States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Geography of Thrissur
The city of Thrissur is situated in the southwest of the South Indian state of Kerala of Thrissur district. A landlocked city, Thrissur is located on a hillock, surrounded by Thrissur Kole Wetlands. Thrissur district borders with Palakkad district in east, Malappuram district in the north, Ernakulam district in the South and Arabian Sea in the west; the city lies at 10.52°N 76.21°E / 10.52. The city is located with an extended part of Palakkad plains, it is situated in hillock. The city geologically is composed of crystalline schists. Major parts of city are covered by Archaean rocks. Thrissur lies near the center of the Indian tectonic plate and is subject to comparatively little seismic or volcanic activity; the predominant topography of the city is Thrissur Kole Wetlands which extends to Malappuram district. The city’s highest point is Vilangan Hills; the city is dotted with small rivers which act as a natural drainage system for the city. Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary in Western Ghats near Thrissur city act as a source of water for the city.
Under the Köppen climate classification, the city features a Tropical monsoon climate. Since the region lies in the south western coastal state of Kerala, the climate is tropical, with only minor differences in temperatures between day and night, as well as over the year. Summer lasts from March to May, is followed by the South-west monsoon from June to September. October and November form retreating monsoon season. Winter from December through February is cooler, windy, due to winds from the Western Ghats; the City is drained in the monsoonal season by heavy showers. The average annual rainfall is 2500 mm; the South-west monsoon sets in during the last week of May. After July the rainfall decreases. On an average, there are 124 rainy days in a year; the maximum average temperature of the city in the summer season is 33 degree Celsius while the minimum temperature recorded is 22.5 degrees Celsius. The winter season records a maximum average of 29 degree Celsius and a minimum average of 20 degree Celsius
Vadakkechira is one of the four oldest ponds in Thrissur city of Kerala in India. It is one of Thrissur's famous landmarks, it is owned by Cochin Devaswom Board. Sakthan Thampuran, Maharaja of Cochin, built four ponds in Thrissur city for water management and irrigation purpose in his regime, they are Vadakkechira, Padinjarechira and Kizakechira. Members of the Cochin Royal Family and priests of the Ashokeswaram Temple used to have bath at the ghats on the northern side of the pond, the public at those on other sides. Elephants used to be bathed at ghats on the eastern side; the Kulapparas and ghats for elephants are reminiscent of 19th century architecture. A walkway is on the southern side of the pond; the re-designed pond has sculptural seats, gateways Padippuras, fountains, a gallery and a rock garden. M. M. Vinod Kumar has re-designed its surroundings, he got special jury mention at the State Awards, instituted by the Indian Institute of Architects. The pond is a four hectare ecosystem complete with plants, sacred groves and butterfly gardens.
Vadakkechira is home to many avian species, including small green barbet, white-breasted water hen, blue rock pigeon, bronze-winged jacana, pond heron, white-browed wagtail, common kingfisher, house sparrow, common myna, little cormorant, lesser whistling teal and little grebe. In 1983, when drought struck Thrissur city Minister M. P. Gangadharan with help of Kerala Water Resources Department cleaned the pond over a time of one month. In 1985, a water supply system was constructed by spending Rs 23 lakhs form Vadakkechira pond to supply water to Thekkinkadu Maidan and Swaraj Round, Thrissur by Kerala Water Resources Department. At the same time, a park was set up near the pond; the project was handed over to Thrissur Municipal Corporation
Sreejith Ravi is an Indian film actor who appears predominantly in Malayalam films and a few Tamil films. Sreejith is the son of yesteryear Malayalam film actor T. G. Ravi. Sreejith is the son of Late. Dr. V. K. Subhadra. Sreejith has 2 sons, Rijrashwa & Ritunjay, he studied in Thrissur. He did his Bachelor Of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering from NITK Suratkal, he did his PGDBA from ICFAI Business school Bengalooru and Diploma in Business Finance from ICFAI Hyderabad. He started his acting career in 2005 with the film Mayookham. Chanthupottu released in the same year which ran for more than 100 days came as a break for this actor. Adoor Gopalakrishnan's Naalu Pennungal, Sivarasan in the rajiv gandhi assassination based Mission 90 Days were his notable roles. Chekavar was a turning point where he ventured in the Tamil film industry with the movie Vettai. Sathyan Anthikad's Kadha Thudarunnu and Orkut Oru Ormakoot by Manoj Vinod showed a possibility of moulding into character roles and humour apart from the villainy seen throughout and through lineage of the one-time prominent villain actor T. G. Ravi.
He has dubbed his father T. G. Ravi in the movies Ashwaroodan and Pranchiyettan & the Saint. Pranchiyettan and the Saint - voice for T. G Ravi Sreejith Ravi on IMDb http://popcorn.oneindia.in/artist/9423/1/sreejith-ravi.html http://www.brahmacreations.org/sreejith-ravi-emerging-heights-kadavul-shaju-malayalam-movie-kerala-today/
Thrissur Public Library
Thrissur Public Library is known as Public Library of Thrissur. It was formed in 1872 in Thrissur city, India; the library was started by Diwan A Sankara Iyer in 1872. The library first started functioning at Thrissur library, it was shifted to the first floor of the Thrissur Town Hall in 1939. The library have 1,200 square feet space, it is the first computerised public library in Kerala in 1996. Timeline of Thrissur
History of Kerala
The history of Kerala, dates back many millennia. Stone Age carvings in the Edakkal Caves feature pictorial writings believed to date to at least the Neolithic era around 5,000 BC, indicating the presence of a prehistoric civilisation or settlement in this region. From as early as 3000 BC, Chera nadu known as Kerala had established itself as a major spice trade centre. Keralam, the Chera nadu had direct contact across the Arabian Sea with all the major Mediterranean and Red Sea ports as well those of the Far East; the spice trade between Kerala and much of the world was one of the main drivers of the world economy. For much of history, ports in Kerala were the busiest among all trade and travel routes in the history of the world; the word Kerala is first recorded in a 3rd-century BC rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka. The Land of Keralaputra was one of the five independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being Chola, Pandya and Satiyaputra. A 3rd century CE, Brahmi inscription, found on Edakal cave, Ambukuthi hill, contained the word ‘Chera', the earliest inscriptional evidence of the dynasty Chera.
The Cheras collapsed after repeated attacks from the neighboring Chola Empire and Rashtrakuta Empire. In the 8th century, Adi Shankara was born at Kalady in central Kerala, he travelled extensively across the Indian subcontinent establishing institutions of Advaita Vedanta philosophy. Contact with Europeans after the arrival of Vasco Da Gama in 1498 gave rise to armed conflicts between colonial and natives due to disputes on trade; the state of Keralam was created in 1956 from the former state of Travancore-Cochin, the Malabar district of Madras State, the Kasaragod taluk of Dakshina Kannada. According to Bibilical legends, many historians locate port cities Ophir and Tarshish mentioned in old testament in ancient Kerala. Poovar near Thiruvananthapuram is believed to be Ophir mentioned in old testament bible. Kollam, another ancient port city, is believed to be Tarshish; some of the legends of the native people in Kerala are common with the rest of India coming from the Puranas. However, new scholarship claims that the connections between Kerala's own legends and Aryan history are added at a stage as part of cultural and religious assimilation.
The most famous festival of Kerala, Onam, is rooted in Kerala traditions. Onam is associated with the legendary king Mahabali, who according to tradition and the Hindu Puranas, ruled the Earth and several other planetary systems from Kerala, his entire kingdom was a land of immense prosperity and happiness. However, Mahabali was tricked into giving up his rule, was thus overthrown by Vamana, the fifth Avatar of Lord Vishnu, he was banished from the Earth to rule over one of the netherworld planets called Sutala by Vamana. Legend says that Mahabali comes back to visit Keralam every year, that festival is known as Onam. Onam is celebrated in Kerala with respect to Maveli Thampuran of Thrikkakkarayappan; the oldest of all the Puranas, the Matsya Purana, sets the story of the Matsya Avatar of Lord Vishnu, in the Western ghat Mountains of old Tamil Nadu, which lie in between Chera Nadu and chola and pandiyanadu. The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala by name is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda.
It is mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata There are legends dealing with the origins of Kerala geographically and culturally. One such legend is the retrieval of Kerala from the sea, by a warrior sage, it proclaims that an Avatar of Mahavishnu, threw his battle axe into the sea. As a result, the land of Kerala arose, thus was reclaimed from the waters, he was the sixth of the ten avatars of Vishnu. The word Parasu means'axe' in Sanskrit and therefore the name Parasurama means'Ram with Axe. In Treta yuga, Parasurama retrieved the land submerged under the ocean from Varuna - the God of the Oceans and Bhumidevi - Goddess of Earth. From Gokarnam he threw his axe northward across the ocean; the place where the axe landed was Kerala. It was 160 katam of land lying between Kanyakumari. Puranas say that it was Parasurama who planted the Brahmins and Nayakas in 64 regions of Kerala from Chera and Pandya regions. According to the puranas, Kerala is known as Parasurama Kshetram, i.e.'The Land of Parasurama', as the land was reclaimed from sea by him.
Archaeological studies have identified many Mesolithic and Megalithic sites in Kerala. These findings have been classified into Laterite rock-cut caves, Hood stones, Hat stones, Dolmenoid cists, Urn burials and Menhirs; the studies point to the indigenous development of the ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic age, its continuity through Mesolithic and Megalithic ages. However, foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation; the studies suggest possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. Archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area, they are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni and ara. Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves in Wayanad are thought to date from the early to late Neolithic eras around 5000 BCE. Historian M. R. Raghava Varier of the Kerala state archaeology department identified a sign of “a man with jar cup” in the engravings, the most distinct motif of the Indus valley civilisation.
Kerala was a major spice exporter as ea