A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
"Monday, Monday" is a 1966 song written by John Phillips and recorded by the Mamas & the Papas using background instruments played by members of The Wrecking Crew for their 1966 album If You Can Believe Your Eyes and Ears. It was the group's only #1 hit on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100. Phillips said that he wrote the song in about 20 minutes; the song includes a false ending, when there is a pause before the coda of the song, goes up a half note for the bridges and refrains of the song. On March 2, 1967, The Mamas & the Papas won a Grammy Award for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal for this song; the song was performed at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967. The performance was not included in the final print; the song appears on the soundtrack of Michael Apted's film Stardust. 7-inch vinyl"Monday, Monday" – 3:27 "Got a Feelin'" – 2:44 Petula Clark on her album I Couldn't Live Without Your Love The Beau Brummels on their album Beau Brummels'66 Neil Diamond on The Feel of Neil Diamond Jay and the Americans on their album Livin Above Your Head Sérgio Mendes on his instrumental album The Great Arrival Marianne Faithfull on Faithfull Forever Lenny Breau on his debut album Guitar Sounds from Lenny Breau Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass on their album The Beat of the Brass Ed Ames from the album Who Will Answer? and Other Songs of our Time The Cowsills on The Johnny Cash Show The 5th Dimension on their album The 5th Dimension/Live!!
Dionne Warwick on Only Love Can Break A Heart Galenskaparna och After Shave, Swedish parodic text Bandy, Bandy about bandy The Adventures on Lions and Tigers and Bears Hear'Say on Popstars Wilson Phillips three times: a modern rock take on their album California and an a cappella single version the same year, a straightforward take paying tribute to the original on the album Dedicated Matthew Sweet and Susanna Hoffs on their album Under the Covers, Vol. 1 Rick Price and Jack Jones covered the song on their album California Dreaming. ESPN announcer Chris Berman referred to Rick Monday as "Monday, Monday"; the Mamas and the Papas' version of "Monday, Monday" is heard in a chase scene in the 2010 movie The Other Guys. The song is used in one of the Discovery Channel's promos for the reality TV series Dirty Jobs, which ran for eight seasons; the Daredevil villain, Typhoid Mary, sings this song when in her "Typhoid" personality. ESPN uses the Papas' version in a 2017 TV commercial to promote Monday Night Football.
Monday, Monday at Myspace Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
British Phonographic Industry
The BPI Limited known as the British Phonographic Industry or BPI, is the British recorded music industry's trade association. Its membership comprises hundreds of music companies including all three "major" record companies in the UK, hundreds of independent music labels and small to medium-sized music businesses, it has represented the interests of British record companies since being formally incorporated in 1973 when the principal aim was to promote British music and fight copyright infringement. In 2007, the association's legal name was changed from British Phonographic Industry Limited, it founded the annual BRIT Awards for the British music industry in 1977, The Classic BRIT Awards. The organizing company, BRIT Awards Limited, is a owned subsidiary of the BPI. Proceeds from both shows go to the BRIT Trust, the charitable arm of the BPI that has donated £15m to charitable causes nationwide since its foundation in 1989. In September 2013, the BPI presented the first BRITs Icon Award to Sir Elton John.
The BPI endorsed the launch of the Mercury Prize for the Album of the Year in 1992. The recorded music industry's Certified Awards program, which attributes Platinum and Silver status to singles and music videos based on their sales performance, has been administered by the BPI since its inception in 1973. In September 2008, the BPI became one of the founding members of UK Music, an umbrella organisation representing the interests of all parts of the industry; the charitable arm of the BPI, the trust was conceived in 1989 by a collection of leading music industry individuals with a mission to give young people a chance to express their musical creativity regardless of race, sex or ability. The BRIT Trust is the only music charity supporting all types of education across the entire spectrum of music. Through the projects it supports, which include Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy and the BRIT School, the Trust offers young people the opportunity to enhance their lives through music. Proceeds from the BRIT Awards and the Classic BRITs shows go to the BRIT Trust, which has donated £15m to charitable causes nationwide since its foundation.
Opened in September 1991, the BRIT School is a joint venture between The BRIT Trust and the Department for Education and Skills. Based at Selhurst in Croydon, the school is the only non fee-paying performing arts school in the UK, it teaches up to 1,100 students each year aged from 14–19 years in music, drama, musical theatre, production and art & design. Students are from diverse backgrounds and are not required to stick to their own discipline. Nor do students have to work/perform in the evening to pay for the tuition; the BPI administers the BRIT Certified Platinum, Gold and Bronze awards scheme for music releases in the United Kingdom. The level of the award varies depending on the format of the release and the level of sales achieved. Although the awards program was for many years based on the level of shipments by record labels to retailers, since July 2013, certifications have been automatically allocated by the BPI upon the relevant sales thresholds being achieved. Member companies do, still have the option to certify titles based on shipment levels if they choose to.
Since July 2014, audio streaming has been included for singles at a ratio of 100 streams equivalent to 1 unit. From June 2015, audio streams were added to album certifications. According to BPI, they would take the 12 most-streamed tracks from the standard version of an album, with the top two songs down-weighted in line with the average of the rest; the total of these streams will be divided by 1,000 and added to the physical and digital sales of the album. On 6 April 2018, the BPI announced changes to its certifications. A new Bronze certification was introduced, which will be awarded to an artist's first album to reach 30,000 units. Additionally, the program was re-branded as BRIT Certified, with public promotion of the programme being assumed by the BRIT Awards' social media outlets and digital properties. Chief executive Geoff Taylor justified the change by stating that it was part of an effort to cross-promote the certifications with "the UK's biggest platform for artistic achievement".
Adam Barker – Universal Music UK Mike Batt LVO – Deputy chairman, BPI - Dramatico Entertainment John Craig OBE – First Night Records Jonathan Cross – Warner Music UK Nick Gatfield – Sony Music Entertainment Nick Hartley – PIAS David Joseph – Universal Music UK Max Lousada – Warner Music UK Korda Marshall – Infectious Music Iain McNay – Cherry Red Records Emma Pike – Sony Music Entertainment Peter Stack – Union Square Music Geoff Taylor – Chief executive officer, BPI and BRIT Awards Limited Tony Wadsworth CBE – Chairman, BPI and BRIT Awards Limited Kiaron Whitehead – General counsel, BPISource: BPI The BPI have developed bespoke software and automated crawling tools created in-house by the BPI search for members repertoire across more than 400 known infringing sites and generate URLs which are sent to Google as a DMCA Notice for removal within hours of receipt. Additionally, personnel are seconded to the City of London Police Intellectual Property Crime Unit to support anti-"piracy" operations.
Home Taping Is Killing Music Official C
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
Going Down to Liverpool
"Going Down to Liverpool" is a song written by Kimberley Rew for his group Katrina and The Waves, although best remembered by a cover done by The Bangles. The song was first released on the band's 1982 EP titled Shock Horror! and included on their 1983 debut album Walking on Sunshine, only released in Canada. The version included on both releases featured Rew on lead vocals; when the band signed with major label Capitol Records, the song was re-recorded with Katrina Leskanich on lead vocals and included on their 1985 self-titled album. Although never released as a single, it was featured as the b-side of two of the bands' singles, Plastic Man and their breakthrough hit Walking on Sunshine. American band The Bangles covered the song on their 1984 major label debut album All Over the Place; the song features lead vocals by Debbi Peterson and it was released as the album's second single, one of only two singles with Peterson on lead vocals, the other being "Be with You". The song had been introduced by a friend to Vicki Peterson, who liked it and urged the band to record a cover.
The single failed to chart in the USA, became a minor UK hit in April 1985, peaking at No. 79. The single's b-side was the album track "Dover Beach", the 12" single featured three songs from their Bangles EP on the b-side; when the band found success with their subsequent album Different Light, "Going Down to Liverpool" was re-released as a single in the UK and Ireland in 1986 after the release of "If She Knew What She Wants", with new cover artwork and featuring the Different Light album track "Let It Go". This time the single still only became a minor hit, peaking at No. 56, while it became a top 40 hit in Ireland peaking at No. 21. The music video for the song was directed by Tamar Simon Hoffs, the mother of group member Susanna Hoffs; the video features the band inside a car being driven around by a chauffeur, who appears to be unimpressed by the group. The car stops inside a tunnel and the girls walk towards the end of it, which cuts to the band playing and dancing over a red background.
Leonard Nimoy played the part of the chauffeur. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
The Bangles are an American pop rock band formed in Los Angeles in 1981. They scored several hit singles during the 1980s, including "Walk Like an Egyptian", "Manic Monday," "A Hazy Shade of Winter," and "Eternal Flame." Their classic line-up consisted of Michael Steele on bass and vocals, founding members Susanna Hoffs on vocals and rhythm guitar, Debbi Peterson on drums and vocals, Vicki Peterson on lead guitar and vocals. The band consists of Hoffs and Vicki Peterson, Annette Zilinskas. Susanna Hoffs, sisters Vicki and Debbi Peterson, had each been in bands before coming together in Los Angeles in December 1980; the impetus was two classified advertisements in the weekly paper The Recycler. One had been placed by Hoffs, the only person to respond was Annette Zilinskas, the other was by Lynn Elkind, the Petersons' housemate and a departing member of their band Those Girls; when Hoffs called in response to Elkind's ad, Vicki Peterson answered the phone, in their conversation they discovered a great deal of common interests.
The Those Girls bass guitarist, Vicki Peterson's lifelong best friend Amanda Hills, had left the band and this left an opening for Zilinskas. The resulting lineup first performed as The Colours in 1981. Shortly afterward the group renamed themselves The Bangs; the band was part of the Los Angeles Paisley Underground scene, which featured groups that played a mixture of 1960s-influenced rock. In 1981, Hoffs and the Petersons released a single on DownKiddie Records; the Bangs were signed to Faulty Products, a label formed by Miles Copeland. The early Bangles line-up of Susanna Hoffs, Vicki Peterson, Debbi Peterson and Annette Zilinskas recorded an EP in 1982, released the single "The Real World". At the last minute they discovered another band had registered the Bangs name and would not let them use it without payment so they dropped "The" and added the letters "les" to the end to become Bangles, their first EP was released. In 1983, Faulty Products issued a 12-inch "remix" single of "The Real World" to radio and media, but another setback came as the label folded.
I. R. S. Records picked up distribution and re-issued the EP. After Zilinskas left the band to focus on her own project, Blood on the Saddle, she was replaced by Michael Steele of the all-female band The Runaways, Toni & The Movers, Slow Children and Elton Duck. Bangles' full-length debut album on Columbia Records, All Over the Place, captured their power pop roots, featuring the singles "Hero Takes a Fall" and the Kimberley Rew-penned Beatlesque "Going Down to Liverpool"; the record received good reviews, the video for "Liverpool" featured Leonard Nimoy, which helped to generate further publicity. This came about through a friendship between the Nimoy families, they received a much wider audience serving as the opening act for Cyndi Lauper on her Fun Tour. All this went some way to attracting the attention of Prince, who gave them "Manic Monday" written for his group Apollonia 6. "Manic Monday" went on to become a number-two hit in the US, the UK and Germany, outsold at the time only by another Prince composition, his own "Kiss".
The band's second album Different Light was more polished than its predecessor and, with the help of the worldwide number-one hit "Walk Like an Egyptian", saw the band in the mainstream. The song was sent to them in mid-session and the group was divided about whether it would be a failure or a success; when the song was released the group was amazed to discover that it brought them a new audience of female fans, most of them young. Commented Michael Steele to a Nine-O-One Network Magazine writer: "When I go out now it is girls who recognize me." Three additional hit singles released from the “Different Light” album were: "Following”, “Walking Down Your Street”, the wistful "If She Knew What She Wants", written and first recorded by Jules Shear. There was friction among band members after music industry media began singling out Hoffs as the lead singer of the group, a result of Columbia Records releasing singles on which Hoffs sang lead vocal. In fact, singing duties on the group's albums were evenly divided among all of the band's members, all of whom wrote or co-wrote songs.
Hoffs starred in the 1987 film The Allnighter directed by her mother Tamar Simon Hoffs, it was poorly reviewed by critics. That further exacerbated the dissent, along with the firing of their manager Miles Copeland III, although they had another US hit with a remake of Simon & Garfunkel's "A Hazy Shade of Winter" from the soundtrack of the film Less Than Zero; the album Everything was produced by Davitt Sigerson, as the band had a negative reaction to working with David Kahne on Different Light. It was another multi-platinum hit and included the top five hit "In Your Room", as well as their biggest selling single "Eternal Flame". Co-writer Billy Steinberg came up with the title after Hoffs told him about the band's recent trip to Memphis, Tennessee where they visited Graceland, E
The Revolution (band)
The Revolution is an American rock band formed in Minneapolis and assembled in 1983 by Prince. Although associated with rock music, the band's sound incorporated rhythm and blues, pop and psychedelia elements. Before their official break-up, the Revolution had released two studio albums, two soundtracks, two videos; the band is known for its many members, varied in gender. The Revolution rose to international fame in the mid-1980s with Purple Rain, selling over 16 million albums in the United States alone; the band achieved two number-one Billboard 200 albums, six top ten singles on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, won three Grammy Awards. The band disbanded in 1986 after the Hit n Run – Parade Tour, which supported Parade, the soundtrack for Under the Cherry Moon. Prince died in 2016; when Prince formed his backing band after the release of his first album, he followed in the footsteps of one of his idols, Sly Stone, by creating a multi-racial, multi-gendered musical ensemble. The band consisted of: Prince on lead vocals and piano Dez Dickerson on guitar Andre Cymone on bass guitar Bobby Z. on drums and percussion Gayle Chapman on keyboards Matt Fink on keyboardsThough unnamed, Prince experimented with the band acting as a side project known as The Rebels, recording material in 1979 in Colorado to get more music out.
The recordings were a group effort with lead vocals by Dickerson or Chapman. The project was shelved for unknown reasons, but two of the tracks were re-recorded and given away by Prince. "You", became "U", was released on Paula Abdul's Spellbound album while "If I Love U 2nite" was released by both Mica Paris and Prince's wife, Mayte Garcia. Paris rerecorded the song from scratch. Garcia's version was rerecorded by Prince. On the next two tours following the Prince Tour, the band underwent two line-up changes. Gayle Chapman, who had strong religious beliefs as a member of The Way, quit the band in 1980; the end came when she told Prince she planned to go on a trip with her Way group, but Prince wanted her to commit to some short-noticed rehearsals instead. After a long argument, Chapman quit the group to be replaced by Lisa Coleman; the following year, after the Dirty Mind Tour, bass guitarist André Cymone would leave the band. Cymone, whose family gave Prince a home after he left his father's house, left over a number of grievances with Prince - little input in the studio, he wasn't getting credit for his contributions to Prince's music, in general his desire to start his own career- and would have bitter feelings toward Prince as he claimed that Prince stole many of his ideas that were used for the Time and that he created the bassline for Controversy's "Do Me, Baby".
Cymone was replaced by Mark Brown, renamed Brownmark by Prince. Coleman was only identified by her first name, while Fink started wearing surgical scrubs on stage and became known as "Doctor" Fink. Fink wore a black- and white-striped prison jumpsuit. However, a member of Rick James' band was doing the same thing and not wanting to copy that, Prince asked Fink, "Do you have any other ideas?" Fink said, "What about a doctor's outfit?" Prince loved the idea, thus was born Doctor Fink. From 1982–1983, when the band was identified as the Revolution, it consisted of: Prince on lead vocals and piano Dez Dickerson on guitar Brown Mark on bass Bobby Z. on drums and percussion Lisa Coleman on keyboards and piano Matt Fink on keyboards JJ on vocalsThe words "and the Revolution" can be seen printed backwards on the cover of his fifth album 1999. The band members were curious as to if they were getting a real name, but Prince had held back from calling the group the Revolution because of Dez Dickerson's wishes to leave the band.
When the 1999 Tour ended, Dez Dickerson left the band for religious reasons and was replaced by Lisa's childhood friend Wendy Melvoin. Prince told Dickerson that he needed three years from him, Dickerson wasn't willing to commit. Prince told Dickerson he'd honor his contract, which Prince did. Dickerson went on to work for independent Christian record label Star Song. Wendy and Lisa shortly thereafter formed a special bond with Prince and influenced his output during the rest of their tenure in the band. Prince's former R&B/funk offerings would be more diversified with rock and classical music elements. Prince and The Revolution's best-selling album, Purple Rain, produced by Prince and The Revolution themselves, peaked at number one on the Billboard 200 knocking Bruce Springsteen's Born in the U. S. A. from the number one spot. Released at the end of June 1984, the album featured the singles "When Doves Cry", "Let's Go Crazy", "Purple Rain", "I Would Die 4 U", "Take Me with U". All the singles had accompanying music videos and all charted on the Billboard Hot 100, but the first four peaked within the top 10 while "When Doves Cry" and "Let's Go Crazy" topped the chart.
"When Doves Cry" would become the most successful single from Purple Rain at the time of its release on the pop charts, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100 as well as the Dance and R&B chart. The song "Purple Rain" won two Grammy Awards for Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal and Best Instrumental Composition Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television; the album spent 24 weeks at number one and would be certified thirteen times platinum in the United States, six times platinum in Canada and two times platinum in the United Kingdom. Purple Rain would become the first officia