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Mandriva Linux

Mandriva Linux was a Linux distribution developed by Mandriva S. A; each release lifetime was 12 months for desktop updates. Server products received full updates for at least 5 years after their release; the last release of Mandriva Linux was in August 2011. Most developers who were laid off went to Mageia. On, the remaining developers teamed up with community members and formed OpenMandriva, a continuation of Mandriva; the first release of Mandrake was based on Red Hat Linux and K Desktop Environment 1 in July 1998. It has since moved away from Red Hat's distribution and has become a separate distribution in its own right. Mandriva now includes a number of original tools to ease system configuration. Mandriva Linux is the brainchild of Gaël Duval; this goal was met as Mandrake Linux gained a reputation as "one of the easiest to install and user-friendly Linux distributions". At this time Internet Explorer held a dominant share of the web browser market, Microsoft a near monopoly in operating systems.

Web browsers for Linux were limited to Mozilla, followed by a variety of poorly performing Linux-specific browsers such as Konqueror or Galeon. Mandrake Linux earned praise as a Linux distribution that users could use all the time, without dual booting into Windows for compatibility with web sites or software unavailable under Linux. CNET called the user experience of Mandrake Linux 8.0 the most polished available at that time. Duval became the co-founder of Mandrakesoft, but was laid off from the company in 2006 along with many other employees. From its inception until the release of version 8.0, Mandrake named its flagship distribution Linux-Mandrake. From version 8.1 to 9.2 the distribution name was called Mandrake Linux. In February 2004, MandrakeSoft lost a court case against Hearst Corporation, owners of King Features Syndicate. Hearst contended that MandrakeSoft infringed upon King Features' trademarked character Mandrake the Magician; as a precaution, MandrakeSoft renamed its products by removing the space between the brand name and the product name and changing the first letter of the product name to lower case, thus creating one word.

Starting from version 10.0, Mandrake Linux became known as mandrakelinux, its logo changed accordingly. MandrakeMove became Mandrakemove. In April 2005, Mandrakesoft announced the corporate acquisition of Conectiva, a Brazilian-based company that produced a Linux distribution for Portuguese-speaking and Spanish-speaking Latin America; as a result of this acquisition and the legal dispute with Hearst Corporation, Mandrakesoft announced that the company was changing its name to Mandriva, that their Linux distribution Mandrake Linux would henceforward be known as Mandriva Linux. Mandriva Linux contained the Mandriva Control Center, it has many programs known as Drakes or Draks, collectively named drakxtools, to configure many different settings. Examples include MouseDrake to set up a mouse, DiskDrake to set up disk partitions and drakconnect to set up a network connection, they are written using GTK+ and Perl, most of them can run in both graphical and text mode using the ncurses interface. Mandriva Linux 2011 was released only with KDE Plasma Desktop, whereas other desktop environments were available but not supported.

Older Mandriva versions used KDE as standard but others such as GNOME were supported. Mandriva Linux used a package manager called urpmi, which functions as a wrapper to the.rpm binaries. It is similar to apt from Debian & Ubuntu, pacman from Arch Linux, yum or dnf from Fedora in that it allows seamless installation of a given software package by automatically installing the other packages needed, it is media-transparent due to its ability to retrieve packages from various media, including network/Internet, CD/DVD and local disk. Urpmi has an easy-to-use graphical front-end called rpmdrake, integrated into the Mandriva Control Center. A Live USB of Mandriva Linux can be created manually or with UNetbootin. From 2007–2011, Mandriva was released on a 6-month fixed-release cycle, similar to Ubuntu and Fedora; the latest stable version is Mandriva Linux 2011, released on 28 August 2011. The development tree of Mandriva Linux has always been known as Cooker; this tree is directly released as a new stable version.

Each release of Mandriva Linux was split into several different editions. Each edition is derived from the same master tree, most of, available on the public mirrors: all free / open source software, all non-free software, under a license that allows unrestricted distribution to the general public, is available from the public mirrors. Only commercial software under a license that does not allow unrestricted distribution to the general public is not available from public mirrors. Mandriva Linux Free was a'traditional' distribution, it was'free' in both senses: it consists of free and open-source software, it was made available for public download at no charge. It was available in CD and DVD editions for x86 32- and 64-bit CPU architectures, it was aimed at users to whom software freedom is important, at users who prefer a traditional installer to the installable live CD system used

Spencer Treat Clark

Spencer Treat Clark is an American actor. He rose to prominence for his roles in the films Unbreakable, he has since appeared in the films Mystic River, The Last House on the Left, Much Ado About Nothing and Glass. Clark is known for his roles in the television series Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D. and Animal Kingdom, in the former of which he portrayed Werner von Strucker throughout the third and fifth seasons. Clark was born in New York, he is the brother of playwright Eliza Clark. He was educated in Darien, Connecticut, at Hindley Elementary School, Middlesex Middle School and his freshman year at Darien High School before he attended and graduated from The Taft School in Watertown, Connecticut. Clark graduated from Columbia University in New York City, receiving bachelor's degree in political science and economics. Clark began his career in 1995, his film debut was in Arlington Road. He appeared in the 2014 film Cymbeline; as of 2019, Clark has a recurring role on the television series Animal Kingdom.

Clark resides in Los Angeles. Spencer Treat Clark on IMDb

Organosodium chemistry

Organosodium chemistry is the chemistry of organometallic compounds containing a carbon to sodium chemical bond. The application of organosodium compounds in chemistry is limited in part due to competition from organolithium compounds, which are commercially available and exhibit more convenient reactivity; the principal organosodium compound of commercial importance is sodium cyclopentadienide. Sodium tetraphenylborate can be classified as an organosodium compound since in the solid state sodium is bound to the aryl groups. Organometal bonds in group 1 are characterised by high polarity with corresponding high nucleophilicity on carbon; this polarity results from the disparate electronegativity of carbon and that of lithium 0.98, sodium 0.93 potassium 0.82 rubidium 0.82 caesium 0.79). The carbanionic nature of organosodium compounds can be minimized by resonance stabilization, for example, Ph3CNa. One consequence of the polarized Na-C bond is that simple organosodium compounds exist as polymers that are poorly soluble in solvents.

In the original work the alkylsodium compound was accessed from the dialkylmercury compound by transmetallation. For example, diethylmercury in the Schorigin reaction or Shorygin reaction: 2Hg + 2 Na → 2 C2H5Na + HgThe high solubility of lithium alkoxides in hexane is the basis of a useful synthetic route: LiCH2SiMe3 + NaO–t–Bu → LiOt–Bu + NaCH2SiMe3 For some acidic organic compounds, the corresponding organosodium compounds arise by deprotonation. Sodium cyclopentadienide is thus prepared by treating sodium metal and cyclopentadiene: 2 Na + 2 C5H6 → 2 NaC5H5 + H2Sodium acetylides form similarly. Strong sodium bases are employed in place of the metal. Sodium methylsulfinylmethylide is prepared by treating DMSO with sodium hydride: CH3SOCH3 + NaH → CH3SOCH−2Na+ + H2 Trityl sodium can be prepared by metal-halogen exchange; this method is used in preparing trityl sodium: Ph3CCl + 2 Na → Ph3CNa + NaCl Sodium reacts with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via one-electron reduction. With solutions of naphthalene, it forms the coloured radical sodium naphthalenide, used as a soluble reducing agent: C10H8 + Na → Na+−•The related anthracene as well as potassium derivatives are well known.

Simple organosodium compounds such as the alkyl and aryl derivatives are insoluble polymers. Methyl sodium adopts a polymeric structure consisting of interconnected 4 clusters; when the organic substituents are bulky and in the presence of chelating ligands like TMEDA, the derivatives are more soluble. For example, TMEDA is soluble in hexane. Crystals have been shown to consist of chains of alternating Na+ and CH2SiMe−3 groups with Na–C distances ranging from 2.523 to 2.643 Å. Organosodium compounds are traditionally used as strong bases, although this application has been supplanted by other reagents such as sodium bisamide; the higher alkali metals are known to metalate some unactivated hydrocarbons and are known to self-metalate: 2 NaC2H5 → C2H4Na2 + C2H6In the Wanklyn reaction organosodium compounds react with carbon dioxide to give carboxylates: C2H5Na + CO2 → C2H5CO2NaGrignard reagents undergo a similar reaction. Some organosodium compounds degrade by beta-elimination: NaC2H5 → NaH + C2H4 Although organosodium chemistry has been described to be of "little industrial importance", it once was central to the production of tetraethyllead.

A similar Wurtz coupling-like reaction is the basis of the industrial route to triphenylphosphine: 3 PhCl + PCl3 + 6 Na → PPh3 + 6 NaClThe polymerization of butadiene and styrene is catalyzed by sodium metal. Organopotassium and organocaesium are less encountered than organosodium compounds and of limited utility; these compounds can be prepared by treatment of alkyl lithium compounds with the potassium and caesium alkoxides. Alternatively they arise from the organomercury compound; the solid methyl derivatives adopt polymeric structures. Reminiscent of the nickel arsenide structure, MCH3 has six alkali metal centers bound to each methyl group; the methyl groups are pyramidal. A notable reagent, based on a heavier alkali metal alkyl is Schlosser's base, a mixture of n-butyllithium and potassium tert-butoxide; this reagent reacts with toluene to form the red-orange compound benzyl potassium. Evidence for the formation of heavy alkali metal-organic intermediates is provided by the equilibration of cis-2-butene and trans-2-butene catalysed by alkali metals.

The isomerization is slow with the higher alkali metals. The higher alkali metals favor the sterically congested conformation. Several crystal structures of organopotassium compounds have been reported, establishing that they, like the sodium compounds, are polymeric. Alkynation

Imperial and Royal Hussars

Together with the Dragoons and Uhlans, the Imperial and Royal Hussars, made up the cavalry of the Austro-Hungarian Army from 1867 to 1918, both in the Common Army and in the Hungarian Landwehr, where they were known as the Royal Hungarian Hussars. The Austrian monarchy, weakened by the losing the war against Prussia in 1866, had to guarantee the autonomy of Kingdom of Hungary in the so-called Compromise of 15 March 1867; as a result, the Hungarian half of the Empire began to establish its own army, the Royal Hungarian Landwehr. The cavalry of the Hungarian Landwehr was made up of the Landwehr Hussars. Following the signing of the Compromise, the Austrian half of the Empire started to build an army, the Imperial-Royal Landwehr; the two new Landwehr forces thus existed alongside the Common Army, the imperial army of the whole Empire. In effect this meant; the Common Army had 16 hussar regiments and the Royal Hungarian Landwehr had ten. By tradition, the majority of the hussars were recruited from the Hungarian lands.

The regiments, with a few exceptions, were all stationed there. The Imperial and Royal Cavalry regiments each had two divisions each of three squadrons A list of the Imperial and Royal Hussars regiments in 1914 is given below by short title. 1st Hussars 2nd Hussars 3rd Hussars 4th Hussars 5th Hussars 6th Hussars 7th Hussars 8th Hussars 9th Hussars 10th Hussars 11th Hussars 12th Hussars 13th Hussars 14th Hussars 15th Hussars 16th Hussars The regiments listed below were part of the Royal Hungarian Hussars known as the Royal Hungarian Honved Hussars, Honvéd being Hungarian for "Home-defender". English sources refer to regiments as e.g. the "1st Hussars" or "1st Honved Hussars".: 1st Hussars 19th Cavalry Brigade, 5th Cavalry Division Commander: Colonel Colbert Zech von Deybach Freiherr von Hart und Sulz - Debachi Zech Colbert harti ès sulzi baró ezredes2nd Hussars 22nd Cavalry Brigade, 11th Cavalry Division Kommandant: Lieutenant Colonel Johann Flór - Flór János alezredes3rd Hussars 22nd Cavalry Brigade, 11th Cavalry Division Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Árpád Cserépy von Kisruszka - Kisruszkai Cserépy Árpád alezredes 4th Hussars I and II Squadrons, 23rd Infantry Division III and IV Squadrons, 20th Infantry Division V and VI Squadrons, 41st Infantry Division Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Nikolaus Jankovich von Jeszenicze - Jesceniczai Jankovich Miklos alezredes5th Hussars 24th Cavalry Brigade, 11th Cavalry Division Commander: Colonel Paul Hegedüs - Hegedüs Pál ezredes6th Hussars 23rd Cavalry Brigade, 5th Cavalry Division Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Ladislaus Forster von Szenterzsébet - Szenterzsébeti Forster László alezredes7th Hussars 23rd Cavalry Brigade, 5th Cavalry Division Commander: Colonel Johann Graf Lubienski - Gróf Lubienski János ezredes8th Hussars 19th Cavalry Brigade - 5th Cavalry Division Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Alexius Thege von Konkily - Konkoly Thege Elek alezredes9th Hussars 24th Cavalry Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division Commander: Colonel Koloman Géczy von Garamszeg - Garamszegi Gèczy Kálmán ezredes10th Hussars I and II Sqns, 36th Infantry Division III and IV Sqns, 42nd Infantry Division V and VI Sqns, 13th Infantry Brigade Commander: Lieutenant Colonel Alois Hauer - Hauer Alajos alezredesShako-coating of the k.u.k.

Hussars Regiment Johann C. Allmayer-Beck, Erich Lessing: Die K.u.k. Armee. 1848-1918. Verlag Bertelsmann, München 1974, ISBN 3-570-07287-8. Stefan Rest: Des Kaisers Rock im ersten Weltkrieg. Verlag Militaria, Wien 2002, ISBN 3-9501642-0-0 Das k.u.k. Heer im Jahre 1895 Schriften

Korean Buddhism

Korean Buddhism is distinguished from other forms of Buddhism by its attempt to resolve what it sees as inconsistencies in Mahayana Buddhism. Early Korean monks believed that the traditions they received from foreign countries were internally inconsistent. To address this, they developed a new holistic approach to Buddhism; this approach is characteristic of all major Korean thinkers, has resulted in a distinct variation of Buddhism, called Tongbulgyo, a form that sought to harmonize all disputes by Korean scholars. Korean Buddhist thinkers refined their predecessors' ideas into a distinct form; as it now stands, Korean Buddhism consists of the Seon Lineage represented by the Jogye and Taego Orders. The Korean Seon has a strong relationship with other Mahayana traditions that bear the imprint of Chan teachings as well as the related Zen. Other sects, such as the modern revival of the Cheontae lineage, the Jingak Order, the newly formed Won, have attracted sizable followings. Korean Buddhism has contributed much to East Asian Buddhism to early Chinese and Tibetan schools of Buddhist thought.

When Buddhism was introduced to Korea from Former Qin in 372, about 800 years after the death of the historical Buddha, shamanism was the indigenous religion. As it was not seen to conflict with the rites of nature worship, Buddhism was allowed by adherents of Shamanism to be blended into their religion. Thus, the mountains that were believed by shamanists to be the residence of spirits in pre-Buddhist times became the sites of Buddhist temples. Though it enjoyed wide acceptance being supported as the state ideology during the Goryeo period, Buddhism in Korea suffered extreme repression during the Joseon era, which lasted over five hundred years. During this period, Neo-Confucianism overcame the prior dominance of Buddhism. Only after Buddhist monks helped repel the Japanese invasions of Korea did the persecution of Buddhists stop. Buddhism in Korea remained subdued until the end of the Joseon period, when its position was strengthened somewhat by the colonial period, which lasted from 1910 to 1945.

However, these Buddhist monks did not only put an end to Japanese rule in 1945, but they asserted their specific and separate religious identity by reforming their traditions and practices. They laid the foundation for many Buddhist societies, the younger generation of monks came up with the ideology of Mingung Pulgyo, or "Buddhism for the people." The importance of this ideology is that it was coined by the monks who focused on common men's daily issues. After World War II, the Seon school of Korean Buddhism once again gained acceptance. A 2005 government survey indicated. However, the actual number of Buddhists in South Korea is ambiguous as there is no exact or exclusive criterion by which Buddhists can be identified, unlike the Christian population. With Buddhism's incorporation into traditional Korean culture, it is now considered a philosophy and cultural background rather than a formal religion; as a result, many people outside of the practicing population are influenced by these traditions.

Thus, when counting secular believers or those influenced by the faith while not following other religions, the number of Buddhists in South Korea is considered to be much larger. In atheist North Korea, while Buddhists account for 4.5% of the population, a much larger number of the population are influenced by Buddhist philosophies and customs. When Buddhism was introduced to Korea in the 4th century CE, the Korean peninsula was politically subdivided into three kingdoms: Goguryeo in the north, Baekje in the southwest, Silla in the southeast. There is concrete evidence of an earlier introduction of Buddhism. A mid-4th century tomb, unearthed near Pyongyang, is found to incorporate Buddhist motifs in its ceiling decoration. Korean Buddhist monks traveled to China or India in order to study Buddhism in the late Three Kingdoms Period in the 6th century. In 526, The monk Gyeomik from Baekje traveled via the southern sea route to India to learn Sanskrit and study the Vinaya; the monk Paya from Goguryeo is said to have studied under the Tiantai master Zhiyi.

Other Korean monks of the period brought back numerous scriptures from abroad and conducted missionary activity throughout Korea. Several schools of thought developed in Korea during these early times: the Samlon or East Asian Mādhyamaka school focused on Mādhyamaka doctrine the Gyeyul school was concerned with the study and implementation of śīla or "moral discipline" the Yeolban school based in the themes of the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra the Wonyung school formed toward the end of the Three Kingdoms Period; this school lead to the actualization of the metaphysics of interpenetration as found in the Avatamsaka Sutra and was considered the premier school among the educated aristocracy. The Hwaeom was the longest lasting of the "imported" schools, it had strong ties with an indigenous Korean school of thought. The date of the first mission from Korea to Japan is unclear, but it is reported that a second detachment of scholars was sent to Japan upon invitation by the Japanese rulers in 577.

The strong Korean influence on the development of Buddhism in Japan continued through the Unified Silla period. It was not until the 8th century that independent study by Jap

Devil's Triangle (NCIS)

"Devil's Triangle" is the 7th episode of the ninth season of the American police procedural drama NCIS, the 193rd episode overall. It aired on CBS in the United States on November 1, 2011; the episode is written by Steven D. Binder and Reed Steiner and directed by Leslie Libman, was seen by 19.71 million viewers. Gibbs and Fornell are approached by their mutual ex-wife, when her current husband Victor, a Homeland Security employee, disappears from a drive-through under suspicious circumstances. NCIS is brought into the investigation when a dead employee from the same drive-through is revealed to be a Navy reservist. Tony, Ziva, McGee, Abby are all amused by Gibbs and Fornell's awkward behavior around Diane and attempt to find out more about their boss's marriage. Investigating Victor, they find that he has $2 million hidden in banks in the Cayman Islands, accessed a government database to copy a genetic blueprint for a deadly Ebola-variant virus; the obvious conclusion is that Victor has been embezzling funds from the Department of Defense, is planning on selling the virus to the highest bidder.

Checking Diane's background, McGee discovers, to his embarrassment, that Diane was traveling to the Caymans with Victor while she was still married to Fornell. The team finds Victor being held prisoner at an abandoned warehouse. Diane confronts him over the $2 million he was hiding from her, he tells her he inherited it before they married, he has kept it secret just because "when you have a lot of money, it's hard to know who your friends are." He tells Gibbs and Fornell that the kidnappers forced him to steal the virus recipe by threatening Diane, they are not planning to sell it, but to use it. Based on a conversation Victor overheard, the team is able to prevent the attack in the nick of time, on an assembly of high-ranking officers from all five branches of the armed forces, at a football game; the mastermind is revealed to be Victor's boss, a Homeland Security agent, hired by someone inside the military-industrial complex, hoping to prevent a planned reduction in the size of the U. S. military.

With the threat over and the FBI take control of the case. In private, Diane visits thanks him for rescuing Victor. Gibbs is uncomfortable when she admits that their marriage was a mistake, because Gibbs will never love another woman the way he loved his first wife, Shannon. "Devil's Triangle" is written by Steven D. Binder and Reed directed by Leslie Libman. According to Binder and Steiner, "This is an episode of discovery for long-time viewers of the show"; the theme for the episode is the relationship between Gibbs' and his ex-wife Diane, who's Fornell's ex-wife. "Everyone who watches the show knows. He may have lost her, but he never let go." The writers "breakthrough moment" was when they realized Diane felt the same about Gibbs, "it was a breakthrough moment for Gibbs himself". On September 28, 2011, TV Guide announced that Melinda McGraw was cast as Diane Sterling, who portrays one of Gibbs' ex-wives. Joe Spano reprises his role as Tobias Fornell, Gibbs friend from the FBI who share Diane as an ex-wife.

"Devil's Triangle" was seen by 19.71 million live viewers following its broadcast on November 1, 2011, with a 12.2/19 share among all households, 3.9/11 share among adults aged 18 to 49. A rating point represents one percent of the total number of television sets in American households, a share means the percentage of television sets in use tuned to the program. In total viewers, "Devil's Triangle" won NCIS and CBS the night, while the spin-off NCIS: Los Angeles drew second and was seen by 15.52 million viewers. Compared to the last episode "Thirst", "Devil's Triangle" was down in viewers and up in adults 18-49. Steve Marsi from TV Fanatic gave the episode 4.7 and stated that "It was excellent from beginning to end, but the most moving and loaded scene in "Devil's Triangle" was its last. Gibbs was Diane's "Shannon," the one love she'll never replace."