Manifest destiny

Manifest destiny was a held belief in the 19th-century in United States that its settlers were destined to expand across North America. There are three basic themes to manifest destiny: The special virtues of the American people and their institutions The mission of the United States to redeem and remake the west in the image of agrarian America An irresistible destiny to accomplish this essential dutyHistorian Frederick Merk says this concept was born out of "a sense of mission to redeem the Old World by high example... generated by the potentialities of a new earth for building a new heaven". Historians have emphasized that "manifest destiny" was a contested concept—Democrats endorsed the idea but many prominent Americans rejected it. Historian Daniel Walker Howe writes, "American imperialism did not represent an American consensus. Whigs saw America's moral mission as one of democratic example rather than one of conquest."Newspaper editor John O'Sullivan is credited with coining the term manifest destiny in 1845 to describe the essence of this mindset, a rhetorical tone.

The term was used by Democrats in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico and it was used to divide half of Oregon with Great Britain. However, manifest destiny always limped along because of its internal limitations and the issue of slavery, says Merk, it never became a national priority. By 1843, former U. S. President John Quincy Adams a major supporter of the concept underlying manifest destiny, had changed his mind and repudiated expansionism because it meant the expansion of slavery in Texas. Merk concluded: From the outset Manifest Destiny—vast in program, in its sense of continentalism—was slight in support, it lacked national, sectional, or party following commensurate with its magnitude. The reason was; the thesis that it embodied nationalism, found in much historical writing, is backed by little real supporting evidence. There was never a set of principles defining manifest destiny, therefore it was always a general idea rather than a specific policy made with a motto. Ill-defined but keenly felt, manifest destiny was an expression of conviction in the morality and value of expansionism that complemented other popular ideas of the era, including American exceptionalism and Romantic nationalism.

Andrew Jackson, who spoke of "extending the area of freedom", typified the conflation of America's potential greatness, the nation's budding sense of Romantic self-identity, its expansion. Yet Jackson would not be the only president to elaborate on the principles underlying manifest destiny. Owing in part to the lack of a definitive narrative outlining its rationale, proponents offered divergent or conflicting viewpoints. While many writers focused upon American expansionism, be it into Mexico or across the Pacific, others saw the term as a call to example. Without an agreed upon interpretation, much less an elaborated political philosophy, these conflicting views of America's destiny were never resolved; this variety of possible meanings was summed up by Ernest Lee Tuveson: "A vast complex of ideas and actions is comprehended under the phrase "Manifest Destiny". They are not, as we should expect, all compatible, nor do they come from any one source." Journalist John L. O'Sullivan was an advocate for Jacksonian democracy and a complex character, described by Julian Hawthorne as "always full of grand and world-embracing schemes".

O'Sullivan wrote an article in 1839 that, while not using the term "manifest destiny", did predict a "divine destiny" for the United States based upon values such as equality, rights of conscience, personal enfranchisement "to establish on earth the moral dignity and salvation of man". This destiny was not explicitly territorial, but O'Sullivan predicted that the United States would be one of a "Union of many Republics" sharing those values. Six years in 1845, O'Sullivan wrote another essay titled Annexation in the Democratic Review, in which he first used the phrase manifest destiny. In this article he urged the U. S. to annex the Republic of Texas, not only because Texas desired this, but because it was "our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions". Overcoming Whig opposition, Democrats annexed Texas in 1845. O'Sullivan's first usage of the phrase "manifest destiny" attracted little attention. O'Sullivan's second use of the phrase became influential.

On December 27, 1845, in his newspaper the New York Morning News, O'Sullivan addressed the ongoing boundary dispute with Britain. O'Sullivan argued that the United States had the right to claim "the whole of Oregon": And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us; that is, O'Sullivan believed that Providence had given the United States a mission to spread republican democracy. Because Britain would not spread democracy, thought O'Sullivan, British claims to the territory should be overruled. O'Sullivan believed. O'Sullivan's original conception of manifest destiny was not a call for territorial expansion by force, he believed that the expansion of the United States would happen without the direction of the U. S. government or the involvement o

Alireza Shir Mohammad Ali

Alireza Shir Mohammad Ali was an Iranian political prisoner at the Greater Tehran Central Penitentiary Ali was killed while in prison by prisoners that were housed in general population on June 10, 2019. Shir Mohammad Ali was arrested after massive anti-government protests in 2018, he was subsequently sentenced to eight years in prison on charges of “blasphemy, insulting the former and current leader, propaganda against the regime”. In March 2018, he went on a month-long hunger strike with another prisoner, Barzan Mohammadi, in protest for terrible conditions and heavy restrictions at the Tehran Central Penitentiary. On June 10, 2019, Shir Mohammad Ali was “attacked by two prisoners from the general population and stabbed in the neck and stomach and died before arriving at the hospital.” Human Rights Watch called for an urgent investigation by Iran's judicial authorities to determine whether the role of a lack of oversight or neglect by Fashafiyeh Prison authorities contributed to the murder of Shir Mohammad Ali.

On 13 June 2019, Amnesty International responded to the murder of Shir Mohammad Ali, a prisoner of conscience, called on Iranian authorities to identify any state failings that contributed to his death and to remedy them. Human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran Greater Tehran Central Penitentiary

Papyrus Vindobonensis Greek 39777

The Papyrus Vindobonensis Graecus 39777 signed as SymP. Vindob. G.39777 – is a fragment of a Greek manuscript of the Psalms of the translation of Symmachus. It was written in papyrus in a scroll form; the papyrus contains fragments of Psalm 69 and Psalm 81. The P. Vindob. G. 39777 is dated to beginning fourth century. It was published by the Dr. Carl Wessely in his work Studien zur Palaeographie und Papyruskunde, Vol. XI. Leipzig, 1911, pag. 171. The papyrus contains the tetragrammaton written with Hebrew characters in the following places: Ps 69,13.30.31. The traduction of Symmachs was a part of the Hexapla and Tetrapli, the work contains the translations of the Hebrew to Greek Bible, it was written by Origen. According to Bruce M. Metzger the Greek translation of Hebrew Bible prepared by Symmachus was realiced with a different method that the translation of Aquila, because his intention was not a literal translation, rather an elegant message from the Hebrew to Greek text; the Papyrus Vindobonensis Graecus 39777 is kept at Austrian National Library at Vienna as.

Picture of the Papyrus P. Vindob. G.39777 with the Tetragrammaton selected "Why Have We Produced the New World Translation?". Retrieved 2017-01-31. Picture of the Papyrus P. Vindob. G.39777