Mandarin is a group of related Sinitic languages spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the basis of Standard Chinese or Standard Mandarin; because Mandarin originated in North China and most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects. Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible. Mandarin is placed first in lists of languages by number of native speakers. Mandarin is by far the largest of the seven or ten Chinese dialect groups, spoken by 70 percent of all Chinese speakers over a large geographical area, stretching from Yunnan in the southwest to Xinjiang in the northwest and Heilongjiang in the northeast; this is attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China Plain compared to the more mountainous south, combined with the recent spread of Mandarin to frontier areas. Most Mandarin varieties have four tones; the final stops of Middle Chinese have disappeared in most of these varieties, but some have merged them as a final glottal stop.
Many Mandarin varieties, including the Beijing dialect, retain retroflex initial consonants, which have been lost in southern varieties of Chinese. The capital has been within the Mandarin area for most of the last millennium, making these dialects influential; some form of Mandarin has served as a national lingua franca since the 14th century. In the early 20th century, a standard form based on the Beijing dialect, with elements from other Mandarin dialects, was adopted as the national language. Standard Chinese is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore, it is used as one of the working languages of the United Nations. It is one of the most used varieties of Chinese among Chinese diaspora communities internationally and the most taught Chinese variety; the English word "mandarin" meant an official of the Ming and Qing empires. Since their native varieties were mutually unintelligible, these officials communicated using a Koiné language based on various northern varieties.
When Jesuit missionaries learned this standard language in the 16th century, they called it "Mandarin", from its Chinese name Guānhuà, or "language of the officials". In everyday English, "Mandarin" refers to Standard Chinese, called "Chinese". Standard Chinese is based on the particular Mandarin dialect spoken in Beijing, with some lexical and syntactic influence from other Mandarin dialects, it is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China, the de facto official language of the Republic of China, one of the four official languages of the Republic of Singapore. It functions as the language of instruction in Mainland China and in Taiwan, it is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, under the name "Chinese". Chinese speakers refer to the modern standard language as Pǔtōnghuà in Mainland China, Guóyǔ in Taiwan, or Huáyǔ in Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines,but not as Guānhuà. Linguists use the term "Mandarin" to refer to the diverse group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China, which Chinese linguists call Guānhuà.
The alternative term Běifānghuà, or "Northern dialects", is used less and less among Chinese linguists. By extension, the term "Old Mandarin" or "Early Mandarin" is used by linguists to refer to the northern dialects recorded in materials from the Yuan dynasty. Native speakers who are not academic linguists may not recognize that the variants they speak are classified in linguistics as members of "Mandarin" in a broader sense. Within Chinese social or cultural discourse, there is not a common "Mandarin" identity based on language. Speakers of forms of Mandarin other than the standard refer to the variety they speak by a geographic name—for example Sichuan dialect, Hebei dialect or Northeastern dialect, all being regarded as distinct from the standard language; the hundreds of modern local varieties of Chinese developed from regional variants of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. Traditionally, seven major groups of dialects have been recognized. Aside from Mandarin, the other six are Wu, Xiang in central China, Min and Yue on the southeast coast.
The Language Atlas of China distinguishes three further groups: Jin, Huizhou in the Huizhou region of Anhui and Zhejiang, Pinghua in Guangxi and Yunnan. After the fall of the Northern Song and during the reign of the Jin and Yuan dynasties in northern China, a common speech developed based on the dialects of the North China Plain around the capital, a language referred to as Old Mandarin. New genres of vernacular literature were based on this language, including verse and story forms, such as the qu and sanqu poetry; the rhyming conventions of the new verse were codified in a rime dictionary called the Zhongyuan Yinyun. A radical departure from the rime table tradition that had evolved over the previous centuries, this dictionary contains a wealth of information on the phonology of Old Mandarin. Further so
Craig Anthony Madden is an English former professional football striker. After playing for Northern Nomads, Madden began his professional career at Bury in 1977, he spent nine years at Gigg Lane, making 300 league appearances and scoring 129 goals. He still holds the record for the most goals in a season and remains the clubs' all-time record goalscorer. A short spell at West Brom followed, before he joined Blackpool under the guidance of Sam Ellis, in February 1987. At Bloomfield Road he began to fall prey to niggling injuries, each time he dropped out of the team it became more difficult for him to break back in. On 11 November 1989, he opened the scoring in Blackpool's home League game against Brentford after just eighteen seconds, only seven seconds outside Bill Slater's all-time record for the club. Midway through that disastrous 1989-90 season for Blackpool, Jimmy Mullen allowed him to move to non-league Fleetwood Town, where he found his scoring touch again and continued to enjoy the game.
Madden maintained his connection with Blackpool, becoming the community officer at Bloomfield Road in April 1991. "I am delighted to have landed the job here at Bloomfield Road," he said at the time. "I am looking forward to getting out and about and meeting people from different groups of the community. My immediate aims are to settle in and carry on with the same activities as before — but there will be some new ideas too, including two new summer schools for the children's holidays in the summer." He was succeeded in the position by Blackpool teammate Derek Spence. In 2001, Madden became caretaker manager of Stockport County after the dismissal of Andy Kilner, he is still at the club coaching Stockport's youth team having helped with the first team in the past. In June 2010 Madden was appointed assistant manager at newly promoted Fleetwood Town, alongside Micky Mellon. Following Micky Mellon's departure in December 2012 he became youth team manager. Craig Madden at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database
Jeet is a 1949 Hindi drama film directed by Mohan Sinha and produced by Pratap A. Rana. India has won independence from British rule, there are signs of progress among the population. One such sign of progress is in the village where two childhood sweethearts, namely Jeet and Vijay live. Vijay lives with his brother Ratan. Ratan, who lives abroad, returns home with all new ideas of progress and advancement; this is not met well including Jeet and Vijay themselves. Ratan overhears a conversation that Vijay is not his real brother, asks Vijay to leave the house, despite his mother's protests. Self-respecting Vijay leaves the house, Ratan plans to marry Jeet, schemes with some villagers that will revolutionize his plans for progress, make Vijay the culprit. Dev Anand as Vijay Suraiya as Jeet Kanhaiyalal Chaturvedi as Jeet's uncle Madan Puri as Ratan Suraiya Chowdhary as Jeet's cousin S. P. Mahendra Shribhagwan Habib Durga Khote Jeet on IMDb Jeet at Bollywood Hungama Jeet at Gomolo