Manchester Airport

Manchester Airport is an international airport at Ringway, England, 7.5 nautical miles south-west of Manchester city centre. In 2016, it was the third busiest airport in the United Kingdom in terms of passenger numbers and the busiest of those not serving London; the airport comprises three passenger terminals and a goods terminal, is the only airport in the UK other than Heathrow Airport to operate two runways over 3,280 yd in length. Manchester Airport covers an area of 560 hectares and has flights to 199 destinations, placing the airport thirteenth globally for total destinations served. Opened on 25 June 1938, it was known as Ringway Airport, is still called this locally. In World War II, as RAF Ringway, it was a base for the Royal Air Force; the airport is owned and managed by the Manchester Airport Holdings, a holding company owned by the Australian finance house IFM Investors and the ten metropolitan borough councils of Greater Manchester, with Manchester City Council owning the largest stake.

Ringway, after which the airport was named, is a village with a few buildings and church at the southern edge of the airport. Future developments include the £800 million Airport City Manchester logistics, manufacturing and hotel space next to the airport. Ongoing and future transport improvements include the £290 million Eastern Link relief road, which opened in October 2018. A High Speed 2 station known as Manchester Interchange, is earmarked for opening in 2033, will create a regular sub-10-minute shuttle service for connecting rail passengers between central Manchester and the Airport while relieving stress on the Styal Line to the Airport from Manchester which has become one of the most congested routes on the National Rail network. After the airport handled a record 27.8 million passengers in 2017, it is undergoing a major expansion programme to double the size of Terminal 2, with the first elements opening in 2019. The £1 billion expansion will be completed in 2024 and enable the Terminal 2 to handle 35 million passengers.

Capacity exists for up to 50 million passengers annually with two runways, however this potential figure is limited by the airport's restriction to 61 aircraft movements per hour as well as existing terminal sizes to process arrivals and departures. Construction started on 28 November 1935 and the airport opened in June 1937, on 25 June 1938, in Ringway parish, its northern border was Yewtree Lane between Firtree Farm and The Grange, east of the crossroads marked "Ringway", its southeast border a little west of Altrincham Road, along the lane from Oversleyford running northeast east into Styal. During World War II, RAF Ringway was important in military aircraft production and training parachutists. After the Second World War, the base reverted to a civilian airport and expanded to its present size. Manchester Airport was the busiest airport after Heathrow following the war. In 1972, the M56 motorway to the airport opened, in 1993 Manchester Airport station. From 1997 to 2001, a second runway was built, causing large-scale protests in Cheshire in the village of Styal where natural habitats were disturbed and listed buildings dismantled to make way for it.

British Airways scaled down operations from Manchester Airport with the sale of their BA Connect subsidiary to Flybe, the ending of their franchise agreement with GB Airways, a business subsequently sold to easyJet. In October 2008, the daily New York–JFK service was terminated and in March 2013 the frequent service to London Gatwick; this leaves a BA Shuttle serving London Heathrow. American Airlines operations remain in Terminal 3, with daily flights to Philadelphia, but it has terminated services to New York and Charlotte. Since taking over BA Connect's select routes, Flybe has gone on to add several more destinations. In 2012, Flybe introduced the "mini hub" concept co-ordinating the arrival and departure times of various domestic services throughout the day and thereby creating combinations such as Norwich-Manchester-Belfast, Glasgow-Manchester-Southampton and Edinburgh-Manchester-Exeter with conveniently short transfer times. In 2013, Virgin Atlantic introduced its Little Red short-haul brand to take-up some of the available Heathrow and Gatwick slots.

Manchester was the inaugural destination, with services were operated by aircraft leased from Aer Lingus. However, these services ceased in March 2015 due to low popularity. Delta airlines operated a Manchester-Atlanta service, until 29 March 2015, when partner airline Virgin Atlantic began to operate the route; as part of the Government's Future of Air Transport White Paper, Manchester Airport published its Master Plan on its proposed expansions until 2030. Demolition of older buildings, such as old storage buildings, the old Alpha Catering Building and Males Garage, to the east of Terminal 2 has begun, to make way for a new apron and taxiway towards runway 05L/23R and an eastwards extension of Terminal 2, planned to provide fifteen more covered stands; the World Logistics Hub is part of the Airport City Enterprise Developments in south Manchester. This development is designed to meet the growing demand for cargo handling space and infrastructure outside of the southeast. Positioned on the southwest side of the A538 road, next to the southeast side of the M56 motorway across the A538 from the World Freight Terminal, it provides access to the trunk motorway network via Junction 6.

Manchester Airport has development plans to meet the growing demand to fly. One document, "The Need for Land", outlines many development ideas that have been mooted for decades and will provide required capacity and more jobs. Five affected areas

Twin Lights Soda

Twin Lights is an American soft drink company based in Rockport, established in the early 1900s. It is known for being one of the last small, independent soda pop bottlers in America, for its popularity with soda aficionados and local residents; the Thomas Wilson Bottling Company was established in Rockport, Massachusetts, in May 1907, by Thomas Wilson. It began producing its trademark Twin Lights soda the same year; the Twin Lights name and logo are taken from the twin lighthouses that sit at either end of Thatcher Island, located just off the coast of Rockport. In the 1930s, more than 100 bottlers operated in Massachusetts, including brands like Chelmsford Ginger Ale, Millis’s Clicquot Club, Polar Beverages. Twin Lights’ heyday came during the 1950s and 1960s, when it produced tens of thousands of cases a year and rivaled both Coca-Cola and Pepsi in popularity within the region of Cape Ann, north of Boston; the sodas became a part of local culture and were, at times attributed mythical qualities: The local hospital used to serve Twin Lights ginger ale to patients, while Twin Lights orangeade gained a reputation as a reliable hangover cure.

Over time, many small bottlers were undercut by such factors as changing market demographics, the rise of national supermarkets and the introduction of nonreturnable packaging. The production of Twin Lights decreased over the decades, as well, but the business was kept alive. Today, Twin Lights is the only remaining independent bottler in their area. Pierce Sears, great-grandson of founder Thomas Wilson, continues to operate the small business in the same original Rockport location, producing cases of Twin Lights soda on the family’s aging machinery, some of which dates back to pre-World War II; the distribution of Twin Lights now is restricted to local vendors in Rockport and Gloucester, to a handful of residential customers to whom Sears delivers the soda. Current flavors include cola, root beer, lemon-lime, fruit punch, cream soda, birch beer, golden ginger ale and pale dry ginger ale. Recent newspaper articles have suggested that the business is in jeopardy, due to the decreasing availability of the 7-oz bottles required by the machines.

It is becoming difficult for Sears to locate the right sized bottles, leaving him reliant upon loyal customers to return their bottles, having to source similarly-sized old-fashioned bottles on the secondary market. Clark, Edie Yankee Magazine "A Company of One - Pierce Sears and his Twin Lights Bottling Company"

Marco Girolamo Vida

Marco Girolamo Vida or Marcus Hieronymus Vida was an Italian humanist and poet. Marco was born at Cremona, the son of the consular Guglielmo Vida, Leona Oscasale, he had two brothers, Giorgio, a captain in the service of Venice, Girolamo, a Canon of the Cathedral Chapter of Cremona. He had three sisters, Elena and a third whose name is unknown, he began his studies under the local grammarian, Nicolò Lucari. He was sent to Mantua, Bologna and Padua, it is conjectured that it was in Mantua, where the Canons Regular had a school, that Marco took the habit around 1505. By about 1510 he had been granted several benefices: in the diocese of Cremona at Ticengo at Monticelli at Solarolo Monestirolo, where he held the office of Provost, at Paderno, where he held the title of Archpriest. Vida joined the court of Pope Leo X and was given the Priory of San Silvestro at Frascati Pope Clement VII appointed him a Protonotary Apostolic, he became bishop of Alba on 7 February 1533. In 1544, the diocese and the entire Marquisate of Monseratto were occupied by the Franch, in their long war with the Spanish, the Bishop was forced to retreat to his benefices in Cremona.

Bishop Vida attended the Council of Trent in May and June 1546, again in March 1547. In 1549 and 1550 he became involved in a controversy between his native Cremona and the city of Pavia, helping to prepare the brief for his fellow citizens to be argued before the Spanish Governor of Milan, Ferrante Gonzaga. On 29 March 1564 Bishop Vida Testament, he died on 27 September 1566. Vida wrote a considerable amount of Latin poetry, both secular and sacred, in classical style, particular the style of Virgil. Among his best-known works are the didactic poem in three books, De arte poetica inspired by Horace, Scacchia Ludus, translated into many languages over the centuries. Both poems were first published in 1527, his major work was the Latin epic poem Christiados libri sex, in the style and much of the language of Virgil. He began work on it under Pope Leo X, elected in 1513, but did not complete it until the early 1530s, it was published in 1535, well after the pope's death on 1 December 1521. For a biography, comments on the main poems, full study of the Christiad, see M.

Di Cesare, Vida's Christiad and Vergilian Epic, New York: Columbia University Press, 1964. For a detailed bibliography of editions and translations of all his works, see M. Di Cesare, Bibliotheca Vidiana, Florence: Sansoni, 1974.) A translation of his De arte poetica by Christopher Pitt can be found in the 19th volume of the collection English Poets edited by Alexander Chalmers. Gardner, Marco Girolamo Vida. Christiad. Lancetti, Vencenzo. Della vita e degli scritti di Marco Girolamo Vida. Milano: Giuseppe Crespi. Pp. 8–61. Schizzi, Folchino. Sulle principali opere di Marco Girolamo Vida, e sull'utilita in generale dello studio della lingua latina. Resnati. Pp. 7–16. Marcus Hieronymus Vida, Poeticorum libri tres, edited by Agnieszka Paulina Lew, serie XV, vol. 99, Klassische Sprachen und Literaturen, Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2011, ISBN 9783631580820 Marci Herionymi Vidae... Christiados Libri Sex. Antwerp: Johan Steelsius, 1536. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Vida, Marco Girolamo". Encyclopædia Britannica.

28. Cambridge University Press; the Silkworm.