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Manfred Eigen

Manfred Eigen was a German biophysical chemist who won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for work on measuring fast chemical reactions. Eigen's research helped solve major problems in physical chemistry and aided in the understanding of chemical processes that occur in living organisms. In years, he explored the biochemical roots of life and evolution, he worked to install a multidisciplinary program at the Max Planck Institute to study the underpinnings of life at the molecular level. His work was hailed for creating a new scientific and technological discipline: evolutionary biotechnology. Eigen was born on 9 May 1927 in the son of Hedwig and Ernst Eigen, a chamber musician; as a child he developed a deep passion for music, studied piano. World War II interrupted his formal education. At age fifteen he was drafted into service in a German antiaircraft unit, he was captured by the Soviets toward the end of the war. He managed to escape, walked hundreds of miles across defeated Germany, arriving in Göttingen in 1945.

He lacked the necessary documentation for acceptance to university, but was admitted after he demonstrated his knowledge in an exam. He entered the university's first postwar class. Eigen desired to study Physics, but since returning soldiers who were enrolled received priority, he enrolled in Geophysics, he entered graduate study in natural sciences. One of his advisors was the noted proponent of the uncertainty principle, he received his doctorate in 1951. Eigen received his Ph. D. at the University of Göttingen in 1951 under supervision of Arnold Eucken. In 1964 he presented the results of his research at a meeting of the Faraday Society in London, his findings demonstrated for the first time that it was possible to determine the rates of chemical reactions that occurred during time intervals as brief as a nanosecond. Beginning in 1953 Eigen worked at the Max Planck Institute for Physical Chemistry in Göttingen, becoming its director in 1964 and joining it with the Max Planck Institute for Spectroscopy to become the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry.

He was an honorary professor of the Braunschweig University of Technology. From 1982 to 1993, Eigen was president of the German National Merit Foundation. Eigen was a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. In 1967, Eigen was awarded, along with Ronald George Wreyford Norrish and George Porter, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, they were cited for their studies of fast chemical reactions induced in response to short pulses of energy. In addition, Eigen's name is linked with the theory of quasispecies, the error threshold, error catastrophe, Eigen's paradox, the chemical hypercycle, the cyclic linkage of reaction cycles as an explanation for the self-organization of prebiotic systems, which he described with Peter Schuster in 1977. Eigen founded two biotechnology companies and Direvo. In 1981, Eigen became a founding member of the World Cultural Council. Eigen was a member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences though he was an atheist, he died on 6 February 2019 at the age of 91.

Eigen was married to Elfriede Müller. The union produced a boy and a girl, he married Ruthild Oswatitsch, a longtime scientific partner. Eigen won numerous awards for his research including: Otto Hahn Prize Honorary doctorate from Harvard University Nobel Prize in Chemistry, shared with Ronald George Wreyford Norrish and George Porter, for his studies on the kinetics of fast running chemical reactions with relaxation methods Member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1973 Pour le Mérite Faraday Lectureship Prize from the Royal Society of Chemistry in 1977 Austrian Decoration for Science and Art Lower Saxony State Prize for Science Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize Helmholtz Medal Max Planck Research Award, jointly with Rudolf Rigler of the Karolinska Institute Honorary member of the Ruhr University Bochum Lifetime Achievement Award from the Institute of Human Virology in Baltimore Wilhelm Exner Medal "The institute congratulates Manfred Eigen on his 90th birthday!" at Manfred Eigen – Early childhood recollections about music on YouTube

Jim Wallace, Baron Wallace of Tankerness

James Robert Wallace, Baron Wallace of Tankerness, FRSE is a British politician and former leader of the Liberal Democrats in the House of Lords. He was Leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats, Member of Parliament for Orkney and Shetland, Member of the Scottish Parliament for Orkney, the first Deputy First Minister of Scotland in the Scottish Executive and Advocate General for Scotland. Lord Wallace was born in Annan in Dumfriesshire and grew up there; as a boy, his first interest in politics was stoked when he collected autographs from politicians visiting the local area: he still possesses one from Tam Dalyell, with whom he served in the House of Commons. Wallace was educated at a state secondary school in his hometown of Annan. Following school, he was accepted by Downing College, where he obtained a joint degree in economics and law, was rumoured to have been a member of the'Three Kings' society. From there he returned to Scotland to study law at the University of Edinburgh, graduating in 1977.

Based in Edinburgh, he practised as an advocate at the Scottish Bar in civil law cases. Wallace joined the then-Liberal Party in the early 1970s, but did not become active in it until after completing his second degree, his first foray as a parliamentary candidate was in the constituency of Dumfriesshire in 1979, where he failed to win. He stood, unsuccessfully, as the Liberal candidate in the South of Scotland constituency at the European Parliament elections of that year. Four years he would earn the Liberal nomination for the seat of Orkney and Shetland, the seat being vacated by former party leader Jo Grimond, won election to the Parliament. At the time, it was rare for Liberal candidates to win elections to succeed former Liberal MPs, although many have since done so, he was to serve as the MP there for 18 years, occupying a number of front bench posts for the Liberal Party, including Employment spokesman and Chief Whip. In 1992, he was unopposed in becoming the new leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats, succeeding Malcolm Bruce.

Scottish politics at this time was dominated by the question of constitutional reform. There were few opportunities for legislation affecting Scots Law to be debated or scrutinised at Westminster and after the 1987 Election, with only ten Conservative MPs in Scotland but with a large majority in the House of Commons, it was argued that there was a democratic deficit in Scotland; the Scottish Liberal Democrats were committed to an overarching principle of federalism throughout the United Kingdom, with the Scottish Labour Party advocating legislative devolution for Scotland and Wales, as had been attempted unsuccessfully in the late 1970s, the Scottish National Party seeking independence. However, the Conservative Government wanted no such change, Scottish Secretaries, such as Ian Lang and Michael Forsyth, advocated internal parliamentary reforms at Westminster, such as holding more debates in the Scottish Grand Committee, which consisted of all 72 MPs for Scottish constituencies. Given the similarity of their preferred options, the Scottish Liberal Democrats had co operated with the Scottish Labour Party in the Scottish Constitutional Convention to produce a blueprint for a devolved parliament within the United Kingdom.

Wallace continued this and the Convention's final proposals were published on St Andrew's Day 1995. A key part of this plan was the decision that this new parliament would be elected by a system of proportional representation; this was a long-held Liberal Democrat policy which would ensure a fairer distribution of seats, which would certainly deny any single party an overall majority. The Labour Party was strongly opposed to this policy, it was a mark of success for Wallace and the Liberal Democrats that it was agreed. Both parties agreed to work to enact the proposals after the next election; when the Conservatives lost the 1997 Election, the New Labour government converted the Constitutional Convention's proposals into a White Paper and a referendum of the Scottish people was held on 11 September 1997. Wallace was a key figure in that campaign, arguing for the proposal, although campaigning in the referendum was suspended for several days following the death of Princess Diana. Despite Conservative opposition, the plan was approved by nearly 75% of those voting, nearly 64% voted separately for the Parliament to have the power to vary the basic rate of income tax.

The Scotland Bill was successfully piloted through Westminster, became the founding legislation of the new Parliament. He led the Scottish Liberal Democrats in the first election to the new Scottish Parliament in 1999, himself winning the constituency of Orkney with 67% of the votes cast; this meant he served as a Member of both the Scottish and Westminster Parliaments for a time with a dual mandate, although like other MPs elected to Holyrood he stood down from Westminster at the 2001 General Election. As expected, the proportional election system for the new Scottish Parliament meant that Labour failed to gain an outright majority in the first elections, their Leader, Donald Dewar, chose to seek a formal coalition government with a working majority rather than try to operate as a minority government. He contacted Wallace and a week of formal negotiations were held between the two parties' representatives, following which a partnership agreement was signed, committing both parties to support a negotiated joint agenda.

Wallace became Deputy First Minister and Mi

Love Is Free

"Love Is Free" is a song written and recorded by American singer-songwriter Sheryl Crow. It was released as the second single from Crow's sixth studio album Detours, its predecessor "Shine over Babylon" was airplay only. On her website, Crow states. "What struck me about it is the stoicism of the New Orleans people, they are spiritually based. You can see it in their eyes that they aren't going to give up, they are going to rebuild." The music video shows Crow singing with an acoustic guitar in a boat while coming across all kind of characters. It was directed by The Malloys; the video for "Love Is Free" was added to the popular video sharing site YouTube on 17 January 2008 and has had over 1,000,000 views. Maxi CD "Love Is Free" - 3:23 "Drunk With the Thought of You" - 2:46 "Shine Over Babylon" - 4:01 "Love Is Free" Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Doshin the Giant

Doshin the Giant is a Nintendo god simulation game for the Nintendo 64DD and GameCube. It was released in Japan on December 1, 1999, as a launch title for the 64DD, for which a soundtrack by Tatsuhiko Asano was released on CD by Media Factory, early the next year. Both of these received positive reviews. An expansion was released five months called Kyojin no Doshin Kaihō Sensen Chibikko Chikko Daishūgou, which takes a different perspective of the game, featuring short animated clips that the player can unlock after playing the original game. Doshin the Giant was released and upgraded graphically for the GameCube and released in Japan on March 14, 2002, Europe on September 20, 2002; the re-release received positive reviews. The game opens on an island called Barudo, with a spoken narration, by an island native; this man, named Sodoru who wears a mask on his face, tells the legend of a giant that rises out of the sea as the morning sun rises. As he tells the player this, Doshin, a yellow giant appears from out of the water.

The player takes control of the giant. Sodoru tells the player what the other inhabitants of the island want such as trees or hills raised and lowered, he suggests helping the people, for which they will reward the giant with love, might build a monument to it. Sodoru suggests that the giant help bring the four tribes together, it takes Doshin many days to do this, at the end of each day as the sun sets he returns to the sea. When every possible combination of tribes has been reached, the islanders build one final monument called the Tower of Babel, which causes the island and Doshin to sink into the sea, thus killing everyone. However, the next day, a new island appears at sunrise in the shape of Doshin himself, with two members of each of the tribes on it as before. Doshin walks out onto the island again and the story continues; the GameCube version, has one additional ending with the islanders not building a monument this time, but instead a large rocket that blasts them up into space. This ending has similarities with the beginning of Nintendo's Pikmin, which starts with a crashing ship and the survivor meeting three different colored plant type creatures.

As a god game, Doshin the Giant's gameplay revolves around typical god-like abilities and tasks, such as altering the geography, managing natural disasters or answering prayers from simulated worshippers. Its designer Kazutoshi Iida has described it as "Populous meets Mario"; the player controls the Doshin as he tries to hinder the islands inhabitants. Doing so causes the villagers to release love or hate, which Doshin absorbs; the two feelings cancel each other out. Doshin is a yellow, featureless giant with a happy face and a few strands of hair, he is a benevolent, helpful being who, with his good actions, earns love from his people and increases in size. He can pick up other such things. Doshin can transform at will into the Hate Giant. In the GameCube version, he has wings and clawed feet and inspires Hate monuments that are different from the Love monuments Doshin can earn. Jashin is known to be a destructive force to the exact opposite to Doshin's nature. With his bad actions, people show him their dislike, he increases in size.

The only thing the two giants have in common is. Although he cannot pick up things, he can send streams of fire across the land, destroying structures in their way. Doshin and Jashin can both lower terrain; the four native tribes on the island are separated with the color of their clothing. The female natives are dressed in a uni-colored gown of their tribe's color; the male natives wear a kilt and hat of their tribe's color, but remain shirtless showing outie belly buttons. In the GameCube version the people raise farm animals, there are fish in the water. There are several threats that endanger the villagers, such as tornadoes, fires, being crushed by Doshin, jealous tribe members named "Naughties."Other features of the game include the following: an album of photographic snapshots of the gameplay itself. In the GameCube version, after completing the game, a "New Map" option is unlocked; this option has various islands with different themed textures. Developer Kazutoshi Iida notes "the sheer simplicity of the user-interface, as the game can be played without numbers or letters."

He added, "Mr. Shigeru Miyamoto from Nintendo has said that computer games incorporate a world-wide common language, and'Doshin' illustrates this clearly." Doshin the Giant was first publicly displayed at Nintendo Space World'99. The game's developer, Kazutoshi Iida, recalled a "continuous line of people queued to use the eight playable test units, the'Large Screen Experience'", he said that the foreign press received the game "very enthusiastically". It was fantastic to see the captivated expressions of the young children, some of whom came on each of the three days to play'Doshin'! During the project, we hadn't given much thought to the target market, but we were pleased by its obvious attraction for children; this attraction isn't surprising, since children, more than anyone, have a burning desire to grow in size. Thinking back to my own childhood, I recall being enamoured by anything gigantic, so their reaction could have been anticipated. Doshin the Giant was a hit game in Japan, peaking at Japan's numb

Ped Mall (Iowa City)

The Ped Mall known as the Pedestrian Mall, is a pedestrian mall located in downtown Iowa City, near the University of Iowa campus. Spanning from Burlington Street to Washington Street and Clinton Street to Linn Street, the Ped Mall serves as a gathering place for students and transients, it draws large crowds for its summertime events such as the Friday Night Concert Series and the annual Iowa City Jazz Festival and Iowa City Arts Festival. The Ped Mall area contains restaurants, retail and the Iowa City Public Library; the Coldren Opera House was located on the street. Old Capital Cultural District Iowa City Jazz Festival Iowa City Arts Festival Iowa City Ped Mall Webcam

Fraction of inspired oxygen

Fraction of inspired oxygen is the molar or volumetric fraction of oxygen in the inhaled gas. Medical patients experiencing difficulty breathing are provided with oxygen-enriched air, which means a higher-than-atmospheric FiO2. Natural air includes 21% oxygen, equivalent to FiO2 of 0.21. Oxygen-enriched air has a higher FiO2 than 0.21. FiO2 is maintained below 0.5 with mechanical ventilation, to avoid oxygen toxicity. But there are applications when up to 100% is used. Used in medicine, the FiO2 is used to represent the percentage of oxygen participating in gas-exchange. If the barometric pressure changes, the FiO2 may remain constant while the partial pressure of oxygen changes with the change in barometric pressure. Abbreviated alveolar air equation P A O 2 = P E O 2 − P i O 2 V D V t 1 − V D V t PAO2, PEO2, PiO2 are the partial pressures of oxygen in alveolar and inspired gas and VD/VT is the ratio of physiologic dead space over tidal volume. In medicine, the FiO2 is the assumed percentage of oxygen concentration participating in gas exchange in the alveoli.

The FiO2 is used in the APACHE II severity of disease classification system for intensive care unit patients. For FiO2 values equal to or greater than 0.5, the alveolar–arterial gradient value should be used in the APACHE II score calculation. Otherwise, the PaO2 will suffice; the ratio between partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood and FiO2 is used as an indicator of hypoxemia per the American-European Consensus Conference on lung injury. A high FiO2 has been shown to alter the ratio of PaO2/FiO2; the ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen, known as the Horowitz index or Carrico index, is a comparison between the oxygen level in the blood and the oxygen concentration, breathed. This helps to determine the degree of any problems with. A sample of arterial blood is collected for this test. A PaO2/FiO2 ratio less than or equal to 200 is necessary for the diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome by the AECC criteria; the more recent Berlin criteria defines mild ARDS at a ratio of <300.

A PaO2/FiO2 ratio less than or equal to 250 is one of the minor criteria for severe community acquired pneumonia. A PaO2/FiO2 ratio less than or equal to 333 is one of the variables in the SMART-COP risk score for intensive respiratory or vasopressor support in community-acquired pneumonia. Example calculation After drawing an arterial blood gas sample from a patient the PaO2 is found to be 100 mmHg. Since the patient is receiving O2-saturated air resulting in a FiO2 of 50% oxygen his calculated PaO2/FiO2 ratio would be 100 mmHg / 0.5 = 200. The alveolar air equation is the following formula, used to calculate the partial pressure of alveolar gas: P A O 2 = F I O 2 − P A CO 2 Oxygen toxicity – Toxic effects of breathing in oxygen at high concentrations FiO2 by Delivery Device - Shows FiO2 by common oxygen deliver systems