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Manor house

A manor house was the main residence of the lord of the manor. The house formed the administrative centre of a manor in the European feudal system; the term is today loosely applied to various country houses dating from the late medieval era, which housed the gentry. Manor houses were sometimes fortified, but this was intended more for show than for defence, they existed in most European countries where feudalism existed, where they were sometimes known as castles, so on. The lord of the manor may have held several properties within a county or, for example in the case of a feudal baron, spread across a kingdom, which he occupied only on occasional visits. So, the business of the manor required to be directed and controlled by regular manorial courts, which appointed manorial officials such as the bailiff, granted copyhold leases to tenants, resolved disputes between manorial tenants and administered justice in general. A large and suitable building was required within the manor for such purpose in the form of a great hall, a solar might be attached to form accommodation for the lord.

Furthermore, the produce of a small manor might be insufficient to feed a lord and his large family for a full year, thus he would spend only a few months at each manor and move on to another where stores had been laid up. This gave the opportunity for the vacated manor house to be cleaned important in the days of the cess-pit, repaired, thus such non-resident lords needed to appoint a steward or seneschal to act as their deputy in such matters and to preside at the manorial courts of his different manorial properties. The day-to-day administration was carried out by a resident official in authority at each manor, who in England was called a bailiff, or reeve. Although not built with strong fortifications as were castles, many manor-houses were fortified, which required a royal licence to crenellate, they were enclosed within walls or ditches which also included agricultural buildings. Arranged for defence against roaming bands of robbers and thieves, in days long before police, they were surrounded by a moat with a drawbridge, were equipped with gatehouses and watchtowers, but not, as for castles, with a keep, large towers or lofty curtain walls designed to withstand a siege.

The primary feature of the manor house was its great hall, to which subsidiary apartments were added as the lessening of feudal warfare permitted more peaceful domestic life. By the beginning of the 16th century, manor houses as well as small castles began to acquire the character and amenities of the residences of country gentlemen, many defensive elements were dispensed with, for example Sutton Place in Surrey, circa 1521. A late 16th-century transformation produced many of the smaller Renaissance châteaux of France and the numerous country mansions of the Elizabethan and Jacobean styles in England. Before around 1600, larger houses were fortified for true defensive purposes but as the kingdom became internally more peaceable after the Wars of the Roses, as a form of status-symbol, reflecting the position of their owners as having been worthy to receive royal licence to crenellate; the Tudor period of stability in England saw the building of the first of the unfortified great houses, for example Sutton Place in Surrey, circa 1521.

The Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII resulted in many former monastical properties being sold to the King's favourites, who converted them into private country houses, examples being Woburn Abbey, Forde Abbey, Nostell Priory and many other mansions with the suffix Abbey or Priory to their name. During the second half of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I and under her successor King James I the first mansions designed by architects not by mere masons or builders, began to make their appearance; such houses as Burghley House, Longleat House, Hatfield House are among the best known of this period and seem today to epitomise the English country house. Nearly every large medieval manor house had its own deer-park adjoining, emparked by royal licence, which served as a store of food in the form of venison. Within these licensed parks deer could not be hunted by royalty, nor by neighbouring land-owners nor by any other persons. During the 16th century many lords of manors moved their residences from their ancient manor houses situated next to the parish church and near or in the village and built a new manor house within the walls of their ancient deer-parks adjoining.

This gave them space. The suffixes given to manor houses today have little substantive meaning, many have changed over time, thus a manor house may have been known as "Heanton House" in the 18th century and in the 19th century as "Heanton Court" and as "Heanton Satchville". "Court" was a suffix which came into use in the 16th century, contemporary topographers felt the need to explain the term to their readers. Thus the Devonshire historian Tristram Risdon clarified the term at least three times in his main work, Survey of Devon: "This now lord of these lands Sir Robert Basset hath his dwelling at Heanton-Court, in this parish, an adjunct importing a manor-house in the lord's signiory". "This Nutwell Court, which signifies a mansion-house in a signiory, came to the family of Prideaux". and regarding the manor of Yarnscombe: "Their house is called "Court", which implieth a manor house, or chief dwelling in a lordship". The biographer John Prince, (1643–1723

A. B. Dilworth

Andrew Boyd Dilworth was an American farmer and military officer. Dilworth was born in North Carolina. During the 1830s, Dilworth worked in an official government capacity in Mississippi, he returned to Rockingham County, where he convinced his father and uncle to purchase farmland available near Corinth. The family moved to nearby Danville in 1837 or 1838. Dilworth was elected to the Mississippi House of Representatives, served as a Democrat from 1846-1850, representing Tishomingo County. Dilworth served as Secretary of State of Mississippi from 1855-1860, as State Auditor of Mississippi from 1861 to 1862. Dilworth oversaw the construction of the Jacinto Courthouse, completed in 1854, in Jacinto, Mississippi. During the American Civil War, Dilworth served as Quartermaster General in the Confederate States Army. Stationed in Iuka, Dilworth is noted for negotiating the release of Confederate prisoners from Camp Douglas in Chicago. Dilworth was responsible for signing paper currency and financial vouchers during the war.

Dilworth died on July 2, 1894, is buried in John Dilworth Cemetery, south of Corinth. A historic plaque in his honor is located there

Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz

Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz was a Swedish architect and civil servant. Adelcrantz's style developed from a rococo influenced by Carl Hårleman, the leading architect in Sweden in the early years of his career, to a classical idiom influenced by the stylistic developments in France in the mid-to-late 18th century; as överintendent, he headed the royal and public building works from 1767 until his retirement in 1795. Adelcrantz was born in 1716 in Stockholm and was the son of the architect Göran Josuæ Adelcrantz, who had changed his name from Törnqvist at his ennoblement four years earlier; as a student in Uppsala, Göran Josua Törnqvist had been a member of the student theatre troupe known as Den Swänska Theatren that performed in the Lejonkulan theatre in Stockholm. He came into the employment of Nicodemus Tessin the Younger in 1697, the year the disastrous fire at the old Castle of Stockholm took place and the planning for the new palace began. Törnqvist had studied architecture before this and may have been discovered by Tessin for his scenographies.

Göran Josua Adelcrantz remained in the shadow of the dominant Tessin. Through his marriage in 1711 to the young widow Anna Maria Köhnmann, daughter of a wealthy businessman, Törnqvist's finances improved considerably. Among other things, he became the possessor of the manor of Signhildsberg near Sigtuna; the next year Charles XII ennobled him, on the recommendation of his patron Tessin. Born in Stockholm, Carl Fredrik was the third child of the marriage; the elder Adelcrantz did not intend for Carl Fredrik to follow in his professional footsteps. After a short time of study in Uppsala, Carl Fredrik began his career as a low-level civil servant in the Kammarrevisionen court. Göran Josua Adelcrantz did not attempt to suppress the artistic inclination of his son. Carl Fredrik assisted his father in some tasks. Half a year after his father's death in 1739, Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz left his employment in Kammarrevisionen, on 11 August 1739 he left Stockholm for France and Italy. Although his notes from the journey have been lost, it is known that he spent two years in Paris and several months in Rome.

In December 1741, while he was still in Rome, Adelcrantz was given a position within the palace construction project. Count Carl Gustaf Tessin, to whom he had turned for a recommendation, had still to become convinced that his talent equaled that of his father, but Carl Hårleman made sure that Adelcrantz would get the appointment. In late summer 1743, he started on his return journey to Sweden. Beside his work in the palace construction, he was given the court title of hovjunkare and was attached to the court of Crown Prince Adolf Fredrik and his consort Louisa Ulrika, the sister of Frederick the Great. Adelcrantz would remain in the shadow of Hårleman for several years more, spending the 1740s as his assistant in the work on the Royal Palace in Stockholm, under continuous construction since the old Castle burnt down in 1697, he won the trust of Hårleman who recommended Adelcrantz for a mission to Italy to recruit artists for the palace project, secured the necessary funding for the journey, enabling Adelcrantz to leave in 1750, accompanied by the royal sculptor Jacques Philippe Bouchardon.

The stay in Italy was a failure as far as recruiting new artists went, as the ones he wanted turned out to be far to expensive, but gave a rich yield in the form of architectural notes and art objects. Adelcrantz was back in Stockholm in late summer 1751; when Hårleman died in 1753, he was succeeded as överintendent by Carl Johan Cronstedt, Adelcrantz was given Cronstedt's position as hovintendent. The office of överintendent had been created for Nicodemus Tessin the Younger at the start of the planning for the new royal palace in 1697, with statutes modelled on the French royal office of the surintendant, responsible for the royal building works, extended during Colbert's time to heading the royal manufacture of tapestries and porcelain. In the absence of royal factories of the French type, the Swedish office may in actuality been more have resembled the subordinate office of the premier architecte; the task of the office was extended to all public building projects, including churches. At the end of 1753, Adelcrantz was again given a foreign mission, now to Paris.

In accordance with his instructions, he sent home a large number of models and engravings to be used for interior details in the latest fashion. He contracted Pierre Hubert L'Archevêque as a successor to J. P. Bouchardon, who had died in December 1753. In Paris, Adelcrantz sat for the portrait by Alexander Roslin that he bequested to the Swedish Academy of Arts. Adelcrantz and Roslin may have met in Stockholm before the latter left for the continent, or in Italy a few years before, but the stay in Paris appears to have been the beginning of a long friendship and an extensive but now-lost correspondence; the diary that he is known to have kept during his journey was mentioned as sold at auction in 1831, but appears to be lost. After his return, he worked on the furnishing of the Palace, finished in November, when he was appointed a Knight of the Orde