Avon Publications is one of the top most publishers of romance fiction. At Avon's initial stages, it was an American paperback book and comic book publisher; the shift in content occurred in the early 1970's with multiple Avon romance titles reaching and maintaining spots in bestseller lists, demonstrating the market and potential profits in romance publication. As of 2010, Avon is an imprint of HarperCollins. Avon Books was founded in 1941 by the American News Company to create a rival to Pocket Books, they hired sister Joseph Meyers and Edna Meyers Williams to establish the company. ANC bought out J. S. Ogilvie Publications, a dime novel publisher owned by both the Meyers, renamed it "Avon Publications", they got into comic books. "The early Avons were somewhat similar in appearance to the existing paperbacks of Pocket Books, resulting in an immediate and ineffective lawsuit by that company. Despite this superficial similarity, from early on Meyers differentiated Avon by placing an emphasis on popular appeal rather than loftier concepts of literary merit."
The first 40 titles were not numbered. First editions of the first dozen or so have front and rear endpapers with an illustration of a globe; the emphasis on "popular appeal" led Avon to publish ghost stories, sexually-suggestive love stories, fantasy novels and science fiction in its early years, which were far removed in audience appeal from the somewhat more literary Pocket competition. As well as normal-sized paperbacks, Avon published digest-format paperbacks in series; these included Modern Short Story Monthly and Avon Fantasy Reader. Many authors prized by present-day collectors were published in these editions, including A. Merritt, James M. Cain, H. P. Lovecraft, Raymond Chandler and Robert E. Howard. In 1953, Avon Books sold books in the price range of 25¢ to 50¢ and were selling more than 20 million copies a year, their books were characterized by Time Magazine as "westerns and the kind of boy-meets-girl story that can be illustrated by a ripe cheesecake jacket". At around this time, Avon began to publish under other imprints, including Eton, Novel Library and Diversey.
Avon's 35-cent "T" series, introduced in 1953 had strong mass-market appeal and contains many outstanding examples of the then-popular juvenile delinquent story. The T series contained many movie tie-in editions and the stand-bys of mysteries and science fiction. Avon was bought by the Hearst Corporation in 1959. In the late 1960s there was a surge of interest in Satanism due to the emergence of Anton LaVey's Church of Satan in 1966 and the success of Ira Levin's novel Rosemary's Baby in 1967. In 1968, an Avon editor named Peter Mayer approached Anton LaVey with the idea of publishing a "Satanic Bible," and he asked Anton to author it. Anton obliged, in December of 1969 The Satanic Bible was published as an Avon paperback. In 1972, Avon entered the modern romance genre with the publication of Kathleen Woodiwiss' The Flame and the Flower; the novel went on to sell 2.35 million copies. Avon followed its release with the 1974 publication of Woodiwiss's second novel, The Wolf and the Dove; the next two romances by newcomer Rosemary Rogers, Sweet Savage Love and Dark Fires published in 1974, reached bestseller status.
The latter sold two million copies in its first three months of release and the former inspired the name of the genre: "sweet savage romances". In 1999, the News Corporation bought out Hearst's book division. Avon's hardcover and non-romance paperback lines were moved to sister company Morrow, leaving Avon as a romance publisher. Avon launched the erotica imprint Avon Red in 2006. Avon developed the event KissCon in 2014, in order to serve the population of romance readers looking for more interaction with their authors and opportunities to strengthen their reading community connections. For its 75 year anniversary in 2016, Avon published 65 original titles, along with an anniversary edition of Shanna, a romance novel by Kathleen E. Woodiwiss, published in 1977 that held a spot on the New York Times bestseller list for over thirty weeks. In addition to the re-release, the book included a forward by the more recent bestseller, another author represented by Avon, Lisa Kleypas. From at least 1945 through the mid-1950s, Avon published comic books.
Its titles included horror fiction, science fiction, romance comics, war comics and funny-animal comics. Most titles lasted only a few issues, with the six longest-running detailed in the complete list below: Official website
A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content. Although the word "novel" refers to long fictional works, the term "graphic novel" is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, anthologized work, it is distinguished from the term "comic book", used for comics periodicals. Fan historian Richard Kyle coined the term "graphic novel" in an essay in the November 1964 issue of the comics fanzine Capa-Alpha; the term gained popularity in the comics community after the publication of Will Eisner's A Contract with God and the start of Marvel's Graphic Novel line and became familiar to the public in the late 1980s after the commercial successes of the first volume of Art Spiegelman's Maus in 1986 and the collected editions of Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns in 1986 and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen in 1987. The Book Industry Study Group began using "graphic novel" as a category in book stores in 2001; the term is not defined, though Merriam-Webster's full dictionary definition is "a fictional story, presented in comic-strip format and published as a book", while its simplest definition is given as "cartoon drawings that tell a story and are published as a book".
In the publishing trade, the term extends to material that would not be considered a novel if produced in another medium. Collections of comic books that do not form a continuous story, anthologies or collections of loosely related pieces, non-fiction are stocked by libraries and bookstores as "graphic novels"; the term is sometimes used to distinguish between works created as standalone stories, in contrast to collections or compilations of a story arc from a comic book series published in book form. In continental Europe, both original book-length stories such as La rivolta dei racchi by Guido Buzzelli, collections of comics have been published in hardcover volumes called "albums", since the end of the 19th century; as the exact definition of the graphic novel is debated, the origins of the form are open to interpretation. The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck is the oldest recognized American example of comics used to this end, it originated as the 1828 publication Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Swiss caricaturist Rodolphe Töpffer, was first published in English translation in 1841 by London's Tilt & Bogue, which used an 1833 Paris pirate edition.
The first American edition was published in 1842 by Wilson & Company in New York City using the original printing plates from the 1841 edition. Another early predecessor is Journey to the Gold Diggins by Jeremiah Saddlebags by brothers J. A. D. and D. F. Read, inspired by The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck. In 1894 Caran d'Ache broached the idea of a "drawn novel" in a letter to the newspaper Le Figaro and started work on a 360-page wordless book. In the United States there is a long tradition of reissuing published comic strips in book form. In 1897 the Hearst Syndicate published such a collection of The Yellow Kid by Richard Outcault and it became a best seller; the 1920s saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition, with Belgian Frans Masereel cited as "the undisputed king" of this revival. His works include Passionate Journey. American Lynd Ward worked in this tradition, publishing Gods' Man, in 1929 and going on to publish more during the 1930s. Other prototypical examples from this period include American Milt Gross's He Done Her Wrong, a wordless comic published as a hardcover book, Une semaine de bonté, a novel in sequential images composed of collage by the surrealist painter Max Ernst.
Charlotte Salomon's Life? or Theater? Combines images and captions; the 1940s saw the launching of Classics Illustrated, a comic-book series that adapted notable, public domain novels into standalone comic books for young readers. In 1947 Fawcett Comics published Comics Novel #1: "Anarcho, Dictator of Death", a 52-page comic dedicated to one story. In 1950, St. John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a film noir-influenced slice of steeltown life starring a scheming, manipulative redhead named Rust. Touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover, the 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller", penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin proved successful enough to lead to an unrelated second picture novel, The Case of the Winking Buddha by pulp novelist Manning Lee Stokes and illustrator Charles Raab. Presaging Will Eisner's multiple-story graphic novel A Contract with God, cartoonist Harvey Kurtzman wrote and drew the four-story mass-market paperback Harvey Kurtzman's Jungle Book, published in 1959.
By the late 1960s, American comic book creators were becoming more adventurous with the form. Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin self-published a 40-page, magazine-format comics novel, His Name Is... Savage in 1968—the same year Marvel Comics published two issues of The Spectacular Spider-Man in a similar format. Columnist and comic-book writer Steven Grant argues that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Doctor Strange story in Strange Tales #130–146, although published serially from 1965–1966, is "the first American graphic novel". Critic Jason Sacks referred to the 13-issue "Panther's Rage"—comics' first-known titled, self-contained, multi-issue story arc—that ran from 1973 to 1975 in the Black Panther series in Marvel's Jungle Action as "Marvel's first graphic novel". Meanwhile, in continental Europe, the tradition of collecting ser
The Eyes of the Tiger
The Eyes of the Tiger is the ninth novel in the long-running Nick Carter-Killmaster series of spy novels. Carter is a US secret agent, code-named N-3, with the rank of Killmaster, he works for AXE – a secret arm of the US intelligence services. The book was first published in September 1965 by Award Books part of the Beacon-Signal division of Universal Publishing and Distributing Corporation, part of the Conde Nast Publications Inc; the novel was written by Manning Lee Stokes. This novel was written in the third-person narrative style. However, since at least 1973 editions of this novel were rewritten in first-person narrative style; the story is set in September 1965. Carter is in Geneva, Switzerland on Mission Tiger – a plan to steal a large gold and ruby statue of a tiger from Hermann Göring’s private Swiss bank vault. Former SS General Max Rader and Imperial Japanese Army Colonel Shikoku Hondo are on their way to steal the tiger; the vault has been locked using a French key – a device that requires two matching key components to be inserted together – one half of, kept by Rader and Hondo, respectively.
Baroness Elspeth von Stadt – a West German intelligence agent – and the only person able to identify Max Rader after his recent plastic surgery – is assigned by AXE chief Mr. Hawk to help Carter; the Baroness claims to hate Rader as he executed her German army officer father following an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler during World War II. Carter recovers his half of the French key. Hondo is injured and is imprisoned by Rader while Carter and the Baroness take shelter at the isolated Villa Limbo on an island in Lake Geneva; the housekeeper, Osman, an employee of Rader, is killed in the attempt. Carter hides the Baroness flee to Geneva. To draw Rader out into the open, Carter allows the Baroness to be kidnapped by Rader’s men. Rader contacts Carter to make a deal – the Baroness for Hondo’s half of the French key. Carter is told to wait at the Villa Limbo for further instructions. Hondo lies in wait for Carter at Villa Limbo. Before Hondo can retrieve his half of the French key he is killed by Rader’s men.
Carter is summoned to Rader’s castle to continue negotiations. The Baroness is tortured by Rader’s men in the castle dungeons to force Carter to produce the key. Carter manages to release the Baroness and pursues Rader through the labyrinth of tunnels beneath the castle. Rader is cornered and Carter shoots him dead. Rader has hidden his half of the French key in the scar tissue beneath a dueling scar on his face. Carter cuts it out with Hugo - his stiletto. After the statue is safely recovered Carter discovers that the Baroness was Rader’s mistress and former Hitler Youth member and was responsible for denouncing her own father to the Nazis. Carter gives her a bullet to kill herself with and a head start before reporting her to the authorities; the Baroness kills herself. Carter discovers that hidden inside the tiger statue is a list of the names of German children expected to launch the future Fourth Reich using money and valuables hidden in 20 sunken German submarines concealed in various locations around the world.
Hawk informs Carter that the children will be watched as they grow up and the sunken submarines and their contents recovered. Nick Carter Mr Hawk Baroness Elspeth von Stadt Max Rader Shikoku Hondo Osman Mignon Franchette Mr. Poindexter
A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though novelists write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional novelists, thus make a living writing novels and other fiction, while others aspire to support themselves in this way or write as an avocation. Most novelists struggle to get their debut novel published, but once published they continue to be published, although few become literary celebrities, thus gaining prestige or a considerable income from their work. Novelists come from a variety of backgrounds and social classes, this shapes the content of their works. Public reception of a novelist's work, the literary criticism commenting on it, the novelists' incorporation of their own experiences into works and characters can lead to the author's personal life and identity being associated with a novel's fictional content. For this reason, the environment within which a novelist works and the reception of their novels by both the public and publishers can be influenced by their demographics or identity.
Some novelists have creative identities derived from their focus on different genres of fiction, such as crime, romance or historical novels. While many novelists compose fiction to satisfy personal desires and commentators ascribe a particular social responsibility or role to novel writers. Many authors use such moral imperatives to justify different approaches to novel writing, including activism or different approaches to representing reality "truthfully". Novelist is a term derivative from the term "novel" describing the "writer of novels"; the Oxford English Dictionary recognizes other definitions of novelist, first appearing in the 16th and 17th centuries to refer to either "An innovator. However, the OED attributes the primary contemporary meaning of "a writer of novels" as first appearing in the 1633 book "East-India Colation" by C. Farewell citing the passage "It beeing a pleasant observation to note the order of their Coaches and Carriages.. As if it had bin the spoyles of a Tryumph leading Captive, or a preparation to some sad Execution" According to the Google Ngrams, the term novelist first appears in the Google Books database in 1521.
The difference between professional and amateur novelists is the author's ability to publish. Many people take up novel writing as a hobby, but the difficulties of completing large scale fictional works of quality prevent the completion of novels. Once authors have completed a novel, they will try to get it published; the publishing industry requires novels to have accessible profitable markets, thus many novelists will self-publish to circumvent the editorial control of publishers. Self-publishing has long been an option for writers, with vanity presses printing bound books for a fee paid by the writer. In these settings, unlike the more traditional publishing industry, activities reserved for a publishing house, like the distribution and promotion of the book, become the author's responsibility; the rise of the Internet and electronic books has made self publishing far less expensive and a realistic way for authors to realize income. Novelists apply a number of different methods to writing their novels, relying on a variety of approaches to inspire creativity.
Some communities encourage amateurs to practice writing novels to develop these unique practices, that vary from author to author. For example, the internet-based group, National Novel Writing Month, encourages people to write 50,000-word novels in the month of November, to give novelists practice completing such works. In the 2010 event, over 200,000 people took part – writing a total of over 2.8 billion words. Novelists don't publish their first novels until in life. However, many novelists begin writing at a young age. For example, Iain Banks began writing at eleven, at sixteen completed his first novel, "The Hungarian Lift-Jet", about international arms dealers, "in pencil in a larger-than-foolscap log book". However, he was thirty before he published his first novel, the controversial The Wasp Factory in 1984; the success of this novel enabled Banks to become a full-time novelist. An important writers' juvenilia if not published, is prized by scholars because it provides insight into an author's biography and approach to writing.
Novelists publish as early as their teens. For example, Patrick O'Brian published his first novel, Caesar: The Life Story of a Panda-Leopard, at the age of 15, which brought him considerable critical attention. Barbara Newhall Follett's The House Without Windows, was accepted and published in 1927 when she was 13 by the Knopf publishing house and earned critical acclaim from the New York Times, the Saturday Review, H. L. Mencken; these works will achieve popular success as well. For example, though Christopher Paolini's Eragon, was not a great critical success, but its popularity among readers placed it on the New York Times Children's Books Best Seller list for 121 weeks. First-time novelists of any age find themselves unable to get works published, because of a number of reasons reflecting the inexperience of the author and the economic realities of publishers. Authors mus
Western fiction is a genre of literature set in the American Old West frontier and set from the late eighteenth to the late nineteenth century. Well-known writers of Western fiction include Zane Grey from the early 20th century and Louis L'Amour from the mid 20th century; the genre peaked around the early 1960s due to the popularity of televised Westerns such as Bonanza. Readership has reached a new low in the 2000s. Most bookstores, outside a few west American states, only carry a small number of Western fiction books; the predecessor of the western in American literature emerged early with tales of the frontier. The most famous of the early 19th century frontier novels were James Fenimore Cooper's five novels comprising the Leatherstocking Tales. Cooper's novels were set in what was at the time the American frontier: the Appalachian Mountains and areas west of there; as did his novel The Prairie, most westerns would take place west of the Mississippi River. The Western as a specialized genre got its start in the "penny dreadfuls" and the "dime novels".
Published in June 1860, Malaeska. These cheaply made books were hugely successful and capitalized on the many stories that were being told about the mountain men, outlaws and lawmen who were taming the western frontier. Many of these novels were fictionalized stories based on actual people, such as Billy the Kid, Buffalo Bill, Wyatt Earp, Wild Bill Hickok, Jesse James. By 1900, the new medium of pulp magazines helped to relate these adventures to easterners. Meanwhile, non-American authors, like the German Karl May, picked up the genre, went to full novel length, made it hugely popular and successful in continental Europe from about 1880 on, though they were dismissed as trivial by the literary critics of the day. Popularity grew with the publication of Owen Wister's novel The Virginian and Zane Grey's Riders of the Purple Sage; the first Hopalong Cassidy stories by Clarence Mulford appeared in 1904, both as dime novels and in pulp magazines. When pulp magazines exploded in popularity in the 1920s, Western fiction benefited.
Pulp magazines that specialised in Westerns include Cowboy Stories, Ranch Romances, Star Western and Western Story Magazine. The simultaneous popularity of Western movies in the 1920s helped the genre. In the 1940s several seminal Westerns were published, including The Ox-Bow Incident by Walter van Tilburg Clark, The Big Sky and The Way West by A. B. Guthrie, Jr. and Shane by Jack Schaefer. Many other Western authors gained readership in the 1950s, such as Ray Hogan, Louis L'Amour, Luke Short; the genre peaked around the early 1960s due to the tremendous number of Westerns on television. The burnout of the American public on television Westerns in the late 1960s seemed to have an effect on the literature as well, interest in Western literature began to wane. Western novels and pulps gave birth to Western comics, which were popular from the late 1940s until circa 1967, when the comics began to turn to reprints; this can be seen at Marvel Comics, where Westerns began circa 1948 and thrived until 1967, when one of their flagship titles, Kid Colt Outlaw, ceased to have new stories and entered the reprint phase.
Other notable long-running Marvel Western comics included Rawhide Kid Two-Gun Kid, Marvel Wild Western. DC Comics published the long-running series All-Star Western and Western Comics, Charlton Comics published Billy the Kid and Cheyenne Kid. Magazine Enterprises' Straight Arrow ran from 1950 to 1956, Prize Comics' Prize Comics Western ran from 1948 to 1956. Fawcett Comics published a number of Western titles, including Hopalong Cassidy from 1948 to 1953, they published comics starring actors known for their Western roles, including Tom Mix Western and Gabby Hayes Western. Dell Comics published Roy Rogers comics from 1948 to 1961, Magazine Enterprises published Charles Starrett as the Durango Kid from 1949 to 1955; the popular Western comic strip Red Ryder was syndicated in hundreds of American newspapers from 1938 to 1964. In the 1970s, the work of Louis L'Amour began to catch hold of most western readers and he has tended to dominate the western reader lists since. George G. Gilman maintained a cult following for several years in the 1970s and 1980s.
Larry McMurtry's and Cormac McCarthy's works remain notable. McMurtry's Lonesome Dove and McCarthy's Blood Meridian are recognized as major masterpieces both within and beyond the genre. Elmer Kelton noted for his novels The Good Old Boys and The Time it Never Rained, was voted by the Western Writers of America as the "Best Western Writer of All Time". Early in the 1970s Indiana novelist Marilyn Durham wrote two popular Western novels, The Man Who Loved Cat Dancing and Dutch Uncle. Western readership as a whole began to drop off in the mid- to late 1970s. A partial exception was an innovation, the so-called "adult western"; as one practitioner puts it, "What's an Adult Western? It's a western novel with sex in it. That's right, the cowboy has sex with women. A new idea? Not, but heretofore this had not been seen in western novels. What these books showed was that men and women did have sex in the old west. (Back wh
Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an investigator or a detective—either professional, amateur or retired—investigates a crime murder. The detective genre began around the same time as speculative fiction and other genre fiction in the mid-nineteenth century and has remained popular in novels; some of the most famous heroes of detective fiction include C. Auguste Dupin, Sherlock Holmes, Hercule Poirot. Juvenile stories featuring The Hardy Boys, Nancy Drew, The Boxcar Children have remained in print for several decades; some scholars, such as R. H. Pfeiffer, have suggested that certain ancient and religious texts bear similarities to what would be called detective fiction. In the Old Testament story of Susanna and the Elders, the account told by two witnesses broke down when Daniel cross-examines them. In response, author Julian Symons has argued that "those who search for fragments of detection in the Bible and Herodotus are looking only for puzzles" and that these puzzles are not detective stories.
In the play Oedipus Rex by Ancient Greek playwright Sophocles, the protagonist discovers the truth about his origins after questioning various witnesses. Although "Oedipus's enquiry is based on supernatural, pre-rational methods that are evident in most narratives of crime until the development of Enlightenment thought in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries", this narrative has "all of the central characteristics and formal elements of the detective story, including a mystery surrounding a murder, a closed circle of suspects, the gradual uncovering of a hidden past." The oldest known example of a detective story was The Three Apples, one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights. In this story, a fisherman discovers a heavy, locked chest along the Tigris river, which he sells to the Abbasid Caliph, Harun al-Rashid; when Harun breaks open the chest, he discovers the body of a young woman, cut into pieces. Harun orders his vizier, Ja'far ibn Yahya, to solve the crime and to find the murderer within three days, or be executed if he fails in his assignment.
Suspense is generated through multiple plot twists. With these characteristics this may be considered an archetype for detective fiction; the main difference between Ja'far and fictional detectives, such as Sherlock Holmes and Hercule Poirot, is that Ja'far has no actual desire to solve the case. The whodunit mystery is solved; this in turn lead to another assignment in which Ja'far has to find the culprit who instigated the murder within three days or else be executed. Ja'far again fails to find the culprit before the deadline, but owing to chance, he discovers a key item. In the end, he manages to solve the case through reasoning. Gong'an fiction is the earliest known genre of Chinese detective fiction; some well-known stories include the Yuan Dynasty story Circle of Chalk, the Ming Dynasty story collection Bao Gong An and the 18th century Di Gong An story collection. The latter was translated into English as Celebrated Cases of Judge Dee by Dutch sinologist Robert Van Gulik, who used the style and characters to write the original Judge Dee series.
The hero/detective of these novels was a traditional judge or similar official based on historical personages such as Judge Bao or Judge Dee. Although the historical characters may have lived in an earlier period most stories are written in the Ming or Qing Dynasty period; these novels differ from the Western style tradition in several points as described by Van Gulik: The detective is the local magistrate, involved in several unrelated cases simultaneously. Van Gulik chose Di Gong An to translate because in his view it was closer to the Western literary style and more to appeal to non-Chinese readers. One notable fact is that a number of Gong An works may have been lost or destroyed during the Literary Inquisitions and the wars in ancient China. Moreover, in the traditional Chinese culture, this genre was low-prestige, therefore was less worthy of preservation than works such as philosophy or poetry. Only little or incomplete case volumes can be found. One of the earliest examples of detective fiction in Western Literature is Voltaire's Zadig, which features a main character who performs feats of analysis.
Things as They Are. Thomas Skinner Sturr's anonymous Richmond, or stories in the life of a Bow Street officer was published in London in 1827.
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai