Mannerism known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art that emerged in the years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520, spreading by about 1530 and lasting until about the end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Baroque style replaced it. Northern Mannerism continued into the early 17th century. Stylistically, Mannerism encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, reacting to, the harmonious ideals associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and early Michelangelo. Where High Renaissance art emphasizes proportion and ideal beauty, Mannerism exaggerates such qualities resulting in compositions that are asymmetrical or unnaturally elegant; the style is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial qualities. This artistic style privileges compositional tension and instability rather than the balance and clarity of earlier Renaissance painting. Mannerism in literature and music is notable for its florid style and intellectual sophistication.
The definition of Mannerism and the phases within it continues to be a subject of debate among art historians. For example, some scholars have applied the label to certain early modern forms of literature and music of the 16th and 17th centuries; the term is used to refer to some late Gothic painters working in northern Europe from about 1500 to 1530 the Antwerp Mannerists—a group unrelated to the Italian movement. Mannerism has been applied by analogy to the Silver Age of Latin literature; the word, "Mannerism" derives from the Italian maniera, meaning "style" or "manner". Like the English word "style", maniera can either indicate a specific type of style or indicate an absolute that needs no qualification. In the second edition of his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects, Giorgio Vasari used maniera in three different contexts: to discuss an artist's manner or method of working. Vasari was a Mannerist artist, he described the period in which he worked as "la maniera moderna", or the "modern style".
James V. Mirollo describes how "bella maniera" poets attempted to surpass in virtuosity the sonnets of Petrarch; this notion of "bella maniera" suggests that artists who were thus inspired looked to copying and bettering their predecessors, rather than confronting nature directly. In essence, "bella maniera" utilized the best from a number of source materials, synthesizing it into something new; as a stylistic label, "Mannerism" is not defined. It was used by Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt and popularized by German art historians in the early 20th century to categorize the uncategorizable art of the Italian 16th century – art, no longer found to exhibit the harmonious and rational approaches associated with the High Renaissance. "High Renaissance" connoted a period distinguished by harmony and the revival of classical antiquity. The term "Mannerist" was redefined in 1967 by John Shearman following the exhibition of Mannerist paintings organised by Fritz Grossmann at Manchester City Art Gallery in 1965.
The label "Mannerism" was used during the 16th century to comment on social behaviour and to convey a refined virtuoso quality or to signify a certain technique. However, for writers, such as the 17th-century Gian Pietro Bellori, la maniera was a derogatory term for the perceived decline of art after Raphael in the 1530s and 1540s. From the late 19th century on, art historians have used the term to describe art that follows Renaissance classicism and precedes the Baroque, yet historians differ as to whether Mannerism is a movement, or a period. By the end of the High Renaissance, young artists experienced a crisis: it seemed that everything that could be achieved was achieved. No more difficulties, technical or otherwise, remained to be solved; the detailed knowledge of anatomy, light and the way in which humans register emotion in expression and gesture, the innovative use of the human form in figurative composition, the use of the subtle gradation of tone, all had reached near perfection. The young artists needed to find a new goal, they sought new approaches.
At this point Mannerism started to emerge. The new style developed between 1510 and 1520 either in Florence, or in Rome, or in both cities simultaneously; this period has been described as a "natural extension" of the art of Andrea del Sarto and Raphael. Michelangelo developed his own style at an early age, a original one, admired at first often copied and imitated by other artists of the era. One of the qualities most admired by his contemporaries was his terribilità, a sense of awe-inspiring grandeur, subsequent artists attempted to imitate it. Other artists learned Michelangelo's impassioned and personal style by copying the works of the master, a standard way that students learned to paint and sculpt, his Sistine Chapel ceiling provided examples for them to follow, in particular his representation of collected figures called ignudi and of the Libyan Sibyl, his vestibule to the Laurentian Library, the figures on his Medici tombs, above all his Last Judgment. The Michelangelo was one of the great role models of Mannerism.
Young artists stole drawings from him. In his book Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Scu
The Paul First Nation, more known as the Paul Band, is a First Nations band government based in Wabamun, Alberta of mixed Cree and Nakoda origin. They are party to Treaty Six and had the Buck Lake Indian Reserve 133C and Wabamun Lake Indian Reserve 133A, 133B and 133C allocated to them by the federal government in 1892; however the Buck Lake Reserve was decimated by the Spanish Flu of 1918 and is now abandoned. As of 2005, the nation had 1,926 members. Paul Band's Wabamun 133A and 133B lands are located along Lake Wabumun 70 km west of Edmonton; the lake is a popular destination for Alberta to spend weekends and holidays, the band operates the Ironhead Golf and Country Club to appeal to this market. In April 2010 there was a devastating costly wild fire; the Paul Band settled on the eastern edge of Lake Wabamun. While the total population of the Paul Band was 1397, 856 individuals were living on the Paul Band Reserve in 1996. By 1998 there were 1,400 members of the Paul First Nation; the majority were the remainder Cree.
In Alberta the Nakoda were known as Stoney. They were grouped by the Cree term Assiniboine, they all speak common Siouan language but according to Bird, "there are differences in dialects spoken between the groups in Alberta and between those in Alberta and those in Saskatchewan and Montana." The Stoney are descendants of individual bands of Dakota and Nakota, in particular of western groups of Assiniboine, from which they spun out as an independent group at about 1744. The Stoney were divided geographically and culturally into two tribal groups or divisions with different dialects, which in turn were further divided into several bands:Of all the Siouan speaking groups the Paul Band and the Alexis Band were the farthest north and west. In her thesis Ruby Bird, daughter of Chief Bird, summarized Andersen's three possibilities regarding the Paul and Alexis' Bands in pre-treaty times, "There are several possible explanations as to their location and cultural position in pre-treaty the. Andersen offers several tentative explanations: The Stoney located between the Athabasca and North Saskatchewan Rivers west of Edmonton may have followed a westward migration route along the forested edge of the northern Plains.
By 1880 about a half of the Alexis Band led by Ironhead separated and were living at Wabamun Lake where the land and fishing was better than the lands assigned to the Alexis band as a reserve when they signed Treaty Six in 1876. The chief of the Alexis Band was not tolerant of other religions; the Wabamum Lake band were Protestant. By 1892 the federal government realized the two bands, the Alexis and the Wabamun Lake band had irreconcilable differences and therefore created a second reserve for the Paul Band settled at White Whale Lake; the reserve name was changed to Wabamun Lake Indian Reserve. Paul Band was named after the head man at the time. According to government documents, Paul's brother Ironhead, had led them to Wabamun Lake, but Ironhead died before the reserve was founded; the reserve was called Wabamun Lake Indian Reserve and the Band was called Paul Band. The popular name for the reserve became Paul Band. Ironhead had moved his band to Wabamun Lake by 1880. There are rolling good land surrounding the lake.
Starting around 1850, the mission at Lac Ste. Anne began fishing nearby lakes to provide fish to customers Edmonton. By 2003 the lake was described as one of the most used lakes in Alberta by limnologist David Schindler, it is one of the most popular recreational lakes in Alberta. Paul Band First Nation Reserve is on the east end of the lake. There is Wabamun and a number of summer villages and subdivisions on the lake shore; the Yellowhead Highway and CNR railroad tracks parallel the north shore. There are coal mines north and south of the lake as well as TransAlta’s Wabamun and Sundance power plants and cooling ponds for the Sundance and Keephills power plants. There is Wabamun Lake Provincial Park at Moonlight Bay and a golf course managed by the Paul Band First Nation Reserve. Since 1912 Lake Wabamun water levels have been "repeatedly and illegally modified" by "different groups wishing to regulate lake levels at either high or low levels." Twenty two percent of the catchment basin of Lake Wabamun has been disturbed by two coal mines, the Highvale, covering 12,600 hectares, the largest coal mine in Canada and the Whitewood mine.
Strip mining involves remove overburden to expose the coal seam, mined in distinct strips. By 2004, these two mines had disturbed 5,593 ha of the Lake Wabamun catch basin; the vast majority of the coal burning in Alberta occurs 70 km west of Edmonton, in the Wabumun Lake area. The Wabamun Generating Station, a coal fired plant owned by TransAlta, located next to the village of Wabamun, Alberta was first commissioned in 1956 and decommissioned in 2010 with the smoke stacks demolished in March 2011; the station's primary source of fuel was sub bituminous from the Whitewood mine. According to CASA and cited in David Schindler's 2003 report commissioned by Alberta Environment the combined emissions of the coal-fired plants in the Wabumun Lake area, emitted...65% of a
Earl of Minto, in the County of Roxburgh, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1813 for 1st Baron Minto; the current earl is 7th Earl of Minto. The family seat is Minto Park, near Hawick in the Scottish Borders; the original family seat, Minto Castle, was demolished some years ago after having been abandoned for some time. The family descends from the politician and judge Gilbert Elliot, who served as a Lord of Session under the judicial title of Lord Minto. In 1700 he was created a baronet, of Minto in the County of Roxburgh, in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia, he was succeeded by the second Baronet. He was a prominent judge and politician and served as a Lord of Session from 1726 to 1733, as a Lord of the Justiciary from 1733 to 1765 and as Lord Justice Clerk from 1763 to 1766, his eldest son, the third Baronet, was a politician and held ministerial office as a Lord of the Admiralty from 1756 to 1762 and as Treasurer of the Navy from 1767 to 1770. He was succeeded by the fourth Baronet.
He was a noted diplomat and colonial administrator and served as Governor-General of India from 1807 to 1813. In 1797 he was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain as Baron Minto, of Minto in the County of Roxburgh. In 1813 he was further honoured when he was made Viscount Melgund, of Melgund in the County of Forfar, Earl of Minto, in the County of Roxburgh; the latter titles are in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. In 1797 Lord Minto assumed by Royal licence the additional surnames of Murray-Kynynmound after those of Elliot, he was succeeded by the second Earl. He was a diplomat and Whig politician and held office as First Lord of the Admiralty from 1835 to 1841 and as Lord Privy Seal from 1846 to 1852. Lord Minto was succeeded by the third Earl, he sat as a Liberal Member of Parliament for Hythe and Clackmannanshire. On his death the titles passed to the fourth Earl, he was a prominent colonial administrator and served as Governor General of Canada from 1898 to 1904 and as Viceroy of India from 1905 to 1910.
As of 2014 the titles are held by his great-grandson, the seventh Earl, who succeeded in 2005. The family seat is Minto, near Roxburghshire. In 1992 Minto House was listed as Category A, demolished within weeks. Sir Gilbert Elliot, 1st Baronet Sir Gilbert Elliot, 2nd Baronet Sir Gilbert Elliot, 3rd Baronet Sir Gilbert Elliot, 4th Baronet Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, Baron Minto Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 1st Earl of Minto Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 2nd Earl of Minto William Hugh Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 3rd Earl of Minto Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto Victor Gilbert Lariston Garnet Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 5th Earl of Minto Gilbert Edward George Lariston Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 6th Earl of Minto Gilbert Timothy George Lariston Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 7th Earl of Minto The heir apparent is the present holder's eldest son Gilbert Francis Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, Viscount Melgund. Numerous other members of the family have gained distinction.
John Elliot, younger son of the second Baronet, was an admiral in the Royal Navy and served as Commodore Governor of Newfoundland. Andrew Elliot, another younger son of the second Baronet, was the last colonial governor of New York. Jean Elliot, daughter of the second Baronet, was a poet and wrote one of the most famous versions of the Scottish folk tune The Flowers of the Forest. Hugh Elliot, second son of the third Baronet, was a diplomat and colonial administrator and served as Governor of the Leeward Islands from 1808 to 1814, his son Sir Charles Elliot was an admiral in colonial administrator. The Hon. Sir George Elliot, second son of the first Earl, was an admiral in the Royal Navy and held political office under Lord Grey as First Secretary to the Admiralty from 1830 to 1834, he was the father of: 1) Sir George Augustus Elliot, an admiral in the Royal Navy, 2) Sir Alexander James Hardy Elliot, a major-general in the army. The Hon. John Edmund Elliot, third son of the first Earl, was a Member of Parliament.
His grandson Charles Sinclair Elliot was a captain in the Royal Navy. The Hon. Sir Henry George Elliot, second son of the second Earl, was a noted diplomat and served as Ambassador to Austria from 1877 to 1884, his son Sir Francis Edmund Hugh Elliot was a diplomat and served as Minister to Greece. Sir Charles Gilbert John Brydone Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, third son of the second Earl, was an Admiral of the Fleet; the Hon. Arthur Ralph Douglas Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, second son of the third Earl, was a Conservative politician and served as Financial Secretary to the Treasury in 1903; the Hon. Hugh Frederick Hislop Elliot, third son of the third Earl, sat as Member of Parliament for Ayrshire North. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Minto, Earls of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 563–564