated as an independent city, as per Virginia law, was separated from Prince William County; the Manassas Historic District, Cannon Branch Fort, Liberia, a plantation house. Manassas is served by I-66, U. S. 29, Virginia State Route 234 Business and Virginia State Route 28. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.9 square miles, of which 9.9 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Manassas uses a council-manager system of government; as of October 2019 the city manager is William Patrick Pate.

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Manassas has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; some neighborhoods within the City of Manassas include: Georgetown South is a PUD located 30 miles south of downtown Washington, D. C. in the city of Manassas. When it was built in the 1960s, it was seen as a "tony, southern sister for the District’s famous and affluent Georgetown", it is composed of 3-bedroom, 2-story redbrick townhomes built between 1960 and 1970, some with exteriors painted in creams or pastels. The neighborhood features a community center that offers a walk-in pediatric clinic, seminars and citizenship courses. In spite of high hopes during construction, the neighborhood was hit hard during the foreclosure crisis. "At the height of the housing bubble, nearly 60 percent of residents were homeowners," but in 2013, 60 percent of residents were renters. As houses became vacant, they left in their wake room for crime to creep in.

Today, the neighborhood is known more for its elevated crime rate, including the use of drugs and violent domestic crimes, than it is for its history or connection to the Nation's Capitol. Old Town Manassas, called the Manassas Historic District, is a neighborhood in the city-center of Manassas. According to Historic Manassas, this teeny seven-by-one block area alone contains 206 buildings and one contributing object, its northern border is Portner Avenue and its southern border is Prince William Street. As as the early 1990s, Olde Town Manassas was known to be run-down, was used by workers commuting from the area into Washington, D. C. In 1995, however, a local businessowner named Loy E. Harris founded Historic Manassas and invested in the area in an effort to bring it back to life. Harris' death in 1999 from cancer was felt in the community, but his organization, Historic Manassas, continued on. In the early 2010s, further efforts were made to make the area not only commercially successful, but residentially as well.

Developers seized the opportunity and constructed towering four-story townhomes along eastern Center Street, eastern Church Street, Prescott Avenue to usher in a younger generation of homeowners seeking urban amenities in a suburban setting. On the opposite end of the neighborhood sits the Harris Pavillion, an outdoor venue, converted to an ice skating rink in the winter. Just south of Old Town sits the Manassas Museum, which commemorates the city's history and involvement in the American Civil War. Old Town Manassas contains several notable buildings: Manassas Presbyterian Church The Old Town Triangle is a historic residential district adjacent to Old Town Manassas, it is named for its triangular shape, with three street borders: Grant Avenue, Sudley Road, Portner Avenue. The Old Town Triangle is composed of spacious colonial and single-story homes built between 1900 and 1955, they are valued higher than similar homes in adjacent neighborhoods. The Old Town Triangle contains some of Manassas' most notable buildings, including: Annaburg Manor, a historic manor, once converted to a senior living facility, was purchased by the City of Manassas in July 2019 to be restored to its original design by an interested non-profit.

Built in 1892, the manor was the origi

Nu Sigma Nu

Nu Sigma Nu was an international professional fraternity for medicine, now existing as a handful of stable remaining chapters. It was founded on 2 March 1882 by five medical students at the University of Michigan, who identified as their immediate object "to further the best interests of our profession." Its purpose was more stated as, "To promote scholarship, the development of better teaching, in raising medical education to a higher level.” As one of the earliest formed among all professional fraternities, Nu Sigma Nu was the first fraternal organization nationally to limit membership to medical students only. It can therefore claim; the organization evolved from its birth on 2 March 1882 under the leadership of five original members, all of the class of 1883, along with one other became the six recognized Founders of the Fraternity. The six Founders were: Benjamin Grinnell Strong Frederick Clark Bailey Robert D. Stephens, William James Mayo, of Mayo Clinic fame Charles Marshall Frye John Lincoln GishThe first five developed and signed the Constitution, all six signed the original charter upon their initiation.

Soon afterward, two professors were added to the membership rolls: Donald McLean and George E. Frothingham. With these, a fixed attention on professional achievement in its defined area of study, the Fraternity had a short period before contemplating a national expansion; the Grand Chapter of Nu Sigma Nu was formed in 1886. Its Beta chapter was formed in 1889 at the Detroit College of Medicine, the Fraternity added additional chapters during a vigorous period of growth from 1890 to 1933. Nu Sigma Nu was the first of five national medical professional fraternities to form, did so when the concept of a professional fraternity was far less common; the fraternity became co-educational in 1972. The national fraternity was dissolved in 1973, due to changing student interest and organizational turmoil. However, several well-established chapters have flourished as semi-local institutions; the remaining chapters communicate, but there is no continuation of national convention activity. Chapters that aggressively maintained their ties with alumni and faculty for the benefit of student members, who eyed long term viability, with alumni support, encouraged early growth of their building and scholarship funds.

As early as 1901, Alpha chapter had accumulated enough capital to seek real estate investment, purchasing a suitable lot in Ann Arbor on Huron Street, near the medical school at that time. Historical records show Epsilon chapter at the University of Minnesota sought to build early in its history, choosing a site at 429 Union Street, in Minneapolis, just two blocks from the medical school. Prior to this, Epsilon chapter rented space at the Masonic Temple at 6th and Hennepin in Minneapolis. William J. Mayo, one of the co-founders of the Mayo Clinic William E. Upjohn, founder of the Upjohn Pharmaceutical Company The Society had established 37 chapters by 1930, 45 by circa 1953. Of the chapter roster, three remain active: Epsilon chapter, University of Minnesota - Minneapolis, MN Lambda chapter, University of Pennsylvania - Philadelphia, PA Rho chapter, Thomas Jefferson University - Philadelphia, PAThe Alpha Chapter at the University of Michigan - Ann Arbor, MI disbanded in 2008; the address of the former house was: Ann Arbor, MI 48104 and housed 34 students.

Some of the dormant chapters have maintained investment and/or scholarship funds. In 2011, the successors of the Beta Xi Chapter at the University of Colorado announced their intent to contribute $650,000 for a "green roof" - an ecologically sensitive gathering place atop the Anschutz Health and Wellness Center at the new Anschutz Medical Campus at the University of Colorado; the chapter had expired in 1973 at about the time the national was dissolved, though afterwards its alumni bought three houses which they leased to students for over a decade after the chapter's closure. Nu Sigma Nu's few surviving chapters are stable and well-capitalized, with comfortable, impressive buildings in comparison with other professional fraternities. Chapter websites explain recent construction and amenities designed to attract graduate students; the Epsilon and Lambda chapter buildings house 13, 10 while the Rho chapter houses 12. By the writing of the 1903 history there were 2,093 members. By circa 1954 Nu Sigma Nu had initiated over 30,000 members on 45 campuses.

Varies by chapter. The Michigan chapter offered its facilities to house those in related fields. Other chapters appear to limit membership to only medical students; the Alpha chapter offered funds to support an international residency to one student per year, paid for by a fund developed by the alumni of the chapter. Several catalogs and histories were published by the Fraternity in its early years, including Nu Sigma Nu in 1903, titled versions in 1900, other years; some chapter had been diligent in publishing'chapter bulletins' which included historical summaries and commentary of national interest. The disbanded national Fraternity has no website; however and alumni correspond informally and may find contact information on individual chapter websites. Alpha chapter at Michigan may retain some of its archivist role: The national fraternity, at the 12th National Convention in March 1902, resolved to have the executive committee negotiate with Alpha chapter to serve as the archive keeper of the society, set aside a r

Paphnutius of Thebes

Paphnutius of Thebes known as Paphnutius the Confessor, was a disciple of Anthony the Great and a bishop of a city in the Upper Thebaid in the early fourth century. He is accounted by some as a prominent member of the First Council of Nicaea which took place in 325. Neither the name of his see. Paphnutius, an Egyptian, was a disciple of Saint Anthony the Great and a bishop of a city in the Upper Thebaid in the early fourth century, he had been persecuted for his Christian beliefs, had been hamstrung on the left side and suffered the loss of his right eye for the Faith under the Emperor Maximinus, was subsequently condemned to the mines. According to some reports, at the First Council of Nicaea he was honoured by Constantine the Great. Paphnutius was present at the First Ecumenical Council, which took up the subject of clerical celibacy, it seems that most of the bishops present were disposed to follow the precedent of the Council of Elvira prohibiting conjugal relations to those bishops, priests and sub-deacons who were married before ordination.

Paphnutius, so certain ancient authors tell us, earnestly entreated his fellow-bishops not to impose this obligation on the orders of the clergy concerned. He proposed, in accordance "with the ancient tradition of the Church", that only those who were celibates at the time of ordination should continue to observe continence, but, on the other hand, that "none should be separated from her, to whom, while yet unordained, he had been united"; the great veneration in which he was held, the well-known fact that he had himself observed the strictest chastity all his life, gave weight to his proposal, unanimously adopted. The council left it to the discretion of the married clergy to continue or discontinue their marital relations. In addition, Paphnutius was a zealous defender of orthodoxy in the face of the Arian heresy. Paphnutius, Potomon of Heraclea, 47 other Egyptian bishops accompanied Saint Athanasius to the First Synod of Tyre in 335 A. D. Most Christians celebrate his feast on September 11.

Byzantine Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians celebrate it on April 19. The existence of Paphnutius is contested by the historian Friedrich Winkelmann, because he is never mentioned by Athanasius, who battled against Arianism; the Church History of Socrates Scholasticus, our earliest source on Paphnutius, is one of the few references for him in general. His participation in the First Ecumenical Council was disputed several times, among others by such a respected canon law historian as Alfons Maria Cardinal Stickler. Stickler's objection is that Paphutius' presence at the council was never mentioned by the council's historian Eusebius of Caesarea, he disproves Socrates' statement that he spoke to a participant of the council as Socrates was born too late to know anyone who had taken part in it. Stickler's main argument against Paphnutius' story is that the Synod of Trullo failed to mention the Paphnutius story when they allowed matrimony for priests, done, as Stickler claims, under the emperor's pressure.

The Council of Trullo, rather erroneously, referred only to the decrees of the Council of Carthage. However, Eusebius does not mention many things that did happen, we are not sure when Socrates of Constantinople was born, the Council of Trullo might have invoked several other canons from the past, though it did not. On the other hand, there have been several prominent scholars who defended the veracity of the Paphnutius story; the main arguments were laid down by Karl Josef von Hefele in his Conciliengeschichte, were taken up by his successor at the Tübingen Catholic faculty of theology Franz Xaver von Funk, as well as by some other eminent historians as Elphège Vacandard in the article on celibacy in the prestigious Dictionnaire de théologie catholique and Henri Leclercq in an article in the Histoire des conciles. Vacandard's position found wide acceptance among the scholars; the original argument by Hefele is available below. Alban Butler says, "On account of the silence of other writers, on the testimonies of Saint Jerome, Saint Epiphanius, others and Orsi suspect that Socrates and Sozomen were misinformed in this story.

There is, nothing repugnant in the narration. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Paphnutius". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton

MTV Europe Music Award for Best New Act

The MTV Europe Music Award for Best New Act is one of the four original general categories that have been given out since the first annual MTV Europe Music Awards in 1994. Called Best Breakthrough Act, it was retitled to Future Sounds in 2006 and the winner was chosen by their peers. In 2007 the category featured only European artists chosen by viewers in each region of Europe, every day the artist with the fewest votes was eliminated and the winner would play live at the EMAs. In 2008 the award was once again retitled, this time to its current name; the current holder by this award is Billie Eilish. Winners are highlighted in bold. † indicates an MTV Video Music Award for Best New Artist–winning artist. ‡ indicates an MTV Video Music Award for Best New Artist–nominated artist that same year. MTV Video Music Award for Best New Artist


Sedoheptulose or D-altro-heptulose is a ketoheptose—a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms and a ketone functional group. It is one of the few heptoses found in nature, is found in various fruits and vegetables ranging from carrots and leeks to figs and avocados, it is an intermediate in respiratory and photosynthetic pathways and plays a vital role in the non-oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway. Studies have shown that sedoheptulose is able to reduce pro-inflammatory markers in vitro such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and thus might be able reduce low-level inflammation in humans. Furthermore, the absence of dietary sedoheptulose and related heptoses can trigger the development of cystinosis when coupled with a rare genetic defect. Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate

Little Meadows, Maryland

Little Meadows is located at the foot of Meadow Mountain in western Maryland. It was a common stopping point for British troops during the French and Indian War and was frequented by George Washington. After a failed attempt to ask the French to leave the Ohio territory in 1753, Governor Robert Dinwiddie sent Lieutenant Colonel George Washington of the new Virginia Regiment to drive out the French. Starting out from Wills Creek, the expedition stopped at Little Meadows in early May 1754 to make camp. Washington wrote Dinwiddie on May 9. Washington and his men moved on to ambush French forces and construct Fort Necessity, where they were defeated and forced to return to Cumberland; the ambush and subsequent engagement proved to be a major spark of the French and Indian War, the larger, Seven Years' War. On June 10, 1755 British and American forces left Fort Cumberland. On the 16th they arrived at Little Meadows. General Braddock, the overall British commander, was unaccustomed to frontier warfare and so asked Washington for advice, who made preparations to march on Fort Duquesne.

While in camp the famous Captain Jack and his forest rangers, men who dressed in leather and cloth and operated as Indians offered their services to Braddock for intelligence and harassing enemy Indians. Braddock rebuffed their offer. On the 19th of June, Washington and 1,200 troops moved out, accompanied by their Indian allies, towards Fort Duquesne. General Braddock could not abandon the tactics of Europe, making slow progress on their march, only 12 miles in 4 days; as Washington put it, "instead of pushing on with vigor, without regarding a little rough road, they were halting to level every mole hill, to erect bridges over every brook." Nine miles from Fort Duquesne and Indian forces attacked defeating the British and mortally wounding Braddock in what came to be known as the Battle of the Monongahela