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Manna

Manna, sometimes or archaically spelled mana is, according to the Bible, an edible substance which God provided for the Israelites during their travels in the desert during the 40-year period following the Exodus and prior to the conquest of Canaan. It is mentioned in the Quran three times. In the Hebrew Bible, manna is described twice: once in Exodus 16:1–36 with the full narrative surrounding it, once again in Numbers 11:1–9 as a part of a separate narrative. In the description in the Book of Exodus, manna is described as being "a fine, flake-like thing" like the frost on the ground, it is described in the Book of Numbers as arriving with the dew during the night. Exodus adds that manna was comparable to hoarfrost in color, had to be collected before it was melted by the heat of the sun, was like a coriander seed in size but white in color. Numbers describes it as having the appearance of bdellium, adding that the Israelites ground it and pounded it into cakes, which were baked, resulting in something that tasted like cakes baked with oil.

Exodus states that raw manna tasted like wafers, made with honey. The Israelites were instructed to eat only the manna. Stored manna "bred worms and stank": the exception being that stored the day before the Sabbath, when twice the amount of manna was gathered; this manna did not spoil overnight. Exodus 16:23–24 states:This is what the Lord commanded: "Tomorrow is to be a day of rest, a holy Sabbath to the Lord. So bake what you want to bake and boil what you want to boil. Save whatever is left and keep it until morning." So they saved it until morning, as Moses commanded, it did not stink or get maggots in it. In the Bread of Life Discourse in John's Gospel, the evangelist refers three times to the manna which the Jews' ancestors ate in the desert: the Jews refer to the manna given to them by Moses as a sign of God's promised covenant, Jesus asserts that the manna was from God and not from Moses, that the people who ate it were nourished on their journey but died. In contrast, according to the gospel, Jesus offered living bread, whoever ate this bread would never die.

The word mana appears three times in the Qurʾān, in Quran 2:57, 7:160 and 20:80. It is narrated in the hadith collection Sahih Muslim that the Prophet Muhammad said "Truffles are part of the'manna' which Allah sent to the people of Israel through Moses, its juice is a medicine for the eye." Some scholars have proposed that manna is cognate with the Egyptian term mennu, which designated a substance that figured in offerings. At the turn of the twentieth century, Arabs of the Sinai Peninsula were selling resin from the tamarisk tree as man es-simma meaning "heavenly manna". Tamarisk trees were once comparatively extensive throughout the southern Sinai, their resin is similar to wax, melts in the sun, is sweet and aromatic, has a dirty-yellow color, fitting somewhat with the biblical descriptions of manna. However, this resin is composed of sugar, so it would be unlikely to provide sufficient nutrition for a population to survive over long periods of time, it would be difficult for it to have been compacted into cakes.

Other researchers have believed manna to be a form of lichen – a plant colony that has a low mass per unit volume density and a large "sail area". In particular, Lecanora esculenta has been postulated. Known natural aerial falls of various lichens have been described as occurring in accounts separate from that in the Bible. "In some parts of Asia Lecanora esculenta covers the soil to such a degree that, according to Parrot, it forms beds 15 to 20 centimetres thick." In the biblical account, the name manna is said to derive from the question man hu meaning "What is it?". Man is cognate with the Arabic term man, meaning plant lice, with man hu thus meaning "this is plant lice", which fits one widespread modern identification of manna, the crystallized honeydew of certain scale insects. In the environment of a desert, such honeydew dries due to evaporation of its water content, becoming a sticky solid, turning whitish, yellowish, or brownish. In particular, there is a scale insect that feeds on tamarisk, the Tamarisk manna scale, considered to be the prime candidate for biblical manna.

Another type is turkey oak manna called Persian gezengevi- gezo, Turkish Kudret helvasi, man-es-simma Diarbekir manna, or Kurdish manna. It appears white, it was common in northern Iraq and eastern Turkey. When dried it forms into crystalline lumps which look like stone, they are pounded before inclusion in breads. Some form critics posit conflicting descriptions of manna as derived from different lore, with the description in Numbers being from the Jahwist tradition, the description in Exodus being from the Priestly tradition; the Babylonian Talmud states that the differences in description were due to the taste varying depending on who ate it, with it tasting like honey for small children, like bread for youths, like oil for the elderly. Classical rabbinical literature rectifies the question of whether manna came before or after dew, by holding that the manna was sandwiched between two layers of dew, one falling before the manna, the other after. Manna is from Heaven, according to the Hebrew Bible and to Jesus in the New Testament, but the various identifications of manna are naturalistic.

In the Mishnah, m

2005 NCAA Division I Softball Tournament

The 2005 NCAA Division I Softball Tournament was the twenty-fourth annual tournament to determine the national champion of NCAA women's collegiate softball. Held during May and June 2005, sixty-four Division I college softball teams contested the championship; the tournament featured eight regionals of each in a double elimination format. The 2005 Women's College World Series was held in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma from June 2 through June 8 and marked the conclusion of the 2005 NCAA Division I softball season. Michigan won their first championship by defeating UCLA two games to one in the championship series. Michigan first baseman Samantha Findlay was named Women's College World Series Most Outstanding Player; the following players were members of the All-Tournament Team. Monica Abbott, P, Tennessee Stephanie Bercaw, RF, Michigan Tonya Callahan, 1B, Tennessee Katherine Card, LF, Tennessee Krista Colburn, RF, UCLA Samantha Findlay, 1B, Michigan Jodie Legaspi, SS, UCLA Jessica Merchant, SS, Michigan Cat Osterman, P, Texas Jennie Ritter, P, Michigan Anjelica Selden, P, UCLA Emily Zaplatosch, C, UCLA

Françoise Dior

Marie Françoise Suzanne Dior, best known as Françoise Dior, was a French socialite and post-war Nazi underground financier. She was a close friend of Savitri Devi and niece of French fashion designer Christian Dior and Catherine Dior. Born in Paris, Dior was the only child of Raymond Dior, a Communist International sympathizer who embraced radicalism and subversive ideas, he was a proponent of the' 200 families' theory. Being an heir to the Dior Frères fertilizer fortune, he married the former Madeleine Leblanc. Raymond was the brother of Christian Dior. Françoise grew up in France during the Nazi occupation, a historian has stated "one of sweetest memories was the compliment of an SS-man,'What a beautiful little Aryan girl.'" Dior resided back and forth between France and England for a period of time in the 1960s, where she financed Nazi movements and became romantically involved with their leadership. The former countess traveled to London, in the summer of 1962, after reading about the National Socialist Movement's rallies.

She was able to bring on former Waffen SS officers as leaders in 1963. Thereafter she became intimately involved with British Nazis and supported their front activities in the country. During the 1980s, British fascist Martin Webster made two visits to Paris, she gave him some money to help fund the short-lived Our Nation group that he had founded following his expulsion from the British National Front. After leaving England and arriving in France in 1966, she was imprisoned in Nice for four months over an old case of posting swastika labels on the walls of the British embassy. Dior returned to Britain on a brief visit in April 1967 but was arrested and sent to Holloway prison, charged with the crime of arson against London synagogues in 1965. On her release in 1969, Dior left Britain permanently. Dior was a royalist marrying noble claimants to some of France's oldest houses. In 1985, she was photographed attending an evening at the residence of Comte Jacques de Ricaumont, in 1992 with Henri d'Orleans, Count of Paris, at his Gallery Apomixie exhibition.

Dior married Robert-Henri Aynard François Nompar, Comte de Caumont La Force, on 26 April 1955. He was a grandson of Aynard Guigues de Moreton de Chabrillan, 10th Marquis de Chabrillan, a Grimaldi descendant who unsuccessfully sought the throne of Monaco after the 1949 death of Louis II, his parents were Comte La Force and Anne Marie Guigues de Moreton de Chabrillan. They had Anne-Marie Christiane de Caumont La Force; the Caumonts divorced in 1960. Dior became engaged to party member John Tyndall, imprisoned along with other members of the National Socialist party for paramilitary activities. After Tyndall's arrest, she instead married another party leader, Colin Jordan, released before Tyndall; this act played the central role in the lifelong split between the two allies in 1964. After a civil ceremony in Coventry, where demonstrators hurled rotten eggs and apples at the couple as they gave the Nazi salute—Dior and Jordan had a second wedding on 5 October 1963 at 74 Princedale Road, London W11, the former home of Arnold Leese.

The photographs and newsreel footage of the ceremony, illustrating them mingling blood from cuts to their ring fingers over a copy of Mein Kampf, were published widely. Dior stated, "All I want is little Nazi children." A month after their honeymoon, Dior-Jordan returned to France, having "separated over a few ideological differences. She was disillusioned by her husband's leadership qualities" and dismissed him "as'a middle-class nobody'". In March 1966, Dior-Jordan separated from her husband, eloping to Paris with her 19-year-old secretary, Terence Robert Cooper; the couple's relationship ended in 1980 after having lived in Normandy together for a period. Dior joined the Rally for the Republic in 1983, where she met writer and former diplomat, Comte Hubert de Mirleau, he was a member of one of France's oldest noble houses. Françoise Dior-de Mirleau died on 20 January 1993 in the American Hospital, Neuilly-sur Seine, of lung cancer, aged 60. Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas. Hitler’s Priestess: Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth, Neo-Nazism.

New York University Press, 1998. ISBN 0814731112. ISBN 0814731104. Walker, Martin; the National Front. London: Fontana Books, 1977. ISBN 0006348246. Cooper, Terry. Death by Dior: Françoise Dior. London: Dynasty Press. ISBN 978-0956803863. Francoise Dior Neo-Nazi Footage: Designer's Niece Says Hitler Is Her Hero, Huffington Post

Sancha, heiress of León

Sancha of León was the eldest child and daughter of Alfonso IX of León by his first wife, Theresa of Portugal. She was raised at the court of their father, but her younger sister Dulce and her brother Ferdinand were raised with their mother in Portugal after the annulment of their parents' marriage in 1195. Although in Castile it was customary for females to inherit, Sancha's stepmother became queen of Castile, in León female succession was barred, although her ancestor Urraca had been the first queen regnant of Western Europe. After the death of Sancha's brother, Alfonso IX named his second son Ferdinand, his heir, bestowing on him the title infante. In 1217, with the support of the aristocracy, Alfonso granted his daughters Sancha and Dulce the villages of Portela de San Juan, Burgo de Ribadavia and Allariz, to be ruled by them until their deaths, after which they would revert to the Crown. In that same year, Ferdinand's mother, inherited the Kingdom of Castile, but ceded it to her son, proclaimed king at Valladolid on 2 July.

With his heir out of the kingdom and ruling in another place, Alfonso attempted to make his eldest daughters his joint heirs. In the Treaty of Boronal concluded with Portugal in 1219, Alfonso expressly states that if he should die, Portugal should respect the agreement with his daughters. Alfonso attempted to secure his eldest daughter's rights by marrying her to John of Brienne, the former King of Jerusalem, but his wife Berengaria blocked this action in order to advance her son. In the spring of 1224, John was on the Way of Saint James, passing through Alfonso's kingdom, when he decided to stop in Toledo in order to see his prospective bride. There the queen convinced him instead to marry her daughter, on his return trip, at Burgos, he did, his wife and he being accompanied as far as Logroño by the king and former queen of Castile. After this fiasco, Alfonso declared Sancha and Dulce his heirs, but upon his death on 24 September 1230, the people of León, who had pledged for Ferdinand in 1206, refused to recognise his daughters, they in turn ceded their rights to his kingdom to their half-brother.

She was 38 years old at the time. This agreement, negotiated at Valencia de Don Juan by Berengaria and Theresa, with Sancha and Dulce present, is known as the "pact of the mothers"; the treaty was signed Benavente and in compensation Ferdinand promised a yearly stipend of 30,000 maravedíes to each of his half-sisters and the lordship of certain castles. Janna Bianchini. 2015. "Foreigners and Foes in the Leonese Succession Crisis of 1230". James Todesca, ed; the Emergence of León-Castile, c.1065–1500: Essays Presented to J. F. O'Callaghan. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 47–68. Ramón Bustamante y Quijano. 1948. Romance de Doña Sancha. Madrid. H. Salvador Martínez. 2010. Alfonso X, the Learned: A Biography. Brill. María Damián Yáñez Neira. 1982. "La princesa Doña Sancha, hija primogénita de Alfonso IX". Tierras de León, 22:47–60

Kalypso Media

The Kalypso Media Group is a German developer and publisher of video games with 100 employees at seven locations throughout Germany and the United States. The group includes: Kalypso Media Group GmbH in Worms, DE, Kalypso Media UK Ltd. in Bracknell UK, Kalypso Media USA Inc. in Ridgewood, USA, Kalypso Media Digital Ltd. in Leicester, UK, as well as the 2015-founded Kalypso Media Mobile in Hamburg, DE. The company has two in-house development studios: Gaming Minds Studios; the products of the Kalypso Media Group include the Tropico, Sudden Strike and Railway Empire series as well as many more. The Kalypso Media Group was founded in the summer of 2006 by Simon Hellwig and Stefan Marcinek in Worms. Just one year a branch was opened in Bracknell, UK, in June 2009, another in Ridgewood, USA. 2009, the group opened its second UK outlet in the form of Kalypso Media Digital Ltd. in Leicester. Kalypso Media Digital Ltd. is responsible for the online marketing of its own games and the products of other providers.

The Kalypso Media Group maintains several of its own development studios. In November 2008, it founded the subsidiary Realmforge Studios GmbH, based in Munich, integrated Boxed Dreams, developer of Ceville. After the well known video game developer Ascaron filed for bankruptcy in June 2009, Gaming Minds Studios GmbH was incorporated by the Kalypso Media Group, added 15 former Ascaron employees to the studio’s roster. Kalypso Media Group acquired the rights to many of Ascaron's games, handed these development duties to Gaming Minds Studios. In July 2010, Berlin manufacturer The Games Company filed for bankruptcy and in September, Kalypso Media Group took over, acquiring several brands owned by the insolvent company. Following this, Kalypso Media Group took on 17 employees of The Games Company and its studio Silver Style Entertainment, moving operations to a newly founded Berlin outlet, Noumena Studios. In 2014, Noumena Studios was renamed Skilltree Studios and in 2016, it closed its doors. From March 2013 to August 2014, the Kalypso Media Group released its own intermittent podcast called the KalypsoCast.

From November 2013 and the podcast’s eleventh edition, an accompanying video version was uploaded to Youtube. Regular guests on the KalypsoCast included former Kalypso Media Group CEO Stefan Marcinek, PR manager Bernd Berheide, producers and product managers Christian Schlütter, Timo Thomas and Dennis Blumenthal. In April 2014, Kalypso Media Mobile GmbH was founded in Berlin; the studio’s first mobile and tablet games were released a year in May, 2015. In January 2016, Stefan Marcinek sold his shares in the Kalypso Media Group and left the company, leaving Simon Hellwig as sole shareholder. Since July 2018, all rights to the titles of Pyro Studios have been added to the Kalypso Media Group’s portfolio. Official website

Qinghe railway station

Qinghe railway station is a railway station in Beijing. The old station began its construction in 1905 and opened in 1906; the station closed on October 31, 2016 to be rebuilt into a new high-speed railway station on the Beijing-Baotou Passenger-Dedicated Line opened on December 30, 2019. The new station occupies an area of 146,000 m2, the waiting hall is near 23,000 m2, it has four island platforms and eight railway lines, including two main lines. The station together with Beijing North railway station is the terminal of Beijing–Zhangjiakou intercity railway, the vital supporting infrastucture of 2022 Winter Olympics. AREP collaborated with China Railway Engineering Consulting Group designed this station in 2016; the overall design philosophy is to blend the ancient and the modern, the sea refuses no rivers. The curved roof and overhang eave represent the ancient style; the angled bents supporting frame and the simple and powerful geometric shape are full of modern technology. Many cultural elements are used in the station.

On the roof, seven west-to-east sloping ridges are like seven ski runs. Equipment rooms in the waiting hall are decorated with mural and relievo reflecting the geographical and cultural features of Beijing; the station has three overground and two underground. B2 floor is the subway platform floor for Line 19 branch line. B1 floor is the transfer floor, on which are the railway exit and underground railway entrance, railway integrated service center, railway automatic ticketing area, the Suburban Railway entrance and exit, the subway hall, parking area, passageway to East and West Plaza; as a feature of this station, the security checks of different transportations are mutual recognized. Passengers do not need to take repetitive security checks when transfer among subway and suburban railway. F1 is the railway platform floor with west plazas. East Plaza links to Anningzhuang 2nd West Tiao north public transportation hubs. West Plaza has railway entrance, railway automatic ticketing area, west PTH, taxi stand, links to Shangdi East Road.

F2 is the railway waiting hall floor with south elevated drop-off platforms. In the waiting hall, there are check-in gate, 12306 service center, four characteristic waiting areas. On the north drop-off platform, there are drop-off area, railway entrance, railway integarated service center, railway automatic ticketing area, business waiting room, links to Anningzhuang North Road. On the south drop-off platform, there are drop-off area, railway entrance, railway integarated service center, railway automatic ticketing area, business waiting room, links to G7. F3 is the shopping floor; some specialties shops and restaurants are on F3. An infill station on Line 13 of Beijing Subway opened on December 30, 2019; the station for Line 13 is at-grade. The southern extension of Changping line of Beijing Subway will stop at this station, which will be opened in 2021; the station for Changping line is underground. In long-term planning, the branch line of the north extension of Line 19 will stop there as well.

The station for Line 19 is underground. As the subway station Qinghe is named after the homonym railway station without including "railway station" in its proper name, as the railway naming prefer upper-level administrative divisions, Qinghe is closer to Shangdi station while the Shangdi Information Industry Park is closer to Qinghe station. Qinghe Subdistrict, Beijing Beijing North railway station