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Mandatory Palestine

Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity established between 1920 and 1948 in the region of Palestine under the terms of the Mandate for Palestine. During the First World War, an Arab uprising and the British Empire's Egyptian Expeditionary Force under General Edmund Allenby drove the Turks out of the Levant during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign; the United Kingdom had agreed in the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence that it would honour Arab independence if they revolted against the Ottomans, but the two sides had different interpretations of this agreement, in the end, the UK and France divided up the area under the Sykes–Picot Agreement—an act of betrayal in the eyes of the Arabs. Further complicating the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, promising British support for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine. At the war's end the British and French set up a joint "Occupied Enemy Territory Administration" in what had been Ottoman Syria; the British achieved legitimacy for their continued control by obtaining a mandate from the League of Nations in June 1922.

The formal objective of the League of Nations mandate system was to administer parts of the defunct Ottoman Empire, in control of the Middle East since the 16th century, "until such time as they are able to stand alone."During the British Mandate period the area experienced the ascent of two major nationalist movements, one among the Jews and the other among the Palestinian Arabs. The competing national interests of the two populations against each other and against the governing British authorities matured into the Arab Revolt of 1936–1939 and the Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine, before culminating in the 1947–1949 Palestine war; this led to the establishment of the 1949 cease-fire agreement, with partition of the former Mandatory Palestine between the newborn state of Israel with a Jewish majority, the Arab West Bank annexed by the Jordanian Kingdom and the Arab All-Palestine Protectorate in the Gaza Strip under Egypt. The name given to the Mandate's territory was "Palestine," in accordance with local Palestinian Arab and Ottoman usage as well as European traditions.

The Mandate charter stipulated that Mandatory Palestine would have three official languages, namely English and Hebrew. In 1926, the British authorities formally decided to use the traditional Arabic and Hebrew equivalents to the English name, i.e. filasţīn and pālēśtīnā respectively. The Jewish leadership proposed; the final compromise was to add the initials of the Hebrew proposed name, Alef-Yud, within parenthesis, whenever the Mandate's name was mentioned in Hebrew in official documents. The Arab leadership saw this compromise as a violation of the mandate terms; some Arab politicians suggested that there should be a similar Arabic concession, such as "Southern Syria". The British authorities rejected this proposal; the Hebrew name for the country was the designation "Land of Israel," and the Government, to meet Jewish wishes, had agreed that the word "Palestine" in Hebrew characters should be followed in all official documents by the initials which stood for that designation. As a set-off to this, certain of the Arab politicians suggested that the country should be called "Southern Syria" in order to emphasise its close relation with another Arab State.

Following the arrival of the British, the inhabitants established Muslim-Christian Associations in all the major towns. In 1919 they joined to hold the first Palestine Arab Congress in Jerusalem, it was aimed at representative government and opposition to the Balfour Declaration. The Zionist Commission formed in March 1918 and became active in promoting Zionist objectives in Palestine. On 19 April 1920, elections took place for the Assembly of Representatives of the Palestinian Jewish community. In July 1920 a civilian administration headed by a High Commissioner replaced the military administration; the first High Commissioner, Herbert Samuel, a Zionist and a recent British cabinet minister, arrived in Palestine on 20 June 1920 to take up his appointment from 1 July. One of the first actions of the newly installed civil administration in 1921 had been to grant Pinhas Rutenberg—a Jewish entrepreneur—concessions for the production and distribution of electrical power. Rutenberg soon established an electric company whose shareholders were Zionist organisations and philanthropists.

Palestinian-Arabs saw it as proof. The British administration claimed that electrification would enhance the economic development of the country as a whole, while at the same time securing their commitment to facilitate a Jewish National Home through economic—rather than political—means. In March 1920, there was an attack by Arabs on the Jewish village of Tel Hai. In April, there was another attack on Jews, this time in Jerusalem. In May 1921 100 died in rioting in Jaffa after a disturbance between rival Jewish left wing protestors was followed by murderous attacks by Arabs on Jews. Samuel tried to establish self-governing institutions in Palestine, as required by the mandate, but the Arab leadership refused to co-operate with any institution which included Jewish participation; when Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Kamil al-Husayni died in March 1921, High Commissioner Samuel appointed his half-brother Mohammad Amin al-Husseini to the position. Amin al-Husseini, a

2015 President's Cup (Maldives)

The 2015 President's Cup is the 65th season of the President's Cup. New Radiant Sports Club are the defending champions, having beaten Eagles in last season's final in extra time; this is the first tournament under its current tournament format. According to the current format, all teams playing in the 2015 Dhivehi Premier League will be appearing in the President's Cup; the draw took place on 12 August 2015 at the FAM House in Male'. 2 venues in two islands were selected for the tournament. Group stage matches are to be played at both venues; this is the second edition of this tournament, being played in a venue other than Male' since it was once held at Addu City in 1970. It is the first year for Kulhudhuffushi to host this tournament; the first round, or group stage, was a competition between the 8 teams divided among two groups of four, where each group engaged in a round-robin tournament within itself. The two highest ranked teams in each group advanced to the knockout stage. Teams were awarded three points for one for a draw.

When comparing teams in a group over-all result came before head-to-head. The two semi-final losers competed in a third place play-off. For any match after the group stage, a draw after 90 minutes of regulation time was followed by two 15 minute periods of extra time to determine a winner. If the teams were still tied, a penalty shoot-out was held to determine a winner The broadcasting rights for some matches of 2015 Maldives President's Cup were given to the Television Maldives

Sherlock Holmes fandom

Sherlock Holmes fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of Arthur Conan Doyle of the Canon of Sherlock Holmes. The fans are known as Holmesian. Fans of the literary detective Sherlock Holmes are considered to have comprised the first modern fandom, holding public demonstrations of mourning after Holmes was "killed off" in 1893, creating some of the first fan fiction as early as about 1897 to 1902. Noted Sherlockian John Bennett Shaw compiled a list of 100 books and periodicals essential for Sherlockian study entitled The Basic Holmesian Library; the list, along with Shaw's extensive Sherlock Holmes Library, resides at the University of Minnesota Libraries where it was donated a year after his death. Fans play "The Great Game", contending that Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson were real people and Conan Doyle was Watson's literary agent. Many authors have authored "biographies" of Sherlock Holmes such as William S. Baring-Gould's Sherlock Holmes of Baker Street, Nick Rennison's Sherlock Holmes: The Unauthorized Biography.

Both Baring-Gould and Leslie S. Klinger have edited annotated editions of the Canon of Sherlock Holmes. In 1934, Christopher Morley hosted a dinner in New York City in honor of Sherlock Holmes which led to the formation of The Baker Street Irregulars; that same year in London, England the Sherlock Holmes Society was formed. Since that time, organizations have formed all over the world devoted to Sherlock Holmes with Japan being home to the largest society; the Baker Street Irregulars in New York City, United States The Bootmakers of Toronto in Toronto, Canada Various cookbooks with a Victorian era Sherlockian theme have been published over the years. 1976 brought both Dining with Sherlock Holmes: A Baker Street Cookbook by Julia Rosenblatt and Frederic H. Sonnenschmidt as well as Sherlock Holmes Cookbook by Sean M. Wright and John Farrell; the latter two authors are both investitures of the Baker Street Irregulars. William Bonnell authored The Sherlock Holmes Victorian Cookbook in 1997. Cosplay is an aspect of Sherlockian fandom with a Sherlock Cosplay World Record attempted at UCL in 2014.

From Holmes to Sherlock The Great Detective: The Amazing Rise and Immortal Life of Sherlock Holmes Sherlock Holmes pastiches Popular culture references to Sherlock Holmes