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Manchu alphabet

The Manchu alphabet is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu language. A similar script is used today by the Xibe people, who speak a language considered either as a dialect of Manchu or a related, mutually intelligible language, it is written vertically from top with columns proceeding from left to right. According to the Veritable Records, in 1599 the Jurchen leader Nurhaci decided to convert the Mongolian alphabet to make it suitable for the Manchu people, he decried the fact that while illiterate Han Chinese and Mongolians could understand their respective languages when read aloud, not the case for the Manchus, whose documents were recorded by Mongolian scribes. Overriding the objections of two advisors named Erdeni and G'ag'ai, he is credited with adapting the Mongolian script to Manchu; the resulting script was known as tongki fuka akū hergen — the "script without dots and circles". In 1632, Dahai added diacritical marks to clear up a lot of the ambiguity present in the original Mongolian script.

This revision created the standard script, known as tongki fuka sindaha hergen — the "script with dots and circles". As a result, the Manchu alphabet contains little ambiguity. Discovered manuscripts from the 1620s make clear, that the addition of dots and circles to Manchu script began before their supposed introduction by Dahai. Dahai added the tulergi hergen: ten graphemes to facilitate Manchu to be used to write Chinese and Tibetan loanwords; these non-Manchu sounds did not have corresponding letters in Manchu. Sounds that were transliterated included the aspirated sounds k', k, x. By the middle of the nineteenth century, there were three styles of writing Manchu in use: standard script, semi-cursive script, cursive script. Semicursive script had less spacing between the letters, cursive script had rounded tails; the Manchu alphabet was used to write Chinese. A modern example is in Manchu: a Textbook for Reading Documents, which has a comparative table of romanizations of Chinese syllables written in Manchu letters, Hànyǔ Pīnyīn and Wade–Giles.

Using the Manchu script to transliterate Chinese words is a source of loanwords for the Xibe language. Several Chinese-Manchu dictionaries contain Chinese characters transliterated with Manchu script; the Manchu versions of the Thousand Character Classic and Dream of the Red Chamber are the Manchu transcription of all the Chinese characters. In the Imperial Liao-Jin-Yuan Three Histories National Language Explanation commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor, the Manchu alphabet is used to write Evenki words. In the Pentaglot Dictionary commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor, the Manchu alphabet is used to transcribe Tibetan and Chagatai words. Despite the alphabetic nature of its script, Manchu was traditionally taught as a syllabary. Like the Mongols, Manchu children were taught to memorize all the syllables in the Manchu language separately as they learned to write, dividing the syllables into twelve different classes, based on the final phonemes of the syllables, all of which ended in vowels; when learning the language, Manchus were taught to say right away "la, lo", etc. instead of saying "l, a — la".

As a result, the syllables contained in their syllabary do not contain all possible combinations that can be formed with their letters. They made, for no such use of the consonants l, m, n and r as English. Today, the opinion on whether it is alphabet or syllabic in nature is still split between different experts. In China, it is considered syllabic, Manchu is still taught in this manner, while in the West it is treated like an alphabet; the alphabetic approach is used by foreigners who want to learn the language, as studying the Manchu script as a syllabary takes longer. The Manchu alphabet has two kinds of punctuation: two dots, analogous to a period. However, with the exception of lists of nouns being reliably punctuated by single dots, punctuation in Manchu is inconsistent, therefore not of much use as an aid to readability; the equivalent of the question mark in Manchu script consists of some special particles, written at the end of the question. The Jurchens of a millennium ago became the ancestors of the Manchus when Nurhaci united the Jianzhou Jurchens and his son subsequently renamed the consolidated tribes as the "Manchu".

Throughout this period, the Jurchen language evolved into. Its script has no relation to the Manchu alphabet, however; the Jurchen script was instead derived from the Khitan script, itself derived from Chinese characters. The Manchu alphabet is included in the Unicode block for Mongolian. Mongolian script Transliterations of Manchu Abkai — Unicode Manchu/Sibe/Daur Fonts and Keyboards Manchu alphabet Manchu script generator ManchuFont — an OpenType font for Manchu writing Jurchen Script

Amphitheater High School

Amphitheater High School known as Amphi High, is a public high school, located in central Tucson, United States. Amphi is the flagship high school of Amphitheater Public Schools of Tucson, serves grades 9–12; the school mascot is the panther, the school colors are kelly green and white. Amphi opened in 1939 as the second high school in Tucson, has a student enrollment of 1,249. In the 1983-84 school year, it was honored as a Blue Ribbon school, its feeder schools are La Cima Middle. In addition to winning the state title in 1975 and again in 1979, Amphi is notable for its football program. Vern Friedli, the former football coach, won more varsity games than any other football coach in Arizona history. At the conclusion of the 2009-10 season, Friedli captured, he retired after the 2011-12 season with 331 wins. Amphi has a rich football history having been the Tucson areas most dominant football program from 1970 to the early 2000s. 5A South Division championships throughout that era include: Arizona 5A State Championships: * * Arizona 5A State Championship game appearances: * * * * Football Rivalries with: Canyon Del Oro High School, Sabino High School, Salpointe Catholic High School, Flowing Wells High School Mario Bates, American football running back in the NFL for the New Orleans Saints, Arizona Cardinals, the Detroit Lions Michael Bates, 1992 Olympic bronze medal-winning sprinter and five-time Pro Bowl kick returner in the NFL Erubiel Durazo, MLB baseball player.

Italian Council of the European Movement

Italian Council of the European Movement is an Italian advocacy group. Following May 1948 Congress of the Hague, was created in Italy, in December 1948, a National Council of the European Movement, an organism in charge of the cooperation between the pro-European MPs and the European Federalist Movement; however its rebuilding was necessary in 1956 because of the opposition inside the pro-European movement between the so-called “functionalists”, supporters of a progressive market integration of the “little Europe” – in which they recognized the necessary base for every further development – and the majority of the Italian federalists, like Altiero Spinelli critical about the European governments after the failure of the European Community of Defence. In these conditions, it seemed unavoidable that the CIME assumes de facto an alternative character respecting to the militant federalism because of its composition; this situation evolved with time, notably thank to the accession of Giuseppe Petrilli at the Presidency in autumn 1964.

In spite of being a former member of the EEC-three-first-year Commission, he matured a vision of the integration process which surpass the intergovernmental approach. The merger between the CIME and the Federalist Movement came to a conclusion in 1966 with the adhesion of the second to the first; the European Movement joined – first at the national level to the European one – the fundamental positions of the federalist strategy and so recognized the importance of European Parliament election at the universal direct suffrage as an indispensable condition for any further progress on the political and institutional camp. When the parliamentary initiative of Altiero Spinelli demonstrated the adequacy of this strategy, the CIME gave it its full support, through the strong pressure in favour of the treaty project made by the European Parliament to the Italian presidency of the Community, in the first semester of 1985. From there, the successive presidencies of Mauro Ferri, Mario Zagari e Giorgio Napolitano confirmed the continuity of the rapport within the CIME between the national political, social-economic forces and the federalist avant-garde.

So the CIME counted among the protagonists in Italy of the constant commitment in favour of the Euro creation but of European institutional reforms to get to the adoption of a real Constitution for the Union. European Movement International European Movement Belgium European Movement Germany European Movement Ireland European Movement Switzerland European Movement UK Official website Sergio Pistone, I movimenti per l’Unità Europea 1945-1954, Edizioni Jaka Book Spa – Milano Sergio Pistone, I movimenti per l’Unità Europea 1954-1969, Prime Editrice S. R. L. – Pavia Ariane Landuyt e Daniela Preda, I movimenti per l’Unità Europea 1970-1986 - Società editrice il Mulino – Bologna Paolo Caraffini, Costruire l’Europa dal basso. Il Ruolo del Consiglio italiano del Movimento Europeo - Società Editrice il Mulino - Bologna