Manchu people

The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name. They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats; the Later Jin, Qing dynasty were established and ruled by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty in China. Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in the country, they can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. They form the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region. Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in one-fifth in Hebei. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Qinglong, Yitong, Weichang, Benxi, Huanren, Fengcheng and over 300 Manchu towns and townships; the Jiu Manzhou Dang contains the earliest use of Manchu.

However, the actual etymology of the ethnic name "Manju" is debatable. According to the Qing dynasty's official historical record, the Researches on Manchu Origins, the ethnic name came from Mañjuśrī; the Qianlong Emperor supported the point of view and wrote several poems on the subject. Meng Sen, a scholar of the Qing dynasty, agreed. On the other hand, he thought the name "Manchu" might stem from Li Manzhu, the chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens. Another scholar, Chang Shan, thinks. "Man" was from the word "mangga". So Manju means "intrepid arrow". There are other hypotheses, such as Fu Sinian's "etymology of Jianzhou"; the Manchus are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty in China, but as early as the semi-mythological chronicles of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors there is mention of the Sushen, a Tungusic people from the northern Manchurian region of northeast Asia, who paid bows and arrows as tribute to Emperor Shun and to the Zhou dynasty. The Sushen used flint-headed wooden arrows, farmed and fished, lived in caves and trees.

The cognates Sushen or Jichen again appear in the Shan Hai Jing and Book of Wei during the dynastic era referring to the Tungusic Mohe tribes of the far northeast. The Mohe practiced pig farming extensively and were sedentary, used both pig and dog skins for coats, they were predominantly farmers and grew soybeans, wheat and rice, in addition to hunting. In the 10th century AD, the term Jurchen first appeared in documents of the late Tang dynasty in reference to the state of Balhae in present-day northeastern China. Following the fall of Balhae, the Jurchens became vassals of the Khitan-led Liao dynasty; the Jurchens in the Yalu River region were tributaries of Goryeo since the reign of Wang Geon, who called upon them during the wars of the Later Three Kingdoms period, but the Jurchens switched allegiance between Liao and Goryeo multiple times, taking advantage of the tension between the two nations. Before the Jurchens overthrew the Khitan, married Jurchen women and Jurchen girls were raped by Liao Khitan envoys as a custom which caused resentment by the Jurchens against the Khitan.

In the year 1114, Wanyan Aguda established the Jin dynasty. His brother and successor, Wanyan Wuqimai defeated the Liao dynasty. After the fall of the Liao dynasty, the Jurchens went to war with the Northern Song dynasty, captured most of northern China in the Jin–Song wars. Song princesses were killed for resisting rape by the Jin. During the Jin dynasty, the first Jurchen script came into use in the 1120s, it was derived from the Khitan script. The Jurchens were sedentary, settled farmers with advanced agriculture, they farmed grain and millet as their cereal crops, grew flax, raised oxen, pigs and horses. Their farming way of life was different from the pastoral nomadism of the Mongols and the Khitans on the steppes. In 1206, the Mongols, vassals to the Jurchens, rose in Mongolia, their leader, Genghis Khan, led Mongol troops against the Jurchens, who were defeated by Ögedei Khan in 1234. Under the Mongols' control, the Jurchens were divided into two groups and treated differently: the ones who were born and raised in North China and fluent in Chinese were considered to be Chinese, but the people who were born and raised in the Jurchen homeland without Chinese-speaking abilities were treated as Mongols politically.

From that time, the Jurchens of North China merged with the Han Chinese while those living in their homeland started to be Mongolized. They adopted Mongolian customs and the Mongolian language; as time went on, fewer and fewer Jurchens could recognize their own script. The Mongol-led Yuan dynasty was replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368. In 1387, Ming forces defeated the Mongol commander Naghachu's resisting forces who settled in the Haixi area and began to summon the Jurchen tribes to pay tribute. At the time, some Jurchen clans were vassals to the Joseon dynasty of Korea such as Odoli and Huligai, their elites served in th

Thomas J. Mabry

Thomas Jewett Mabry was a New Mexico politician and judge, Chief Justice of the New Mexico Supreme Court and the 14th governor of New Mexico. Mabry attended the University of New Mexico School of Law, he settled in New Mexico, where he practiced law and published the local newspaper. He was a member of the New Mexico Constitutional Convention in 1910. Mabry held numerous judicial posts, including serving in the New Mexico Senate. From 1939 to 1946, he was Chief Justice of the New Mexico Supreme Court, he was elected Governor as a Democrat in 1946 and reelected in 1948. In 1917, during his time at the New Mexico Senate, his second wife Katherine Mabry became the one of the first female lawyers in New Mexico. During Mabry's time as governor, the state was active in several post-World War II initiatives, including creation of state state commission on alcoholism and a fair employment practice commission. Mabry's governorship was notable for his involvement in the "Brushy" Bill Roberts hearing. "Brushy" Bill Roberts claimed to be the outlaw William H. Bonney, a.k.a.

Billy the Kid, applied for a pardon from crimes Bonney had committed in New Mexico. Mabry announced the meeting, covered by the press. Mabry announced that he did not believe Roberts' story, denied the pardon application; the press attention and the trip from his home in Hico, Texas to Santa Fe had a negative effect on the elderly Roberts' health, he died soon afterwards. In retirement, Mabry was a resident of Albuquerque, he died there on December 23, 1962, was buried at Fairview Memorial Park in Albuquerque. Thomas J. Mabry at National Governors Association Thomas J. Mabry at Find a Grave Obituary, Thomas Jewett Mabry at Oklahoma Cemeteries Thomas Jewett Mabry at Political Graveyard Peterson, Charles S.. Representative New Mexicans. Denver, CO: C. S. Peterson. P. 186

2018–2020 AVC Beach Volleyball Continental Cup

The 2018–2020 AVC Beach Volleyball Continental Cup is a beach volleyball double-gender event. Teams have been split into groups of four, where an elimination bracket determines the two teams to advance to the next stage from the sub-zones; the winners of the event qualify for the 2020 Summer Olympics. Host: Tripoli, Lebanon Host: Zhongwei, China Host: Visakhapatnam, India Host: Tauranga, New Zealand Host: China Dates: June 20–22 Australia Japan Kazakhstan Lebanon Thailand Host: China Dates: June 25–28 China Indonesia Iran New Zealand Oman Qatar TBD TBD Host: Zhongwei, China Host: Visakhapatnam, India Host: Tauranga, New Zealand Host: China Dates: June 22–22 Indonesia Japan New Zealand Sri Lanka Host: China Dates: June 25–28 Australia China Kazakhstan Thailand Vanuatu TBD TBD TBD Official website