Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee was an Indian statesman who served three terms as the Prime Minister of India: first for a term of 13 days in 1996 for a period of 13 months from 1998 to 1999, for a full term from 1999 to 2004. A member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, he was the first Indian prime minister, not a member of the Indian National Congress party to have served a full five-year term in office, he was a member of the Indian Parliament for over four decades, having been elected to the Lok Sabha, the lower house, ten times, twice to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house. He served as the Member of Parliament for Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh until 2009 when he retired from active politics due to health concerns. Vajpayee was among the founding members of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, of which he was the president from 1968 to 1972; the BJS merged with several other parties to form the Janata Party, which won the 1977 general election. Vajpayee became the Minister of External Affairs in the cabinet of Prime Minister Morarji Desai.
He resigned in 1979, the Janata alliance collapsed soon after. The erstwhile members of the BJS formed the BJP in 1980, with Vajpayee as its first president. During his tenure as prime minister, India carried out the Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998. Vajpayee sought to improve diplomatic relations with Pakistan, travelling to Lahore by bus to meet with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. After the 1999 Kargil War with Pakistan, he sought to restore relations through engaging with President Pervez Musharraf, inviting him to India for a summit at Agra, he was conferred India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, by the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee in 2015. The administration of Narendra Modi declared in 2014 that Vajpayee's birthday, 25 December, would be marked as Good Governance Day, he died on 16 August 2018 due to age-related illness. Vajpayee was born to Krishna Bihari Vajpayee on 25 December 1924 in Gwalior, his grandfather, Pandit Shyam Lal Vajpayee, had migrated to Morena, Gwalior from his ancestral village of Bateshwar, Uttar Pradesh.
His father, Krishna Bihari Vajpayee, was a school teacher in his hometown. Vajpayee did his schooling at the Saraswati Shishu Mandir in Gwalior. In 1934, Atal Bihari was admitted to AVM School Barnagar Distt Ujjain after his father joined as headmaster, he spoke about his'lifechanging moment' at a public rally on the 1996 Lok Sabha election trail. He said "But I learned a lesson. I took a pledge, it was my first speech at AVM School,”. He subsequently attended Gwalior's Victoria College for B. A. in Hindi and Sanskrit. He completed his post-graduation with an M. A. in Political Science from DAV College, Kanpur. His activism started with Arya Kumar Sabha of Gwalior, the youth wing of the Arya Samaj, of which he became the general secretary in 1944, he joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh as a swayamsevak, or volunteer, in 1939. Influenced by Babasaheb Apte, he attended the Officers Training Camp of the RSS during 1940–44 and became a pracharak, RSS terminology for a full-time worker, in 1947, he gave up studying law due to the partition riots.
He was sent as a vistarak, a probationary pracharak, to Uttar Pradesh and began working for the newspapers of Deendayal Upadhyaya, Rashtradharma and the dailies Swadesh and Veer Arjun. By 1942, at the age of 16 years, Vajpayee became an active member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. In August 1942, he and his elder brother Prem were arrested for 24 days during the Quit India Movement, he was released after giving a written undertaking stating that while he was a part of the crowd, he did not participate in the militant events in Bateshwar on 27 August 1942. In 1951, Vajpayee was seconded by the RSS, along with Deendayal Upadhyaya, to work for the newly formed Bharatiya Jana Sangh, a Hindu right-wing political party associated with the RSS, he was appointed as a national secretary of the party in charge of the Northern region, based in Delhi. He soon became a aide of party leader Syama Prasad Mukherjee. In 1954, Vajpayee was with Mukherjee when the latter went on a hunger strike in Kashmir to protest the perceived inferior treatment of non-Kashmiri Indian visitors to the state.
Mookerjee died in prison during this strike. In the 1957 Indian general election, Vajpayee contested elections to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Indian parliament, he was elected from Balrampur. In the Lok Sabha his oratorial skills so impressed Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru that he predicted that Vajpayee would someday become the Prime Minister of India. Vajpayee's oratorial skills won him the reputation of being the most eloquent defender of the Jana Sangh's policies. After the death of Deendayal Upadhyaya, the leadership of the Jana Sangh passed to Vajpayee, he became the national president of the Jana Sangh in 1968, running the party along with Nanaji Deshmukh, Balraj Madhok, L. K. Advani. In 1975, Vajpayee was arrested along with several other opposition leaders during the Internal Emergency imposed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of the Indian National Congress party. Interned in Bangalore, Vajpayee appealed his imprisonment on the grounds of bad health, was moved to a hospital in Delhi.
Gandhi ended the state of emergency in 1977. A coalition of parties, including the BJS, came together to form the Janata Party, which won the subsequent general elections. Morarji Desai, the chosen leader of the alliance, became the prime minister. Vajpayee served as the Minister of External Affairs, or fo
Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world, it was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow; the main ethnic group is the Hindavi people. On 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region; the two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, is the fourth-largest Indian state by area.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.79 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹57,480. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy; the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days; the natives of the state are called Uttar Bhartiya, or more either Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of medieval India; the state has several historical and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Vrindavan and Allahabad. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago.
There have been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age. The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh; the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira.
The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC. Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya, Kushan and Gurjara-Pratihara empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith, it spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region.
Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century. Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley, swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan and Bangladesh; the Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks. In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior.
After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, th
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of Indian Armed Forces. The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Army, it is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff, a four-star general. Two officers have been conferred with the rank of field marshal, a five-star rank, a ceremonial position of great honour; the Indian Army originated from the armies of the East India Company, which became the British Indian Army, the armies of the princely states, which became the national army after independence. The units and regiments of the Indian Army have diverse histories and have participated in a number of battles and campaigns across the world, earning a large number of battle and theatre honours before and after Independence; the primary mission of the Indian Army is to ensure national security and national unity, defending the nation from external aggression and internal threats, maintaining peace and security within its borders. It conducts humanitarian rescue operations during natural calamities and other disturbances, like Operation Surya Hope, can be requisitioned by the government to cope with internal threats.
It is a major component of national power alongside the Indian Air Force. The army has been involved in four wars with neighbouring one with China. Other major operations undertaken by the army include: Operation Vijay, Operation Meghdoot and Operation Cactus. Apart from conflicts, the army has conducted large peace time exercises like Operation Brasstacks and Exercise Shoorveer, it has been an active participant in numerous United Nations peacekeeping missions including those in: Cyprus, Congo, Cambodia, Namibia, El Salvador, Mozambique, South Sudan and Somalia; the Indian Army has a regimental system, but is operationally and geographically divided into seven commands, with the basic field formation being a division. It comprises more than 80 % of the country's active defence personnel, it is the 2nd largest standing army in the world, with 1,237,117 active troops and 960,000 reserve troops. The army has embarked on an infantry modernisation program known as Futuristic Infantry Soldier As a System, is upgrading and acquiring new assets for its armoured and aviation branches.
A Military Department was created within the Government of the East India Company at Kolkata in the year 1776. Its main function was to sift and record orders relating to the Army that were issued by various Departments of the East India Company for the territories under its control. With the Charter Act of 1833, the Secretariat of the Government of the East India Company was reorganised into four Departments, including a Military Department; the army in the Presidencies of Bengal and Madras functioned as respective Presidency Armies until 1 April 1895 when they were unified into a single Indian Army. For administrative convenience, it was divided into four commands at that point, namely Punjab, Bengal and Bombay; the British Indian Army was a critical force for the primacy of the British Empire both in India and across the world. Besides maintaining the internal security of the British Raj, the Army fought in many other theatres: the Anglo-Burmese Wars and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars, First and Third Anglo-Afghan Wars and Second Opium Wars in China and the Boxer Rebellion in China.
In the 20th century, the Indian Army was a crucial adjunct to the British forces in both world wars. 1.3 million Indian soldiers served in World War I with the Allies, in which 74,187 Indian troops were killed or missing in action. In 1915 there was a mutiny by Indian soldiers in Singapore; the United Kingdom made promises of self-governance to the Indian National Congress in return for its support but reneged on them after the war, following which the Indian Independence movement gained strength. The "Indianisation" of the British Indian Army began with the formation of the Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College at Dehradun in March 1912 with the purpose of providing education to the scions of aristocratic and well-to-do Indian families, to prepare selected Indian boys for admission into the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Indian officers were given a King's commission after passing out and were posted to one of the eight units selected for Indianisation; because of the slow pace of Indianisation, with just 69 officers being commissioned between 1918 and 1932, political pressure was applied leading to the formation of the Indian Military Academy in 1932 and greater numbers of officers of Indian origin being commissioned.
In World War II Indian soldiers fought alongside the Allies. In 1939, British officials had no plan for expansion and training of Indian forces, which comprised about 130,000 men, their mission was internal security and defence against a possible Soviet threat through Afghanistan. As the war progressed, the size and role of the Indian Army expanded and troops were sent to battlefronts as soon as possible; the most serious problem was lack of equipment. Indian units served in Burma, where in 1944–45, five Indian divisions were engaged along with one British and three African divisions. Larger numbers operated in the Middle East; some 87,000 Indian soldiers died in the war. By the end of the war it had become the largest volunteer army in history, rising to over 2.5 million men in August 1945. In the African and Middle-Eastern Campaigns, captured Indian troops were given a choice to join the German Army to "liberate" India from Great
Bharatiya Janata Party
The Bharatiya Janata Party is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress. As of 2018, it is the country's largest political party in terms of representation in the national parliament and state assemblies, it is the world's largest party in terms of primary membership. BJP is a right-wing party, its policy has reflected Hindu nationalist positions, it has close organisational links to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. The BJP's origin lies in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, formed in 1951 by Syama Prasad Mukherjee. After the State of Emergency in 1977, the Jana Sangh merged with several other parties to form the Janata Party. After three years in power, the Janata party dissolved in 1980 with the members of the erstwhile Jana Sangh reconvening to form the BJP. Although unsuccessful, winning only two seats in the 1984 general election, it grew in strength on the back of the Ram Janmabhoomi movement. Following victories in several state elections and better performances in national elections, the BJP became the largest party in the parliament in 1996.
After the 1998 general election, the BJP-led coalition known as the National Democratic Alliance under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee formed a government that lasted for a year. Following fresh elections, the NDA government, again headed by Vajpayee, lasted for a full term in office. In the 2004 general election, the NDA suffered an unexpected defeat, for the next ten years the BJP was the principal opposition party. Long time Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi led it to a landslide victory in the 2014 general election. Since that election, Modi has led the NDA government as Prime Minister and as of February 2019, the alliance governs 18 states; the official ideology of the BJP is "integral humanism", first formulated by Deendayal Upadhyaya in 1965. The party expresses a commitment to Hindutva, its policy has reflected Hindu nationalist positions; the BJP advocates a foreign policy centred on nationalist principles. Its key issues have included the abrogation of the special status to Jammu and Kashmir, the building of a Ram temple in Ayodhya and the implementation of a uniform civil code.
However, the 1998–2004 NDA government did not pursue any of these controversial issues. It instead focused on a liberal economic policy prioritising globalisation and economic growth over social welfare; the BJP's origins lie in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, popularly known as the Jana Sangh, founded by Syama Prasad Mukherjee in 1951 in response to the politics of the dominant Congress party. It was founded in collaboration with the Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, was regarded as the political arm of the RSS; the Jana Sangh's aims included the protection of India's "Hindu" cultural identity, in addition to countering what it perceived to be the appeasement of Muslim people and the country of Pakistan by the Congress party and then-Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. The RSS loaned several of its leading pracharaks, or full-time workers, to the Jana Sangh to get the new party off the ground. Prominent among these was Deendayal Upadhyaya, appointed General Secretary.
The Jana Sangh won only three Lok Sabha seats in the first general elections in 1952. It maintained a minor presence in parliament until 1967; the Jana Sangh's first major campaign, begun in early 1953, centred on a demand for the complete integration of Jammu and Kashmir into India. Mookerjee was arrested in May 1953 for violating orders from the state government restraining him from entering Kashmir, he died of a heart attack the following month in jail. Mauli Chandra Sharma was elected to succeed Mookerjee. Upadhyay remained the General Secretary until 1967, worked to build a committed grassroots organisation in the image of the RSS; the party minimised engagement with the public, focusing instead on building its network of propagandists. Upadhyaya articulated the philosophy of integral humanism, which formed the official doctrine of the party. Younger leaders, such as Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Lal Krishna Advani became involved with the leadership in this period, with Vajpayee succeeding Upadhyaya as president in 1968.
The major themes on the party's agenda during this period were legislating a uniform civil code, banning cow slaughter and abolishing the special status given to Jammu and Kashmir. After assembly elections across the country in 1967, the party entered into a coalition with several other parties, including the Swatantra Party and the socialists, it formed governments in various states across the Hindi heartland, including Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. It was the first time. In 1975, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi imposed a state of emergency; the Jana Sangh took part in the widespread protests, with thousands of its members being imprisoned along with other agitators across the country. In 1977, the emergency was withdrawn and general elections were held; the Jana Sangh merged with parties from across the political spectrum, including the Socialist Party, the Congress and the Bharatiya Lok Dal to form the Janata Party, with its main agenda being defeating Indi
Narendra Damodardas Modi is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014. He was the Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014, is the Member of Parliament for Varanasi. Modi is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation. Born to a Gujarati family in Vadnagar, Modi helped his father sell tea as a child, has said he ran his own stall, he was introduced to the RSS at the age of eight, beginning a long association with the organisation. Modi left home after finishing high-school in part due to an arranged marriage to Jashodaben Chimanlal, which he abandoned, publicly acknowledged only many decades later. Modi travelled around India for two years and visited a number of religious centres before returning to Gujarat. In 1971 he became a full-time worker for the RSS. During the state of emergency imposed across the country in 1975, Modi was forced to go into hiding; the RSS assigned him to the BJP in 1985, he held several positions within the party hierarchy until 2001, rising to the rank of General Secretary.
Modi was appointed Chief Minister of Gujarat in 2001, due to Keshubhai Patel's failing health and poor public image following the earthquake in Bhuj. Modi was elected to the legislative assembly soon after, his administration has been considered complicit in the 2002 Gujarat riots, or otherwise criticised for its handling of it. A Supreme Court-appointed Special Investigation Team found no evidence to initiate prosecution proceedings against Modi personally, his policies as chief minister, credited with encouraging economic growth, have received praise. His administration has been criticised for failing to improve health and education indices in the state. Modi led the BJP in the 2014 general election, which gave the party a majority in the Indian lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, the first time for any single party since 1984. Modi's administration has tried to raise foreign direct investment in the Indian economy, reduced spending on healthcare and social welfare programmes. Modi has attempted to improve efficiency in the bureaucracy.
He began a high-profile sanitation campaign, weakened or abolished environmental and labour laws. He initiated a controversial demonetisation of high-denomination banknotes. Described as engineering a political realignment towards right-wing politics, Modi remains a figure of controversy domestically and internationally over his Hindu nationalist beliefs and his role during the 2002 Gujarat riots, cited as evidence of an exclusionary social agenda. Narendra Modi was born on 17 September 1950 to a family of grocers in Vadnagar, Mehsana district, Bombay State, he was the third of six children born to Damodardas Mulchand Hiraben Modi. Modi's family belonged to the Modh-Ghanchi-Teli community, categorised as an Other Backward Class by the Indian government; as a child, Modi helped his father sell tea at the Vadnagar railway station, said that he ran a tea stall with his brother near a bus terminus. Modi completed his higher secondary education in Vadnagar in 1967, where a teacher described him as an average student and a keen debater, with interest in theatre.
Modi had an early gift for rhetoric in debates, his teachers and students noted this. Modi preferred playing larger-than-life characters in theatrical productions, which has influenced his political image; when eight years old, Modi discovered the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and began attending its local shakhas. There, Modi met Lakshmanrao Inamdar, popularly known as Vakil Saheb, who inducted him as a balswayamsevak in the RSS and became his political mentor. While Modi was training with the RSS, he met Vasant Gajendragadkar and Nathalal Jaghda, Bharatiya Jana Sangh leaders who were founding members of the BJP's Gujarat unit in 1980. In Narendra Modi's childhood, in a custom traditional to his caste, his family arranged a betrothal to a girl, Jashodaben Chimanlal, leading to their marriage when they were teenagers. Sometime thereafter, he abandoned the further marital obligations implicit in the custom, left home, the couple going on to lead separate lives, neither marrying again, the marriage itself remaining unmentioned in Modi's public pronouncements for many decades.
In April 2014, shortly before the national elections that swept him to power, Modi publicly affirmed that he was married and his spouse was Ms Chimanlal. Modi spent the ensuing two years travelling across Northern and North-eastern India, though few details of where he went have emerged. In interviews, Modi has described visiting Hindu ashrams founded by Swami Vivekananda: the Belur Math near Kolkata, followed by the Advaita Ashrama in Almora and the Ramakrishna Mission in Rajkot. Modi remained only a short time at each. Vivekananda has been described as a large influence in Modi's life. In the early summer of 1968, Modi reached the Belur Math but was turned away, after which Modi wandered through Calcutta, West Bengal and Assam, stopping in Siliguri and Guwahati. Modi went to the Ramakrishna Ashram in Almora, where he was again rejected, before travelling back to Gujarat via Delhi and Rajasthan in 1968–69. Sometime in late 1969 or early 1970, Modi returned to Vadnagar for a brief visit before leaving again for Ahmedabad.
There, Modi lived with his uncle, working in the latter's canteen at the Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation. In Ahmedabad, Modi r
International Animal Rescue
International Animal Rescue known as IAR, is an animal welfare non-profit organization based in the United Kingdom that comes to the aid of wild and domestic animals with hands-on rescue and rehabilitation. International Animal Rescue returns rehabilitated animals to the wild while providing permanent sanctuary for those that cannot be released. International Animal Rescue specializes in comprehensive sterilization and vaccination programs for stray dogs and cats in developing countries, they work to educate the public in the humane treatment of all animals. International Animal Rescue has offices in the United Kingdom, United States, Indonesia and the Netherlands. International Animal Rescue was established by John and Jo Hicks, first registered as a charity in the United Kingdom in September 1989. IAR Malta became an recognized body in 1993; the first clinic and rescue center was established in Goa in 1989 to sterilize stray dogs and vaccinate them against rabies. The Goa center is licensed under the Animal Birth Control grant system introduced by Maneka Gandhi.
International Animal Rescue's patrons are: Bill Bailey, Jo Brand, Elkie Brooks, Maneka Gandhi, Dr Scott Miller, Dr Roger A Mugford, Trevor Woodman MBE. The practice of dancing bears was made illegal in India in 1972 but in the decades that followed sloth bears were still poached from the wild and forced to perform for tourists. In 2002, International Animal Rescue together with Indian partner organization Wildlife SOS opened the first sanctuary for rescued dancing bears near Agra and the Taj Mahal. In December 2009, International Animal Rescue and Wildlife SOS succeeded in bringing this practice to an end by rescuing Raju, the last dancing bear in India; the hundreds of rescued bears are now living in a semi-natural environment in sanctuaries in Agra and Bannerghatta National Park, near Bangalore. The rehabilitation of the bears' handlers formed an integral part of the project, ensuring they would not revert to bear dancing as a way of earning a living; the Kalandar tribes people who danced the bears were taught new trades such as rickshaw driving or carpet weaving to help them support their families.
International Animal Rescue's team in Indonesia grew out of a group called ProAnimalia International that cared for animals confiscated from the illegal trade circuit. In 2006 ProAnimalia became part of International Animal Rescue and in 2007 a new primate rescue and rehabilitation center was built in Ciapus, near Bogor, on the island of Java. IAR Indonesia specializes in rescuing and rehabilitating orangutans and slow lorises and releasing them back into protected areas in the wild. In Indonesian Borneo, IAR rescues and cares for a growing number of orangutans at their emergency rescue center in Ketapang, West Kalimantan, from orphaned infants to full-grown adults that spent years in captivity. John and Jo Hicks have set up The Primate Trust and Primate Trust India to assist in the welfare on primates in India; the rescue center on the island of Java has facilities for the treatment and care of macaques and slow lorises. International Animal Rescue set up a rescue center called Animal Tracks in 1998 in the town of Mapusa in the north of Goa, India, to address the welfare issues of the stray dog population.
Since the sterilization and vaccination programs have reduced the numbers of strays and as a result of the anti-rabies vaccinations cases of rabies in humans have been eliminated in the areas where IAR operates. International Animal Rescue's veterinary center in Trichy, Tamil Nadu was established in 2005 by Dr Deike Schacht; the center's aim is to control and care for the stray dog population with sterilization and vaccination, to provide shelter and treatment for sick and injured dogs. International Animal Rescue's veterinary teams in India and Indonesia sterilize stray cats as means of reducing and controlling their populations. A team from Catastrophes Cat Rescue in the United Kingdom conducts sterilization trips for IAR in Spain and other parts of Europe by trapping and sterilizing communities of feral cats and providing veterinary treatment. Through Catastrophes Cat Rescue, International Animal Rescue gives sanctuary to unwanted cats in the United Kingdom; the cats are spayed or neutered.
International Animal Rescue joined the campaign to end the illegal shooting of migrating birds in Malta in 1990 and lobbies at a national and European level for greater bird protection while working with the police and the Ministry of Environment and Rural Affairs to help animals in need. IAR provides a 24-hour emergency helpline where inquiries are taken about abandoned animals, illegal bird hunting and trapping, wildlife trafficking and instances of animal cruelty. International Animal Rescue runs a bird rehabilitation hospital in Valletta where injured species are nursed back to health such as honey buzzards, short eared owls, as well as familiar garden songbirds. Once their wounds have healed, the rescued birds are released back into the wild. International Animal Rescue global website International Animal Rescue Goa, India website
Rajiv Ratna Gandhi was an Indian politician who served as the 6th Prime Minister of India from 1984 to 1989. He took office after the 1984 assassination of his mother, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, to become the youngest Indian Prime Minister at the age of 40. Gandhi was a scion of the politically powerful Nehru–Gandhi family, associated with the Indian National Congress party. For much of his childhood, his maternal grandfather Jawaharlal Nehru was Prime Minister. Gandhi attended college in the United Kingdom, he became a professional pilot for the state-owned Indian Airlines. In 1968 he married Sonia Gandhi. For much of the 1970s, his mother Indira Gandhi was prime minister and his brother Sanjay Gandhi an MP. After Sanjay's death in an aeroplane crash in 1980, Gandhi reluctantly entered politics at the behest of Indira; the following year he won his brother's Parliamentary seat of Amethi and became a member of the Lok Sabha—the lower house of India's Parliament. As part of his political grooming, Rajiv was made a general secretary of the Congress party and given significant responsibility in organising the 1982 Asian Games.
On the morning of 31 October 1984, his mother was assassinated by one of her bodyguards. His leadership was tested over the next few days as organised mobs rioted against the Sikh community, resulting in riots in Delhi; that December, Congress party won the largest Lok Sabha majority to date, 411 seats out of 542. Rajiv Gandhi's period in office was mired in controversies. In 1988 he reversed the coup in Maldives, antagonising militant Tamil groups such as PLOTE, intervening and sending peacekeeping troops to Sri Lanka in 1987, leading to open conflict with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. In mid-1987 the Bofors scandal damaged his corruption-free image and resulted in a major defeat for his party in the 1989 election. Gandhi remained Congress President until the elections in 1991. While campaigning for the elections, he was assassinated by a suicide bomber from the LTTE, his widow Sonia became the president of the Congress party in 1998 and led the party to victory in the 2004 and 2009 parliamentary elections.
His son Rahul Gandhi is a Member of Parliament and the current President of Indian National Congress. In 1991 the Indian government posthumously awarded Gandhi the Bharat Ratna, the country's highest civilian award. At the India Leadership Conclave in 2009, the Revolutionary Leader of Modern India award was conferred posthumously on Gandhi. Rajiv Gandhi was born in Bombay on 20 August 1944 to Feroze Gandhi. In 1951, Rajiv and Sanjay were admitted to Shiv Niketan school, where the teachers said Rajiv was shy and introverted, "greatly enjoyed painting and drawing", he was admitted to the Welham Boys' School and Doon School, Dehradun in 1954, where Sanjay joined him two years later. Rajiv was sent to London in 1961 to study A-levels. From 1962 to 1965 he studied engineering at Trinity College, but did not obtain a degree. In 1966 he began a course in mechanical engineering at Imperial College London, but did not complete it. Gandhi was not studious enough, as he went on to admit later. Gandhi returned to India in 1966, the year.
He became a member of the Flying Club, where he was trained as a pilot. In 1970, he was employed as a pilot by Air India. In 1968, after three years of courtship, he married Edvige Antonia Albina Màino, who changed her name to Sonia Gandhi and made India her home, their first child, a son, Rahul Gandhi was born in 1970. In 1972, the couple had Priyanka Gandhi, who married Robert Vadra. On 23 June 1980, Rajiv's younger brother. At that time, Rajiv Gandhi was in London as part of his foreign tour. Hearing the news, he cremated Sanjay's body; as per Agarwal, in the week following Sanjay's death, Shankaracharya Swami Shri Swaroopanand, a saint from Badrinath, visited the family's house to offer his condolences. He advised Rajiv not to fly aeroplanes and instead "dedicate himself to the service of the nation". 70 members of the Congress party signed a proposal and went to Indira, urging Rajiv to enter politics. Indira told them; when he was questioned about it, he replied, "If my mother gets help from it I will enter politics".
Rajiv entered politics on 16 February 1981. During this time, he was still an employee of Air India. On 4 May 1981, Indira Gandhi presided over a meeting of the All India Congress Committee. Vasantdada Patil proposed Rajiv as a candidate for the Amethi constituency, accepted by all members at the meeting. A week the party announced his candidacy for the constituency, he paid the party membership fees of the party and flew to Sultanpur to file his nomination papers and completed other formalities. He won the seat, he took his oath on 17 August as Member of Parliament. Rajiv Gandhi's first political tour was to England, where he attended the wedding ceremony of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer on 29 July 1981. In December the same year, he was put in charge of the Indian Youth Congress, he first showed his organisational ability by "working round the clock" on the 1982 Asian Game