World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Giorgio de Chirico
Giorgio de Chirico was an Italian artist and writer born in Greece. In the years before World War I, he founded the scuola metafisica art movement, which profoundly influenced the surrealists, his most well-known works feature Roman arcades, long shadows, mannequins and illogical perspective. His imagery reflects his affinity for the philosophy of Nietzsche and for the mythology of his birthplace. After 1919, he became a critic of modern art, studied traditional painting techniques, worked in a neoclassical or neo-Baroque style, while revisiting the metaphysical themes of his earlier work. De Chirico was born in Greece, as the eldest son of Gemma Cervetto and Evaristo de Chirico, his mother was his father a Sicilian barone from a family of remote Greek origin. De Chirico's family was in Greece at the time of his birth because his father, was in charge of the construction of a railroad. Beginning in 1900, de Chirico studied drawing and painting at Athens Polytechnic—mainly under the guidance of the Greek painters Georgios Roilos and Georgios Jakobides.
After Evaristo de Chirico's death in 1905, the family relocated in 1906 to Germany, after first visiting Florence. De Chirico entered the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, where he studied under Gabriel von Hackl and Carl von Marr and read the writings of the philosophers Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer and Otto Weininger. There, he studied the works of Arnold Böcklin and Max Klinger; the style of his earliest paintings, such as The Dying Centaur, shows the influence of Böcklin. He spent six months in Milan. By 1910, he was beginning to paint in a simpler style of anonymous surfaces. At the beginning of 1910, he moved to Florence where he painted the first of his'Metaphysical Town Square' series, The Enigma of an Autumn Afternoon, after the revelation he felt in Piazza Santa Croce, he painted The Enigma of the Oracle while in Florence. In July 1911 he spent a few days in Turin on his way to Paris. De Chirico was profoundly moved by what he called the'metaphysical aspect' of Turin the architecture of its archways and piazzas.
The paintings de Chirico produced between 1909 and 1919, his metaphysical period, are characterized by haunted, brooding moods evoked by their images. At the start of this period, his subjects were motionless cityscapes inspired by the bright daylight of Mediterranean cities, but he turned his attention to studies of cluttered storerooms, sometimes inhabited by mannequin-like hybrid figures. De Chirico's conception of Metaphysical art was influenced by his reading of Nietzsche, whose style of writing fascinated de Chirico with its suggestions of unseen auguries beneath the appearance of things. De Chirico found inspiration in the unexpected sensations that familiar places or things sometimes produced in him: In a manuscript of 1909 he wrote of the "host of strange and solitary things that can be translated into painting... What is required above all is a pronounced sensitivity." Metaphysical art combined everyday reality with mythology, evoked inexplicable moods of nostalgia, tense expectation, estrangement.
The picture space featured illogical and drastically receding perspectives. Among de Chirico's most frequent motifs were arcades, of which he wrote: "The Roman arcade is fate... its voice speaks in riddles which are filled with a peculiarly Roman poetry". De Chirico moved to Paris in July 1911. Through his brother he met Pierre Laprade, a member of the jury at the Salon d'Automne, where he exhibited three of his works: Enigma of the Oracle, Enigma of an Afternoon and Self-Portrait. During 1913 he exhibited paintings at the Salon des Indépendants and Salon d’Automne, his time in Paris resulted in the production of Chirico's Ariadne. In 1914, through Apollinaire, he met the art dealer Paul Guillaume, with whom he signed a contract for his artistic output. At the outbreak of World War I, he returned to Italy. Upon his arrival in May 1915, he enlisted in the army, but he was considered unfit for work and assigned to the hospital at Ferrara; the shop windows of that town inspired a series of paintings that feature biscuits and geometric constructions in indoor settings.
In Ferrara he met with Carlo Carrà and together they founded the pittura metafisica movement. He continued to paint, in 1918, he transferred to Rome. Starting from 1918, his work was exhibited extensively in Europe. In November 1919, de Chirico published an article in Valori plastici entitled "The Return of Craftsmanship", in which he advocated a return to traditional methods and iconography; this article heralded an abrupt change in his artistic orientation, as he adopted a classicizing manner inspired by such old masters as Raphael and Signorelli, became part of the post-war return to order in the arts. He became an outspoken opponent of modern art. In the early 1920s, the Surrealist writer André Breton discovered one of de Chirico's metaphysical paintings on display in Guillaume's Paris gallery, was enthralled. Numerous young artists who were affected by de Chirico's imagery became the core of the Paris Surrealist group centered around Breton. In 1924 de Chirico visited Paris and was accepted into the group, although the surrealists were critical of his post-metaphysical work.
De Chirico met and married his first wife, the Russian ball
A doll is a model of a human being used as a toy for girls. Dolls have traditionally been used in magic and religious rituals throughout the world, traditional dolls made of materials such as clay and wood are found in the Americas, Asia and Europe; the earliest documented dolls go back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Rome. They have been made as rudimentary playthings as well as elaborate art. Modern doll manufacturing has its roots from the 15th century. With industrialization and new materials such as porcelain and plastic, dolls were mass-produced. During the 20th century, dolls became popular as collectibles; the earliest dolls were made from available materials such as clay, wood, ivory, leather, or wax. Archaeological evidence places dolls as the foremost candidate for the oldest known toy. Wooden paddle dolls have been found in Egyptian tombs dating to as early as the 21st century BC. Dolls with movable limbs and removable clothing date back to at least 200 BC. Archaeologists have discovered Greek dolls articulated at the hips and shoulders.
Rag dolls and stuffed animals were also popular, but no known examples of these have survived to the present day. Stories from ancient Greece around 100 AD show. In ancient Rome, dolls were made of wood or ivory. Dolls have been found in the graves of Roman children. Like children today, the younger members of Roman civilization would have dressed their dolls according to the latest fashions. In Greece and Rome, it was customary for boys to dedicate their toys to the gods when they reached puberty and for girls to dedicate their toys to the goddesses when they married. Rag dolls are traditionally home-made from spare scraps of cloth material. Roman rag dolls have been found dating back to 300 BC. Traditional dolls are sometimes used as children's playthings, but they may have spiritual and ritual value. There is no defined line between spiritual toys. In some cultures dolls, used in rituals were given to children, they were used in children's education and as carriers of cultural heritage. In other cultures dolls were considered too laden with magical powers to allow children to play with them.
African dolls are used to entertain. Their shape and costume vary according to custom. Dolls are handed down from mother to daughter. Akuaba are wooden ritual fertility dolls from nearby areas; the best known akuaba are those of the Ashanti people, whose akuaba have disc-like heads. Other tribes in the region have their own distinctive style of akuaba. There is a rich history of Japanese dolls dating back to the Dogū figures and Haniwa funerary figures. By the eleventh century, dolls were used as playthings as well as for protection and in religious ceremonies. During Hinamatsuri, the doll festival, hina dolls are displayed; these are made of straw and wood and dressed in elaborate, many-layered textiles. Daruma dolls are white faces without pupils, they represent Bodhidharma, the East Indian who founded Zen, are used as good luck charms. Wooden Kokeshi dolls have no arms or legs, but a large head and cylindrical body, representing little girls; the use of an effigy to perform a spell on someone is documented in African, Native American, European cultures.
Examples of such magical devices include the European poppet and the nkisi or bocio of West and Central Africa. In European folk magic and witchcraft, poppet dolls are used to represent a person for casting spells on that person; the intention is that whatever actions are performed upon the effigy will be transferred to the subject through sympathetic magic. The practice of sticking pins in voodoo dolls have been associated with African-American Hoodoo folk magic. Voodoo dolls are not a feature of Haitian Vodou religion, but have been portrayed as such in popular culture, stereotypical voodoo dolls are sold to tourists in Haiti; the voodoo doll concept in popular culture is influenced by the European poppet dolls. A kitchen witch is a poppet originating in Northern Europe, it resembles a stereotypical witch or crone and is displayed in residential kitchens as a means to provide good luck and ward off bad spirits. Hopi Kachina dolls are effigies made of cottonwood that embody the characteristics of the ceremonial Kachina, the masked spirits of the Hopi Native American tribe.
Kachina dolls are objects meant to be treasured and studied in order to learn the characteristics of each Kachina. Inuit dolls are made out of soapstone and bone, materials common to the Inuit people. Many are clothed with animal skin, their clothing articulates the traditional style of dress necessary to survive cold winters and snow. The tea dolls of the Innu people were filled with tea for young girls to carry on long journeys. Apple dolls are traditional North American dolls with a head made from dried apples. In Inca mythology, Sara Mama was the goddess of grain, she was associated with maize that grew in multiples or was strange. These strange plants were sometimes dressed as dolls of Sara Mama. Corn husk dolls are traditional Native American dolls made out of the dried leaves or husk of a corncob. Traditionally, they do not have a face; the making of corn husk dolls was adopted by early European settlers in the United States. Early settlers made rag dolls and carved wooden dolls, called Pennywoods.
La última muñeca, or "the last doll", is a tradition of the Quinceañera, the celebration of a girl's fifteenth birthday in parts of Latin America. During this ritu
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration. Air is breathed in through the mouth. In the nasal cavity, a layer of mucous membrane acts as a filter and traps pollutants and other harmful substances found in the air. Next, air moves into the pharynx, a passage that contains the intersection between the esophagus and the larynx; the opening of the larynx has a special flap of cartilage, the epiglottis, that opens to allow air to pass through but closes to prevent food from moving into the airway. From the larynx, air moves into the trachea and down to the intersection that branches to form the right and left primary bronchi; each of these bronchi branch into secondary bronchi that branch into tertiary bronchi that branch into smaller airways called bronchioles that connect with tiny specialized structures called alveoli that function in gas exchange. The lungs which are located in the thoracic cavity, are protected from physical damage by the rib cage.
At the base of the lungs is a sheet of skeletal muscle called the diaphragm. The diaphragm separates the lungs from intestines; the diaphragm is the main muscle of respiration involved in breathing, is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. The lungs are encased in a serous membrane that folds in on itself to form the pleurae – a two-layered protective barrier; the inner visceral pleura covers the surface of the lungs, the outer parietal pleura is attached to the inner surface of the thoracic cavity. The pleurae enclose; this fluid is used to decrease the amount of friction. The respiratory tract is divided into lower airways; the upper airways or upper respiratory tract includes the nose and nasal passages, paranasal sinuses, the pharynx, the portion of the larynx above the vocal folds. The lower airways or lower respiratory tract includes the portion of the larynx below the vocal folds, trachea and bronchioles; the lungs can be included in the lower respiratory tract or as separate entity and include the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli.
The respiratory tract can be divided into a conducting zone and a respiratory zone, based on the distinction of transporting gases or exchanging them. The conducting zone includes structures outside of the lungs – the nose, pharynx and trachea, structures inside the lungs – the bronchi and terminal bronchioles; the conduction zone conducts air breathed in, filtered and moistened, into the lungs. It represents the 1st through the 16th division of the respiratory tract; the conducting zone is most of the respiratory tract that conducts gases into and out of the lungs, but excludes the respiratory zone that exchanges gases. The conducting zone functions to offer a low resistance pathway for airflow, it provides a major defense role in its filtering abilities. The respiratory zone includes the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli, is the site of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange with the blood; the respiratory bronchioles and the alveolar ducts are responsible for 10% of the gas exchange.
The alveoli are responsible for the other 90%. The respiratory zone represents the 16th through the 23rd division of the respiratory tract. From the bronchi, the dividing tubes become progressively smaller with an estimated 20 to 23 divisions before ending at an alveolus; the upper respiratory tract, can refer to the parts of the respiratory system lying above the sternal angle, above the vocal folds, or above the cricoid cartilage. The larynx is sometimes included in both lower airways; the larynx is called the voice box and has the associated cartilage that produces sound. The tract consists of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, the pharynx and sometimes includes the larynx; the lower respiratory tract or lower airway is derived from the developing foregut and consists of the trachea, bronchi and lungs. It sometimes includes the larynx; the lower respiratory tract is called the respiratory tree or tracheobronchial tree, to describe the branching structure of airways supplying air to the lungs, includes the trachea and bronchioles.
Trachea main bronchus lobar bronchus segmental bronchus subsegmental bronchus conducting bronchiole terminal bronchiole respiratory bronchiole alveolar duct alveolar sac alveolusAt each division point or generation, one airway branches into two or more smaller airways. The human respiratory tree may consist on average of 23 generations, while the respiratory tree of the mouse has up to 13 generations. Proximal divisions function to transmit air to the lower airways. Divisions including the respiratory bronchiole, alveolar ducts and alveoli, are specialized for gas exchange; the trachea is the largest tube in the respiratory tract and consists of tracheal rings of hyaline cartilage. It branches off into a left and a right main bronchus; the bronchi branch off into smaller sections inside the lungs, called bronchioles. These bronchioles give rise to the air sacs in the lungs called the alveoli; the lungs are the largest organs in the lower respiratory tract. The lungs are suspended within the pleural cavity of the thorax.
The pleurae are two thin membranes, one
Kim Victoria Cattrall is an English-Canadian actress. She is best known for her role as Samantha Jones on HBO's Sex and the City, for which she received five Emmy Award nominations and four Golden Globe Award nominations, winning the 2002 Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actress, she reprised the role in the films Sex and the City and Sex and the City 2. Cattrall went on to appear in various television roles, she came to prominence in the 1980s with films such as Ticket to Heaven, Police Academy, City Limits, Big Trouble in Little China, Masquerade, Midnight Crossing, The Return of the Musketeers. She worked on several occasions with director Bob Clark, appearing in four of his films: Tribute, Porky's, Turk 182, Baby Geniuses, her other film credits include The Bonfire of the Vanities, Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, Split Second, Above Suspicion, 15 Minutes, Ice Princess, My Boy Jack, The Ghost Writer, Meet Monica Velour. On stage, Cattrall appeared in the 1986 Broadway production of Michael Frayn's Wild Honey.
Her other stage credits include August Strindberg's Miss Julie, Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra, Noël Coward's Private Lives, Tennessee Williams' Sweet Bird of Youth. From 2014 to 2016, Cattrall starred and served as executive producer on the HBO Canada series Sensitive Skin, for which she received a nomination for the Canadian Screen Award for Best Actress in a Comedy Series, she stars on the web television series Tell Me a Story. Cattrall was born in Liverpool, her mother, Gladys Shane, was a secretary, her father, Dennis Cattrall, was a construction engineer. When she was three months old, her family emigrated to Canada, settling in the city of Courtenay on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. At age 11, she returned to England, she took acting examinations at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art but returned to Canada after a year, at age 16 she moved to New York City for her first acting role. Cattrall began her career after graduating from Georges P. Vanier Secondary School in 1972, when she left Canada for New York City.
There, she attended the American Academy of Dramatic Arts, upon her graduation signed a five-year film deal with director Otto Preminger. She made her film debut in Preminger's action thriller Rosebud. A year Universal Studios bought out that contract and Cattrall became one of the last participants in the contract player system of Universal before the system ended in 1980; the Universal system's representative in New York, Eleanor Kilgallen, cast Cattrall in numerous television guest-star roles. One of the first jobs Kilgallen got her was in a 1977 episode of Quincy, M. E. starring Jack Klugman, whom Kilgallen represented. In 1978, Cattrall played the love interest of a murderous psychologist in an episode of Columbo and in "Blindfold", an episode of the 1970s action series Starsky & Hutch, in which Starsky is grief-stricken since he accidentally blinded Cattrall's character, young artist Emily Harrison, by a shot of his gun, she starred in The Bastard and The Rebels, two television miniseries based on the John Jakes novels of the same names.
In 1979, she played the role of Dr. Gabrielle White on The Incredible Hulk and would go down in television Hulk lore as one of the few characters who knew David Banner was alive and was the creature, her work in television paid off and she made the transition to cinema. She starred opposite Jack Lemmon in his Oscar-nominated film Tribute, in Crossbar, the film about a high jumper who loses his leg and still participates in the Olympic trials, with Cattrall's help; the following year, she appeared in Ticket to Heaven. In 1982, Cattrall played P. E. teacher Miss Honeywell in Porky's, followed two years by a role in the original Police Academy. In 1985, she starred in three films: Turk 182, City Limits and Hold-Up, the last with French star Jean-Paul Belmondo. In 1986, she played Kurt Russell's brainy flame in the action film Big Trouble in Little China. In 1987, her lead role in the cult comedy film Mannequin proved a huge success with audiences. One of her best-known film roles is that of Lieutenant Valeris in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country.
Near the end of filming, Cattrall had a photographer shoot a roll of film on the Enterprise bridge set, in which she wore nothing but her Vulcan ears. After finding out about the unauthorized photo session, Leonard Nimoy had the film destroyed. Aside from her film work, Cattrall is a stage actress, with performances in Arthur Miller's A View from the Bridge and Anton Chekhov's Three Sisters and Wild Honey to her credit. In addition, she can be heard reading the poetry of Rupert Brooke on the CD Red Rose Music SACD Sampler Volume One. In 1997, she was cast in Sex and the City, Darren Star's series, broadcast on HBO; as Samantha Jones, Cattrall gained international recognition. She capitalized on her success by appearing in steamy television commercials promoting Pepsi One. Sex and the City ran for six seasons and ended as a weekly series in spring 2004 with 10.6 million viewers. Cattrall reprised the role of Samantha Jones in the Sex and the City film
The Hills Have Eyes (2006 film)
The Hills Have Eyes is a 2006 American horror film and remake of Wes Craven's 1977 film of the same name. It was written by filmmaking partners Alexandre Aja and Grégory Levasseur of the French horror film High Tension, directed by Aja; the film follows a family, targeted by a group of cannibalistic mutants after their car breaks down in the desert. The film was released theatrically in the United States and United Kingdom on March 10, 2006, it earned $15.5 million in its opening weekend in the U. S. where it was rated NC-17 for strong gruesome violence, but was edited down to an R-rating. An unrated DVD version was released on June 20, 2006. A sequel, The Hills Have Eyes 2, was released in theaters March 23, 2007; the film opens with a group of scientists searching the New Mexico desert, who are killed by a mutant named Pluto. Bob Carter and his wife, Ethel are traveling from Cleveland, Ohio to San Diego, California for their silver wedding anniversary. With them are their children Bobby and Lynn, Lynn's husband Doug and Doug's baby daughter Catherine, their two German Shepherds and Beast.
At a gas station in the desert, they meet an attendant named Jeb, who tells them of a short-cut through the hills. Not long after taking the supposed short-cut, their tires are punctured by a hidden spike strip. Doug and Bob go look for help. Beauty escapes from the trailer and, when Bobby chases her into the hills, he finds her mutilated body cut open. Frightened, he falls, knocking himself unconscious. A young female mutant named Ruby protects him from her brother Goggle; as Doug heads towards the interstate, he finds a huge crater filled with numerous abandoned cars and other items. Meanwhile, Bob arrives back at the gas station, which appears to be isolated. Inside, he finds news clippings detailing various disappearances that have occurred in the area and realizes the attendant purposefully led them to danger by suggesting they take the short-cut, he finds a severed ear and flees from the station. Outside, he finds a hysterical Jeb. Bob attempts to flee in an abandoned car, but is attacked by the mutant leader, Papa Jupiter, dragged into the mining caves by Jupiter, Jupiter's eldest son Lizard, Pluto.
Bobby returns to the trailer but does not mention Beauty's death, not wanting to frighten the rest of the family. Doug returns after having no luck finding help; as they settle down to go to sleep, a panicked Bobby begs Doug to help him find Bob after telling him about Beauty and claiming "we're not alone". That night, the family is awakened by Bob's screams, they all rush from the trailer, except for Brenda who stays with the baby. Outside, they find Bob crucified to a tree as it is set ablaze, they frantically try to save him, but to no avail. Meanwhile and Lizard use the distraction to ransack the trailer. Lizard rapes Brenda; when Lynn returns to the trailer she is greeted by Lizard and Pluto, is forced to let Lizard drink from her breast while her baby is held at gunpoint. When Ethel returns she is shot by Lizard and Lynn stabs him in the leg, prompting him to shoot Lynn in the head. Lizard and Pluto flee with the baby after Lizard attempts to shoot Brenda with an unloaded gun, after warning her "I'll be back for you".
Doug and Bobby return to the trailer and discover Lynn and Ethel, who die shortly afterward. Goggle, watching the family from afar with a pair of binoculars, is killed by Beast, who tears his throat out; the next morning, Doug sets out to rescue Catherine. During his search, Doug comes across an abandoned nuclear testing village and is knocked unconscious by Big Mama. Upon awakening, he escapes an ice box filled with human body parts and continues his search, only to encounter Big Brain. After Big Brain tells him the mutants' origins, Doug is attacked by Pluto, who beats him and severs two of his fingers with an axe. Pluto kills Doug, but Doug manages to gain the upper hand while Pluto is distracted and kills him with his own axe. Outside, Doug continues to search for Catherine. After ordering Lizard to kill Catherine, Big Brain is mauled to death by Beast. Lizard takes a cleaver and prepares to kill Catherine, but finds that Ruby has taken her and replaced her with a piglet. Doug sees Ruby running through the hills with Catherine, pursues her.
Meanwhile, back at the trailer and Bobby discover their mother's body missing and track it to find Papa Jupiter eating her. They lure him towards the trailer and prepare an explosive trap, which destroys the trailer killing Papa Jupiter. Doug catches up with Ruby but before she can return Catherine, Lizard attacks him. Lizard and Doug fight and Lizard is presumed dead. Ruby gives Doug his daughter back, Lizard, still alive, aims a shotgun at Doug. In order to save Doug, Ruby tackles Lizard off a cliff. Bobby and Brenda find that Papa Jupiter managed to survive their trap, Brenda finishes him off, they are reunited with Doug and Beast. As the survivors of the Carter family embrace, an unknown mutant watches them through binoculars from the hills. Aaron Stanford as Doug Bukowski Kathleen Quinlan as Ethel Carter Vinessa Shaw as Lynn Carter-Bukowski Emilie de Ravin as Brenda Carter Dan Byrd as Bobby Carter Tom Bower as Jeb, the Gas Station Attendant Billy Drago as P
Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC since 1963. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord called "the Doctor", an extraterrestrial being, to all appearances human, from the planet Gallifrey; the Doctor explores the universe in a time-travelling space ship called the TARDIS. Its exterior appears as a blue British police box, a common sight in Britain in 1963 when the series first aired. Accompanied by a number of companions, the Doctor combats a variety of foes while working to save civilisations and help people in need; the show is a significant part of British popular culture, elsewhere it has gained a cult following. It has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series; the programme ran from 1963 to 1989. There was an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot, in the form of a television film titled Doctor Who; the programme was relaunched in 2005, since has been produced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff.
Doctor Who has spawned numerous spin-offs, including comic books, novels, audio dramas, the television series Torchwood, The Sarah Jane Adventures, K-9, Class, has been the subject of many parodies and references in popular culture. Thirteen actors have headlined the series as the Doctor; the transition from one actor to another is written into the plot of the show with the concept of regeneration into a new incarnation, a plot device in which a Time Lord "transforms" into a new body when the current one is too badly harmed to heal normally. Each actor's portrayal is unique. Together, they form a single lifetime with a single narrative; the time-travelling feature of the plot means that different incarnations of the Doctor meet. The Doctor is portrayed by Jodie Whittaker, who took on the role after Peter Capaldi's exit in the 2017 Christmas special "Twice Upon a Time". Doctor Who follows the adventures of the title character, a rogue Time Lord from the planet Gallifrey who goes by the name "the Doctor".
The Doctor fled Gallifrey in a stolen TARDIS, a time machine that travels by materialising into and dematerialising out of the time vortex. The TARDIS has a vast interior but appears smaller on the outside, is equipped with a "chameleon circuit" intended to make the machine take on the appearance of local objects as a disguise. Across time and space, the Doctor's many incarnations find events that pique their curiosity and try to prevent evil forces from harming innocent people or changing history, using only ingenuity and minimal resources, such as the versatile sonic screwdriver; the Doctor travels alone and brings one or more companions to share these adventures. These companions are humans, owing to the Doctor's fascination with planet Earth, which leads to frequent collaborations with the international military task force UNIT when the Earth is threatened; the Doctor is centuries old and, as a Time Lord, has the ability to regenerate in case of mortal damage to the body, taking on a new appearance and personality.
The Doctor has gained numerous reoccurring enemies during their travels, including the Daleks, the Cybermen, the Master, another renegade Time Lord. Doctor Who first appeared on BBC TV at 17:16:20 GMT on Saturday, 23 November 1963, it was to be each episode 25 minutes of transmission length. Discussions and plans for the programme had been in progress for a year; the head of drama Sydney Newman was responsible for developing the programme, with the first format document for the series being written by Newman along with the head of the script department Donald Wilson and staff writer C. E. Webber. Writer Anthony Coburn, story editor David Whitaker and initial producer Verity Lambert heavily contributed to the development of the series; the programme was intended to appeal to a family audience as an educational programme using time travel as a means to explore scientific ideas and famous moments in history. On 31 July 1963, Whitaker commissioned Terry Nation to write a story under the title The Mutants.
As written, the Daleks and Thals were the victims of an alien neutron bomb attack but Nation dropped the aliens and made the Daleks the aggressors. When the script was presented to Newman and Wilson it was rejected as the programme was not permitted to contain any "bug-eyed monsters". According to producer Verity Lambert. We had a bit of a crisis of confidence. Had we had anything else ready we would have made that." Nation's script became the second Doctor. The serial introduced the eponymous aliens that would become the series' most popular monsters, was responsible for the BBC's first merchandising boom; the BBC drama department's serials division produced the programme for 26 seasons, broadcast on BBC 1. Falling viewing numbers, a decline in the public perception of the show and a less-prominent transmission slot saw production suspended in 1989 by Jonathan Powell, controller of BBC 1. Although it was cancelled with the decision not to commission a planned 27th season, which would have been broadcast in 1990, the BBC affirmed, over several ye