SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon

The Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon. The mandate system was supposed to differ from colonialism, with the governing country acting as a trustee until the inhabitants would be able to stand on their own. At that point, the mandate would terminate and an independent state would be born. During the two years that followed the end of the war in 1918—and in accordance with the Sykes-Picot Agreement signed by Britain and France during the war—the British held control of most of Ottoman Mesopotamia and the southern part of Ottoman Syria, while the French controlled the rest of Ottoman Syria, Lebanon and other portions of southeastern Turkey. In the early 1920s, British and French control of these territories became formalized by the League of Nations' mandate system, on 29 September 1923 France was assigned the League of Nations mandate of Syria, which included the territory of present-day Lebanon and Alexandretta in addition to Syria proper.

The administration of the region under the French was carried out through a number of different governments and territories, including the Syrian Federation, the State of Syria and the Syrian Republic, as well as smaller states: the State of Greater Lebanon, the Alawite State and Jabal Druze State. Hatay was annexed by Turkey in 1939; the French mandate lasted until 1943, when two independent countries emerged and Lebanon. French troops left Syria and Lebanon in 1946. With the defeat of the Ottomans in Syria, British troops, under General Sir Edmund Allenby, entered Damascus in 1918 accompanied by troops of the Arab Revolt led by Faisal, son of Sharif Hussein of Mecca. Faisal established the first new postwar Arab government in Damascus in October 1918, named Ali Rida Pasha ar-Rikabi a military governor; the new Arab administration formed local governments in the major Syrian cities, the pan-Arab flag was raised all over Syria. The Arabs hoped, with faith in earlier British promises, that the new Arab state would include all the Arab lands stretching from Aleppo in northern Syria to Aden in southern Yemen.

However, in accordance with the secret Sykes–Picot Agreement between Britain and France, General Allenby assigned to the Arab administration only the interior regions of Syria. Palestine was reserved for the British. On 8 October, French troops disembarked in Beirut and occupied the Lebanese coastal region south to Naqoura, replacing British troops there; the French dissolved the local Arab governments in the region. France demanded full implementation of the Sykes–Picot Agreement, with Syria under its control. On 26 November 1919, British forces withdrew from Damascus to avoid confrontation with the French, leaving the Arab government to face France. Faisal had travelled several times to Europe, since November 1918, trying to convince France and Britain to change their positions, but without success. France's determination to intervene in Syria was shown by the naming of General Henri Gouraud as high commissioner in Syria and Cilicia. At the Paris Peace Conference, Faisal found himself in an weaker position when the European powers decided to ignore the Arab demands.

In May 1919, elections were held for the Syrian National Congress. 80% of seats went to conservatives. However, the minority included dynamic Arab nationalist figures such as Jamil Mardam Bey, Shukri al-Kuwatli, Ahmad al-Qadri, Ibrahim Hanano, Riyad as-Solh; the head was moderate nationalist Hashim al-Atassi. In June 1919, the American King–Crane Commission arrived in Syria to inquire into local public opinion about the future of the country; the commission's remit extended from Aleppo to Beersheba. They visited 36 major cities, met with more than 2,000 delegations from more than 300 villages, received more than 3,000 petitions, their conclusions confirmed the opposition of Syrians to the mandate in their country as well as to the Balfour Declaration, their demand for a unified Greater Syria encompassing Palestine. The conclusions of the commission were ignored by both France. Unrest erupted in Syria. Anti-Hashemite demonstrations broke out, Muslim inhabitants in and around Mount Lebanon revolted in fear of being incorporated into a new Christian, state of Greater Lebanon.

A part of France's claim to these territories in the Levant was that France was a protector of the minority Christian communities. In March 1920, the Congress in Damascus adopted a resolution rejecting the Faisal-Clemenceau accords; the congress declared the independence of Syria in her natural borders, proclaimed Faisal the king of all Arabs. Faisal invited Ali Rida al-Rikabi to form a government; the congress proclaimed political and economic union with neighboring Iraq and demanded its independence as well. On 25 April, the supreme inter-Allied council, formulating the Treaty of Sèvres, granted France the mandate of Syria, granted Britain the Mandate of Palestine, Iraq. Syrians reacted with violent demonstrations, a new government headed by Hashim al-Atassi was formed on 7 May 1920; the new government began forming an army. These decisions provoked adverse reactions by France as well as by the Maronite patriarchate of Mount Lebanon, which denounced the decisions

Karl Anselm, Duke of Urach

Karl Anselm Franz Joseph Wilhelm Louis Philippe Gero Maria, 4th Duke von Urach, Count von Württemberg is the former head of the morganatic Urach branch of the House of Württemberg. He was born in Regensburg, the son of Prince Eberhard von Urach and Princess Iniga of Thurn and Taxis, he is a grandson of Wilhelm, Duke von Urach, from 11 July 1918 to November 1918 the King-elect Mindaugas II of Lithuania. He became an engineer. Karl Anselm succeeded his childless uncle Karl Gero as fourth Duke von Urach following his death in 1981, he held the ducal title until 9 February 1991 when he renounced it. His brother Wilhelm Albert succeeded him in his titles. Karl Anselm lives at Niederaichbach Castle, is the owner of Greshornish Forestry estate in Inverness, Scotland, he married Saskia Wüsthof on February 1991 at Stuttgart. They had two children before divorcing in 1996. Wilhelm Fürst von Urach, born 8 July 1991 Maximilian Fürst von Urach, born 5 May 1993He married Uta Maria Priemer on September 2, 2014.

The Peerage website Property website Online gotha

Stuart Park, Northern Territory

Stuart Park is an inner suburb of the city of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. This area derived its name as part of Parap after the Australian Army had left in 1946 and a number of Sidney William hutments remained; the Parap Parish Hall between Westralia Street and Charles Street existed in 1949, but was not named until 1954. When Administrator Driver was making the first moves towards local government, local Progress Associations were set up, including Stuart Park in 1950, it is believed that the park or camp area part of Parap, got its name as a separate unit from the park/camp area near the Stuart Highway which in turn is named after Scottish explorer John McDouall Stuart. Stuart Park is a predominantly residential suburb and is associated with other inner Darwin suburbs of Fannie Bay and Parap. Gothenburg Crescent in Stuart Park was named after the ill-fated SS Gothenburg, which left Darwin in February 1875 and sank a few days off the North Queensland coast with the loss of 102 lives.

There is one school in Stuart Park Primary School. It was founded in 1966. "The Origin of Suburbs, Localities and Hundreds in the Greater Darwin area". Northern Territory Government. 2007. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2007