A mantra is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and/or spiritual powers. Some mantras have literal meaning, while others do not; the earliest mantras were composed in Vedic Sanskrit in India, are at least 3000 years old. Mantras now exist in various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism. In Japanese Shingon tradition, the word Shingon means mantra. Similar hymns, chants and concepts are found in Zoroastrianism, Taoism and elsewhere; the use, function and types of mantras vary according to the school and philosophy of Hinduism and Buddhism. Mantras serve a central role in tantra. In this school, mantras are considered to be a sacred formula and a personal ritual, effective only after initiation. In other schools of Hinduism, Jainism or Sikhism, initiation is not a requirement. Mantras come in many forms, including sāman, they are melodic, mathematically structured meters, believed to be resonant with numinous qualities.
At its simplest, the word ॐ serves as a mantra. In more sophisticated forms, mantras are melodic phrases with spiritual interpretations such as a human longing for truth, light, peace, love and action; some mantras without literal meaning are spiritually meaningful. In Sanskrit, the Amarakosa lists the two elements of the word Mantra: the dhātu mantr and the krit pratyaya ghañ. For the dhātu mantr Pānini gives'gupta paribhāshana' -'protected or secret speech'; the krit pratyaya ghañ expresses either bhāva. Therefore a mantra is the speaking of a protected or secret sound; the Sanskrit word mantra- is derived from the root man- "to think". Scholars consider the use of mantras to have begun before 1000 BC. By the middle Vedic period – claims Frits Staal – mantras in Hinduism had developed into a blend of art and science; the Chinese translation is 眞言, 真言. According to Bernfried Schlerath, the concept of sātyas mantras is found in Indo-Iranian Yasna 31.6 and the Rigveda, where it is considered structured thought in conformity with the reality or poetic formulas associated with inherent fulfillment.
Mantras are neither unique to other Indian religions such as Buddhism. Mantras, suggests Frits Staal, may be older than language. There is no accepted definition of mantra. Renou has defined mantra as a thought. Mantras are structured formulae of thoughts, claims Silburn. Farquhar concludes that mantras are a religious thought, sacred utterance, but believed to be a spell or weapon of supernatural power. Zimmer defines mantra as a verbal instrument to produce something in one’s mind. Bharati defines mantra, in the context of the Tantric school of Hinduism, to be a combination of mixed genuine and quasi-morphemes arranged in conventional patterns, based on codified esoteric traditions, passed on from a guru to a disciple through prescribed initiation. Jan Gonda, a cited scholar on Indian mantras, defines mantra as general name for the verses, formulas or sequence of words in prose which contain praise, are believed to have religious, magical or spiritual efficiency, which are meditated upon, muttered or sung in a ritual, which are collected in the methodically arranged ancient texts of Hinduism.
There is no universally applicable uniform definition of mantra because mantras are used in different religions, within each religion in different schools of philosophy. In some schools of Hinduism for example, suggests Gonda, a mantra is sakti to the devotee in the form of formulated and expressed thought. Staal clarifies that mantras are not rituals, they are what is chanted during a ritual. In Oxford Living Dictionary mantra is defined as a word or sound repeated to aid concentration in meditation. Cambridge Dictionary provides two different definitions; the first refers to Hinduism and Buddhism: a word or sound, believed to have a special spiritual power. The second definition is more general: a word or phrase, repeated and expresses a strong belief. For instance, a football team can choose individual words as their own "mantra." There is a long history of scholarly disagreement on the meaning of mantras and whether they are instruments of mind, as implied by the etymological origin of the word mantra.
One school suggests mantras are meaningless sound constructs, while the other holds them to be meaningful linguistic instruments of mind. Both schools agree that mantras have melody and a well designed mathematical precision in their construction and that their influence on the reciter and listener is similar to, observed in people around the world listening to their beloved music, devoid of words. Staal presents a non-linguistic view of mantras, he suggests that verse mantras are metered and harmonized to mathematical precision, which resonate, but a lot of them are a hodgepodge of meaningless constructs such as are found in folk music around the world. Staal cautions that there are many mantras that can be translated and do have spiritual meaning and philosophical themes central to Hinduism, but that does no
Eucalyptus accedens known as smooth bark wandoo or powderbark wandoo is a species of tree endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. Although the common names suggest it is similar to wandoo, the two species are different botanically; the bark of E. accedens has talc-like powder, at least on the protected side of the trunk and the tree grows on laterite in higher places. Eucalyptus accedens is a tree which grows to a height of 15 to 25 metres with branches high up the trunk and forms a lignotuber, its diameter can be as large as 1.5 metres and hollows will form in dead branches or where limbs have fallen. The smooth bark is notable for being covered in a talc-like powder, it is pale-white The adult leaves are the same dull blue-green colour on both sides. The blade is 8 to 18 centimetres in length and 1.2 to 3 cm wide with a lanceolate shape and tapers to a pointed tip. The leaf petioles are 1.3 to 3.2 cm long. White flowers are produced between April; the inflorescence is axillary with a peduncle 0.7 to 1.7 cm long.
It will form pedicellate buds in clusters with cylindrical to obovoid or ovoid shape. It forms fruit that are cylindrical to barrel-shaped with a width of 0.5 to 0.9 cm. The fruits contain brown seeds with a length of 1.5 to 2.5 mm. Eucalyptus wandoo and E. accedens have a similar appearance, but can be distinguished by the orangey coloured powdery coating on the bark of E. accedens that appears seasonally. It has larger, more rounded buds and more rounded juvenile foliage. Eucalyptus accedens was first formally described in 1904 by William Vincent Fitzgerald from specimens he had collected near Pingelly the previous year; the specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "to assent to" or "to approve". Powderbark wandoo will grow is clay-loam soils over laterite, it is found on stony ridges or lateritic breakaways and above stands of Eucalyptus wandoo. Its range extends from south east of Geraldton in the Mid West region south through the Darling Range as far as Williams, Western Australia in the Wheatbelt region.
Occurring on woodland areas, associated species include E. wandoo as E. wandoo occurs below E. accedens in the overstorey landscape, with E. astringens, sometimes with E. marginata on the western fringe. In the understorey, shrubs such as Hypocalymma angustifolia, Hibbertia hypericoides, Hakea lissocarpha, Acacia pulchella, Hovea chorizemifolia, Gastrolobium microcarpum, Lepidosperma leptostachyum and Bossiaea eriocarpa are found; this eucalypt is classified as "not threatened" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. Eucalyptus accedens is now sold as an ornamental shade or shelter tree. Bark is used to deter ants, it tolerates a wide range of soil types except for lime and is reasonably drought tolerant and is available as seed or seedlings. The powder that accumulates on the trunk was tested as a deterrent for arthropods in 2004; the results demonstrated that ant mortality was much greater paper discs coated with the powder than on control discs. List of Eucalyptus species
The Latham 47, or Latham R3B4 in Naval service was a French twin-engine flying boat designed and built by Société Latham & Cie for the French Navy. The aircraft achieved notoriety in 1928 when aircraft number 47.02 disappeared with the explorer Roald Amundsen on a rescue mission for the Italian explorer Umberto Nobile. The Latham 47 was designed to meet a French Navy requirement for a long-range flying boat with a transatlantic capability; the prototype appeared in 1928. The Type 47 was a large biplane powered by two Farman 12We engines mounted in tandem below the upper wing; the pilot and co-pilot sat side by side in an open cockpit, two further machine-gun equipped cockpits were located in the nose and amidships. Twelve production aircraft were delivered to the Navy. Two further aircraft were built as the Latham 47P as civilian mail carriers with Hispano-Suiza 12Y engines; the 47Ps were used on Mediterranean routes until 1932. Type 47.01 First Latham 47 prototype. Type 47.02 Second Latham 47 prototype.
Type 47 Two prototypes and twelve production military aircraft, designated R3B4 in service, indicating three seat reconnaissance or four seat bomber. Type 47P Civilian mail carriers, two built. FranceFrench Navy Escadrille 3E1 Escadrille 4R1 On 6 June 1928 the Latham 47.02 was tasked to help search for the airship Italia which earlier on 25 May 1928 had crashed on pack ice in the Arctic Ocean just north of Spitsbergen. The aircraft, piloted by Norwegian Leif Dietrichson and Frenchman René Guilbaud, picked up the explorer Roald Amundsen and a colleague at Bergen. On 18 June the aircraft left Norway to fly across the Barents Sea. Data from The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. Orbis Publishing. Pp. 2296–7. General characteristics Crew: 4 Wingspan: 25.20 m Gross weight: 6886 kg Powerplant: 2 × Farman 12We, 373 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 170 km/h Range: 900 km Armament 2 x twin 7.7 mm machine-guns 600kg bombs Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft Taylor, Michael J. H..
Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 568. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. Orbis Publishing. Pp. 2296–7