The Portman Estate, covering 110 acres of Marylebone in London’s West End, was founded in 1532 when the land was first leased to Sir William Portman. The Portman Estate has two rural estates in Buckinghamshire and Herefordshire. In addition to its core landlord operation, The Portman Estate runs The Portman Foundation, a charitable trust which supports charities and other causes which are located in or benefit the Marylebone area; the London Estate in Marylebone covers 110 acres from Edgware Road in the west to beyond Baker Street in the east, north as far as Crawford Street. It covers 650 buildings and four garden squares; the estate's Chiltern Street was voted “London’s Coolest Street” by Condé Nast Traveler in 2016. Characterised by a row of red brick frontages and a Grade II listed Victorian fire station, the street is now a boutique hotel by American hotelier Andre Balazs; the Portman Estate owns and manages two farms with different characteristics. Portman Burtley in Buckinghamshire covers 2,000 acres of farmland and woodland which have an organic beef enterprise of 200 South Devon cattle.
Portman Wilmaston in Herefordshire is a 1,000 acre mixed farm of sheep, arable land and woodland. The Portman Estate dates back to the 16th century, when Sir William Portman, Lord Chief Justice to King Henry VIII, from Orchard Portman in Somerset, leased 270 acres of the Manor of Lileston, he acquired the freehold in 1554, but most of the land remained farmland and meadow until the mid-18th century and the building boom after the end of the Seven Years' War in 1763. In the 1750s William Baker had leased land from the family to lay out Orchard and Portman Streets, the north side of Oxford Street. Henry William Portman, a descendant of Sir William, continued the development in 1764 with the creation of Portman Square, with buildings by James Wyatt, Robert Adam and James'Athenian' Stuart, including Montagu House, built in the north-west corner for the famed literary hostess Elizabeth Montagu and used by the Portman family as their London town house. Portman Square was the focus of the new estate and was followed by the building of Manchester Square during the 1770s and Bryanston and Montagu Squares 30 years later.
These were laid out by James Thompson Parkinson. The area remained residential, attracting the prosperous middle class who wanted to live near the centre of London. There were mews for tradesmen and servants. At the southwest corner of the Estate, where Marble Arch now stands, was the Tyburn gallows, London’s principal place of public execution until 1783. Development of the area north of the Marylebone Road around Dorset Square continued after 1815, to the North West in Lisson Green, workers’ cottages were built from 1820 to 1840. Many of the original Georgian houses north of Portman Square were redeveloped as mansion blocks, which were let on long leases; this development spread along the major traffic routes of Baker Street. In 1948 the Estate valued at £10 million, was subject to death duties of £7.6 million on the death of the seventh Viscount Portman, resulting in the sale of all the family’s West Country estates as well as the northern part of the London Estate in 1951, the area around Crawford Street the following year.
In the 1950s and 1960s the Estate collaborated with the developer Max Rayne to redevelop the frontage of Oxford Street and Baker Street, as well as the south and west sides of Portman Square. 1764 - Portman Square c.1770 - Manchester Square 1810 - Bryanston Square and Montagu Square The Estate is held in trust for the benefit of the wider family, with over 130 beneficiaries. The ancestral title is held by The Viscount Portman who leads the family’s management of the Estate through the Estate Trustees and the management company, Portman Settled Estates Limited. A History Of The Portman Estate Portman Village Chiltern Street
Sir Julius Benedict was a German-born composer and conductor, resident in England for most of his career. Benedict was born in Stuttgart, the son of a Jewish banker, learnt composition from Johann Nepomuk Hummel at Weimar and Carl Maria von Weber at Dresden. In the same year he was appointed Kapellmeister of the Kärnthnerthor theatre at Vienna, two years in 1825, he became Kapellmeister of the San Carlo theatre at Naples, it was here he gave piano lessons to the young prodigy Theodor Döhler. In Naples his first opera, Giacinta ed Ernesto, premiered in 1827, another, written for his native city, I Portoghesi in Goa, was given there in 1830. In 1836 he was given the conductorship of an operatic enterprise at the Lyceum Theatre, brought out a short opera, Un anno ed un giorno given in Naples. In 1838 he became conductor of the English opera at Theatre Royal, Drury Lane during the period of Michael William Balfe's great popularity. In 1848 he conducted Felix Mendelssohn's Elijah at Exeter Hall, for the first appearance of Jenny Lind in oratorio, in 1850 he was the accompanist and conductor on Lind's tour of America.
On his return in 1852 he became musical conductor under James Henry Mapleson's management at Her Majesty's Theatre, in the same year conductor of the Harmonic Union. Amongst his minor works is an Andantino for Concertina and Fortepiano written in 1858. Benedict wrote recitatives for the production of an Italian-language version of Weber's Oberon in 1860. In the same year his cantata Undine was produced at the Norwich Festival, in which Clara Novello appeared in public for the last time, his best-known opera, The Lily of Killarney, written on the subject of Dion Boucicault's play The Colleen Bawn to a libretto by John Oxenford, was produced at Covent Garden in 1862. His operetta The Bride of Song was brought out there in 1864. Benedict wrote a march for the wedding of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales and Alexandra of Denmark in 1863. St Cecilia, an oratorio, was performed at the Norwich Festival in 1868. Here a symphony by him was given in 1873. In the autumn of 1875, Benedict corresponded with W. S. Gilbert about collaborating on a comic opera with him, but Gilbert had too many projects and the idea was dropped.
Benedict conducted every Norwich Festival from 1845 to 1878 inclusive, the Liverpool Philharmonic Society's concerts from late 1875 to 1880. He was the regular accompanist at the Monday Popular Concerts in London from their start, with few exceptions acted as conductor of these concerts, he contributed an interesting life of Weber to the series of biographies of Great Musicians. In 1871 he was knighted, in 1874 was made knight commander of the orders of Franz Joseph I of Austria and Frederick I of Württemberg. In 1884, friends set up a benefit fund to aid him financially, he died in London on 5 June 1885. A London County Council blue plaque commemorates Benedict at 2 Manchester Square, where he lived and died. 1827 - Concertino No.1, for piano and orchestra, Op.18 1833 - Concertino No.2, for piano and orchestra, Op.19 c.1850 - Festival Overture, Op.42 1850 - Konzertstück in C minor, for piano and orchestra, Op.45 1862 - The Octoroon, overture c.1865 - Le ménestrel, overture. Op.76 c.1865 - The Tempest, overture, Op.77 1867 - Piano Concerto in E flat, Op.89 1867 - Piano Concerto in A flat, Op.90 1868 - La selva incantata, overture 1872-73 - Symphony No. 1 in G minor, Op.101 1874 - Alfred and Marie, grand march 1874-76 - Symphony No. 2 in C 1822 - L'amor timido, cantata 1860 - Undine, cantata 1863 - Richard Coeur de Lion, cantata 1866 - The Legend of St Cecilia, cantata 1870 - St Peter, oratorio 1882 - Graziella, cantata 1883 - Mary Stuart's Farewell, scena for contralto and orchestra 1827 - Giacinta ed Ernesto 1830 - I portoghesi in Goa 1836 - Un anno ed un giorno 1838 - The Gypsy's Warning 1844 - The Brides of Venice 1845-46 - The Crusaders 1861-62 - The Lily of Kill
1962–1966 is a compilation album by the English rock band the Beatles, spanning the years indicated in the title. Released with its counterpart 1967–1970 in 1973, it reached No. 3 in the United Kingdom and No. 1 in the United States Cash Box album chart. However, in Billboard, 1962–1966 peaked at No. 3, while 1967–1970 reached the top spot. The album was re-released in September 1993 on compact disc, charting at No. 3 in the UK. The album was compiled by Beatles manager Allen Klein. Though the group had success with cover versions of songs, most notably with "Twist and Shout", which made number 2 on the Billboard charts, only songs composed by the Beatles were included; as with 1967–1970, this compilation was produced by Apple/EMI at least in response to a bootleg collection titled Alpha Omega, sold on television the previous year. Print advertising for the two records made a point of declaring them "the only authorized collection of the Beatles". For the group's 1963 debut LP Please Please Me, photographer Angus McBean took the distinctive colour photograph of the group looking down over the stairwell inside EMI House.
The cover for the 1963 EP. In 1969, the Beatles asked McBean to recreate this shot. Although one of the 1969 photographs was intended for the planned Get Back album, it was not used when that project saw eventual release in 1970 as Let It Be. Instead, another 1969 photograph, along with an unused one from the 1963 photo shoot, were used for both this LP and the cover of 1967–1970; the inner gatefold photo for both LPs is from the "Mad Day Out" photo session in London on Sunday 28 July 1968. The album cover was designed by Tom Wilkes. Original 1973 release: Apple SKBO-3403 Second 1976 pressings: Capitol SKBO-3403 1978 first red vinyl issue: Capitol SEBX-11842 The British and American versions of the vinyl album contain notable differences. Soundtrack LP, while the same song on the British edition does not; the British LP uses the stereo "whispering intro" mix of "I Feel Fine", while the US LP uses the mono mix from Beatles'65, drenched in additional reverb. In the liner notes associating the songs with their original albums, the US editions referenced the Capitol albums while UK printings used the British albums.
The first compact disc version was released on 20 September 1993. It was released on two discs for the price of two albums, though it could have fit on to a single disc; the CD version used new digital masters. The first four tracks on the CD release are in mono; the tracks "All My Loving", "Can't Buy Me Love", "A Hard Day's Night", "And I Love Her" and "Eight Days a Week" made their CD stereo debut with this release. The 1993 versions were issued on vinyl in the UK. EMI announced on 10 August 2010, that the album had been remastered for a second time and, once again, would be released as a two-CD package; the album was released worldwide on 18 October 2010, 19 October 2010 in North America. The album was reissued on 180 g vinyl in 2014, prepared from the original UK 1973 compilation master; the fake stereo mixes of "Love Me Do" and "She Loves You" were replaced by the true mono versions. Although it appeared on the Vee-Jay compilation Jolly What! The Beatles and Frank Ifield on Stage, this is the first appearance of "From Me to You" on a US Capitol album.
"A Hard Day's Night" makes its US Capitol album debut here only featured on the United Artists soundtrack album. All tracks written by Lennon–McCartney. In the US, the album sold 1,215,338 double LPs by December 31, 1973 and 3,475,942 double LPs by the end of the decade. List of best-selling albums in France List of best-selling albums in Germany List of best-selling albums in the United States List of diamond-certified albums in Canada List of best-selling albums of the 1970s Notes on released versions
Imperial Chemical Industries
Imperial Chemical Industries was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain. It was formed by the merger of leading British chemical companies in 1926, its headquarters were at Millbank in London, it was a constituent of the FT 30 and the FTSE 100 indices. ICI made paints and speciality products, including food ingredients, speciality polymers, electronic materials and flavourings. In 2008, it was acquired by AkzoNobel, which sold parts of ICI to Henkel, integrated ICI's remaining operations within its existing organisation; the company was founded in December 1926 from the merger of four companies: Brunner Mond, Nobel Explosives, the United Alkali Company, British Dyestuffs Corporation. It established its head office at Millbank in London in 1928. Competing with DuPont and IG Farben, the new company produced chemicals, fertilisers, dyestuffs, non-ferrous metals, paints. In its first year turnover was £27 million. In the 1920s and 30s, the company played a key role in the development of new chemical products, including the dyestuff phthalocyanine, the acrylic plastic Perspex, Dulux paints and polyethylene terephthalate fibre known as Terylene.
In 1940, ICI started British Nylon Spinners as a joint venture with Courtaulds. ICI owned the Sunbeam motorcycle business, which had come with Nobel Industries, continued to build motorcycles until 1937. During the Second World War, ICI was involved with the United Kingdom's nuclear weapons programme codenamed Tube Alloys. In the 1940s and 50s, the company established its pharmaceutical business and developed a number of key products, including Paludrine, Inderal, PEEK. ICI formed ICI Pharmaceuticals in 1957. ICI developed a fabric in the 1950s known as Crimplene, a thick polyester yarn used to make a fabric of the same name; the resulting cloth is heavy and wrinkle-resistant, retains its shape well. The California-based fashion designer Edith Flagg was the first to import this fabric from Britain to the USA. During the first two years, ICI gave Flagg a large advertising budget to popularise the fabric across America. In 1960, Paul Chambers became the first chairman appointed from outside the company.
Chambers employed the consultancy firm McKinsey to help with reorganising the company. His eight-year tenure saw export sales double, but his reputation was damaged by a failed takeover bid for Courtaulds in 1961–62. In 1962, ICI developed the controversial herbicide, paraquat. ICI was confronted with the nationalisation of its operations in Burma on 1 August 1962 as a consequence of the military coup. In 1964, ICI acquired British Nylon Spinners, the company it had jointly set up in 1940 with Courtaulds. ICI surrendered its 37.5 per cent holding in Courtaulds and paid Courtaulds £2 million a year for five years, "to take account of the future development expenditure of Courtaulds in the nylon field." In return, Courtaulds transferred to ICI their 50 per cent holding in BNS. BNS was absorbed into ICI Fibres; the acquisition included BNS production plants in Pontypool and Doncaster, together with research and development in Pontypool. Early pesticide development included Gramoxone, the insecticides pirimiphos-methyl in 1967 and pirimicarb in 1970, brodifacoum was developed in 1974.
Peter Allen was appointed chairman between 1968 and 1971. He presided over the purchase of Viyella. Profits shrank under his tenure. Jack Callard was appointed chairman from 1971 to 1975, he doubled company profits between 1972 and 1974, made ICI Britain's largest exporter. In 1971, the company acquired Atlas Chemical Industries Inc. a major American competitor. In 1977, Imperial Metal Industries was divested as an independent quoted company. From 1982 to 1987, the company was led by the charismatic John Harvey-Jones. Under his leadership, the company acquired the Beatrice Chemical Division in 1985 and Glidden Coatings & Resins, a leading paints business, in 1986. In 1991, ICI sold the agricultural and merchandising operations of BritAg and Scottish Agricultural Industries to Norsk Hydro, fought off a hostile takeover bid from Hanson, who had acquired 2.8 percent of the company. It divested its soda ash products arm to Brunner Mond, ending an association with the trade that had existed since the company's inception, one, inherited from the original Brunner, Mond & Co. Ltd.
In 1992, the company sold its nylon business to DuPont. In 1993, the company de-merged its pharmaceutical bio-science businesses: pharmaceuticals, specialities and biological products were all transferred into a new and independent company called Zeneca. Zeneca subsequently merged with Astra AB to form AstraZeneca. Charles Miller Smith was appointed CEO in 1994, one of the few times that someone from outside ICI had been appointed to lead the company, Smith having been a director at Unilever. Shortly afterwards, the company acquired a number of former Unilever businesses in an attempt to move away from its historical reliance on commodity chemicals. In 1995, ICI acquired the American paint company Grow Group. In 1997, ICI acquired National Starch & Chemical, Quest International and Crosfield, the speciality chemicals businesses of Unilever for $8 billion; this step was part of a strategy to move away
Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster in the West End of London, running from Tottenham Court Road to Marble Arch via Oxford Circus. It is Europe's busiest shopping street, with around half a million daily visitors, as of 2012 had 300 shops, it is designated as part of the A40, a major road between London and Fishguard, though it is not signed as such, traffic is restricted to buses and taxis. The road was part of the Via Trinobantina, a Roman road between Essex and Hampshire via London, it was known as Tyburn Road through the Middle Ages when it was notorious for public hangings of prisoners in Newgate Prison. It became known as Oxford Road and Oxford Street in the 18th century, began to change from residential to commercial and retail purposes by the late 19th century, attracting street traders, confidence tricksters and prostitution; the first department stores in Britain opened in the early 20th century, including Selfridges, John Lewis and HMV. Unlike nearby shopping streets such as Bond Street, it has retained an element of downmarket trading alongside more prestigious retail stores.
The street suffered heavy bombing during World War II, several longstanding stores including John Lewis were destroyed and rebuilt from scratch. Despite competition from other shopping centres such as Westfield Stratford City and the Brent Cross Shopping Centre, Oxford Street remains in high demand as a retail location, with several chains hosting their flagship stores on the street, has a number of listed buildings; the annual switching on of Christmas lights by a celebrity has been a popular event since 1959. As a popular retail area and main thoroughfare for London buses and taxis, Oxford Street has suffered from traffic congestion, a poor safety record and pollution. Various traffic management schemes have been implemented by Transport for London, including a ban on private vehicles during daytime hours on weekdays and Saturdays, improved pedestrian crossings. Oxford Street runs for 1.2 miles. It is within the City of Westminster; the road begins at St Giles Circus as a westward continuation of New Oxford Street, meeting Charing Cross Road, Tottenham Court Road.
It runs past Great Portland Street, Wardour Street and Rathbone Place to Oxford Circus, where it meets Regent Street. From there it continues past New Bond Street, Bond Street station and Vere Street, ending on Marble Arch; the road is within the London Congestion Charging Zone. It is part of the A40, most of, a trunk road running from London to Fishguard. Like many roads in Central London that are no longer through routes, it is not signposted with that number. Numerous bus routes run along Oxford Street, including 10, 25, 55, 73, 98, 390 and Night Buses N8, N55, N73, N98 and N207. Oxford Street follows the route of a Roman road, the Via Trinobantina, which linked Calleva Atrebatum with Camulodunum via London and became one of the major routes in and out of the city. Between the 12th century and 1782, it was variously known as Tyburn Road, Uxbridge Road, Worcester Road and Oxford Road. On Ralph Aggas' "Plan of London", published in the 16th century, the road is described as "The Waye to Uxbridge" followed by "Oxford Road", showing rural farmland where the junction of Oxford Street and Rathbone Place now is.
Though a major coaching route, there were several obstacles along it, including the bridge over the Tyburn. A turnpike trust was established in the 1730s to improve upkeep of the road, it became notorious as the route taken by prisoners on their final journey from Newgate Prison to the gallows at Tyburn near Marble Arch. Spectators jeered as the prisoners were carted along the road, could buy rope used in the executions from the hangman in taverns. By about 1729, the road had become known as Oxford Street. Development began in the 18th century after many surrounding fields were purchased by the Earl of Oxford. In 1739, a local gardener, Thomas Huddle, built property on the north side. John Rocque's Map of London, published in 1746, shows urban buildings as far as North Audley Street, but only intermittent rural property beyond. Buildings were erected on Davies Street in the 1750s. Further development occurred between 1763 and 1793; the Pantheon, a place for public entertainment, opened at No. 173 in 1772.
The street became popular for entertainment including bear-baiters and public houses. However, it was not attractive to the middle and upper classes due to the nearby Tyburn gallows and the notorious St Giles rookery, or slum; the gallows were removed in 1783, by the end of the century, Oxford Street was built up from St Giles Circus to Park Lane, containing a mix of residential houses and entertainment. The site of the Princess's Theatre that opened in 1840 is now occupied by Oxford Walk shopping area. Oxford Circus was designed as part of the development of Regent Street by the architect John Nash in 1810; the four quadrants of the circus were designed by Sir Henry Tanner and constructed between 1913 and 1928. Oxford Street changed in character from residential to retail towards the end of the 19th century. Drapers and furniture stores opened shops on the street, some expanded into the first department stores. Street vendors sold tourist souvenirs during this time. A plan in Tallis's London Street Views, published in the late 1830s, remarks that all the street, save for the far western end, was retail.
John Lewis started in 1864 in small shop at No. 132, wh
Legends featuring pig-faced women originated simultaneously in Holland and France in the late 1630s. The stories told of a wealthy woman whose body was of normal human appearance, but whose face was that of a pig. In the earliest forms of the story, the woman's pig-like appearance was the result of witchcraft. Following her wedding day, the pig-faced woman's new husband was granted the choice of having her appear beautiful to him but pig-like to others, or pig-like to him and beautiful to others; when her husband told her that the choice was hers, the enchantment was broken and her pig-like appearance vanished. These stories became popular in England, in Ireland; the magical elements vanished from the story, the existence of pig-faced women began to be treated as fact. The story became widespread in Dublin in the early 19th century, where it became believed that reclusive 18th-century philanthropist Griselda Steevens had kept herself hidden from view because she had the face of a pig. In late 1814 and early 1815, rumour swept London.
Her existence was reported as fact, numerous alleged portraits of her were published. With belief in pig-faced women commonplace, unscrupulous showmen exhibited living "pig-faced women" at fairs; these were not genuine women. Belief in pig-faced women declined, the last significant work to treat their existence as genuine was published in 1924. Today, the legend is forgotten. While stories of pig-faced women vary in detail, they have the same basic form. A pregnant noblewoman would be approached by a beggar accompanied by her children, would dismiss the beggar, in so doing would in some way compare the beggar's children to pigs; the beggar would curse the pregnant noblewoman, come the birth of the child it would be a girl and formed in every respect other than having the face of a pig. The child would grow up healthy, but with some of the behaviours of a pig, she would eat from a silver trough, speak only in grunts or with a grunting sound to her speech. The only child of her parents, she would stand to inherit a large fortune, but her parents would be concerned about what would become of her after their death.
They would thus make arrangements either to find a man willing to marry her, or to use their fortune to endow a hospital on condition that the hospital take care of her for the remainder of her life. Although originating simultaneously in Holland and France, it was only in England, in Ireland, that the legend became well known and believed. In 1861 Charles Dickens remarked on the longevity of the belief in pig-faced women in England, commenting that "In every age, I suppose, there has been a pig-faced lady". While earlier stories of humans with the appearance of animals are common, prior to the 17th century there are no recorded European stories of humans with the faces of pigs; the earliest versions of the story of the pig-faced woman appear to have originated simultaneously in England and France, to have become prevalent in England in late 1639. A 1904 paper in Volkskunde magazine by Dutch historian and antiquarian Gerrit Jacob Boekenoogen traces the earliest forms of the legend as appearing in 1638 or 1639.
The earliest surviving version of the legend is a Dutch print about an Amsterdam woman named Jacamijntjen Jacobs. In 1621 Jacobs, while pregnant, was approached one day by a female beggar accompanied by three children, who pleaded that her children were starving. Jacobs told the beggar "Take away your filthy pigs, I will not give you anything"; the woman replied "Are these my children pigs? May God give you such pigs as I have here!" Jacobs' daughter was born with the head and face of a pig, at the time of publication in 1638–39 the daughter, by in her teens ate from a trough and spoke in a grunting voice. Bondeson speculates; the mediaeval Dutch legend of Margaret of Henneberg tells of a wealthy noblewoman who turned away a beggar with twins, was herself punished by giving birth to 365 children. In a similar French folk tale, the noblewoman in question described the beggar's children as "piglets", gave birth to a litter of nine piglets; the other significant theory about the origin of the legend, proposed by Robert Chambers in 1864, is that a genuine child was born in the early 17th century with facial deformities resembling a pig's face and a speech impediment causing her to grunt.
The science of teratology was in its infancy, the theory of maternal impression was accepted. It is possible that the birth of a genuinely deformed child led to the story of the beggar as a possible explanation for her appearance, with other elements of the story being additions or distortions by publishers. Chambers speculates that the original child may have had a similar appearance to Julia Pastrana, a woman with hypertrichosis and distorted facial features, exhibited in Europe and North America until her death in 1860, embalmed, until the 1970s. However, while a 1952 stillbirth with a face resembling a pig is documented, there has never been a reliably documented case of a human with deformities of this kind surviving outside the womb, while all versions of the pig-faced woman
Thomas Foley (Royal Navy officer)
Admiral Sir Thomas Foley GCB was a Royal Navy officer and "Hero of the Battle of the Nile". He was the second son of landowner John Foley of Ridgeway, the Foley family's ancestral estate in the parish of Llawhaden near Narberth and the nephew of Captain Thomas Foley, who accompanied George Anson, 1st Baron Anson on his voyage around the world, he entered the Royal Navy in 1770, during his time as midshipman, saw a good deal of active service in the West Indies against American privateers. Promoted lieutenant in 1778, he served under Admiral Keppel and Sir Charles Hardy in the Channel, with Rodney's squadron was present at the defeat of De Langara off Cape St Vincent in 1780, at the relief of Gibraltar. Still under Rodney's command, he went out to the West Indies, took his part in the operations which culminated in the victory of 12 April 1782. In the French Revolutionary War he was engaged from the first; as flag-captain to Admiral John Gell, afterwards to Sir Hyde Parker, Foley took part in the siege of Toulon in 1793, the action of Golfe Jouan in 1794, the two fights off Toulon on 13 April and 13 July 1795.
At St Vincent he was flag-captain to the second in command on Britannia. After the battle he was transferred to the Goliath, in which he was sent out in the following year to reinforce Nelson's fleet in the Mediterranean; the part played by the Goliath in the Battle of the Nile was brilliant. She led the squadron round the French van, this manoeuvre contributed not a little to the result of the day. Whether this was done by Foley's own initiative, or intended by Horatio Nelson, has been a matter of controversy, his next important service was with Nelson in the Baltic. At the beginning of 1801, Nelson was promoted to Vice Admiral of the Blue and after a few months, he took part as the second in command in the Battle of Copenhagen; the Elephant carried Foley acted as his chief-of-staff. During the action Nelson's commander, Sir Hyde Parker, who believed that the Danish fire was too strong, signaled for him to break off the action. Nelson ordered. Legend has it that Nelson turned to his flag captain and said: "You know, Foley, I only have one eye - I have the right to be blind sometimes" and holding his telescope to his blind eye said "I do not see the signal!"
Nelson's action was approved in retrospect. Foley was one of Nelson's "Band of Brothers". Nelson himself was a sea-officer par excellence, yet there were many who struggled and were wounded as as he. This could not develop a close relationship among the men. Nelson himself was aware of the brotherhood which had arisen. In his biography of Nelson, David Howarth makes this clear: "... Nelson's famous phrase, "I had the happiness to command a band of brothers'... After his first great victory, Nelson called his captains'my darling children', none was the least embarrassed by that. Under Jervis, the captains of the Mediterranean fleet were becoming a brotherhood, bonded by skill, mutual respect and a common cause. Maybe they had not thought of it in that way before, and the concept - so suitable to his nature - became an important, conscious element in his conduct of the war." An amusing illustration of the affection Nelson inspired in his captains, of the half maternal care they exercised over the fragile and stunted body of their famous leader, is supplied by a letter from Nelson himself to Ball, written from Kioge Bay in 1801.
He was racked with the Baltic cold, wroth, as was common with him, with the still chillier winds which blew from the Admiralty Board: "But," he says, "all in the fleet are so kind to me that I should be a wretch not to cheer up. Foley has put me under a regimen of milk at four in the morning; that picture of one sea veteran administering warm milk to his admiral at four o'clock in the morning is amusing enough. Ill-health obliged Foley to decline Nelson's offer of the post of Captain of the Fleet; therefore it was Foley's fellow "brother" Thomas Hardy, present at Nelson's death. From 1811 to 1815, Foley commanded in the Downs from his flagship Monmouth, at the peace was made KCB. Sir Thomas Foley rose to be full admiral and GCB, he died while serving as Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth in 1833. He was married on 31 Jul 1802 to Lady Lucy Anne FitzGerald, she was the youngest surviving daughter of James FitzGerald, 1st Duke of Leinster and Lady Emily Lennox. Her mother was the great-granddaughter of Charles II, King of England and Ireland and his mistress Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth.
Lucy was the favourite sister of Lord Edward FitzGerald, one of the ill-fated leaders of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, was herself an active participant in the rebellion. She worked as a conduit, clandestinely transmitting letters between the Revolutionary Committee in Dublin and their agents in Paris. A biographer of Lord Edward wrote of Lucy that she "most resembled him in her strong sense of the ludicrous and her passionate love for justice." She wrote in 1798 of her hope for Irish liberation in an address to the Irish nation that wasn’t published until many years later: Irishmen, Countrymen, it is Edward FitzGerald's sister who addresses you: it is a woman but that woman is his sister: she would therefore die for you as he did... Yes, this is the moment, the precious moment which must either stamp with Infa