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Manuel Azaña

Manuel Azaña Díaz was a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic and the last President of the Republic. A collaborator in several publications in the 1910s, he stood out in the pro-Allies camp during World War I. Critical towards the Generation of'98 and not keen of the reimagination of the Spanish Middle Ages, the Imperial Spain nor the 20th yearnings for a praetorian refurbishment of the country, Azaña followed instead the examples of the French Enlightenment and the Third French Republic, took a political quest for democracy in the 1920s while defending the notion of homeland as the "democratic equality of all citizens towards the law" that made him embrace republicanism. After the Proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in April 1931, Azaña became Minister of War of the Provisional Government and enacted military reform, looking to develop a modern armed forces with fewer army officers, he became Prime Minister in October 1931. The Spanish Civil War broke out.

With the defeat of the Republic in 1939, he fled to France, resigned from office, died in exile shortly afterwards. Born into a rich family, Manuel Azaña Díaz was orphaned at a young age, he studied in the Cisneros Institute and the Agustinos of El Escorial. He was awarded a Lawyer's licence by the University of Zaragoza in 1897, a doctorate by the Universidad Complutense in 1900. In 1909 he achieved a position at the Main Directorate of the Registries and practised the profession of civil law notary, travelled to Paris in 1911, he became involved in politics and in 1914 joined the Reformist Republican Party led by Melquíades Álvarez. He collaborated in the production such as El Imparcial and El Sol. During World War I he covered operations on the Western Front for various newspapers, his treatment was sympathetic to the French, he may have been sponsored by French military intelligence. Afterwards he edited the magazines Pluma and España between 1920 and 1924, founding the former with his brother-in-law Cipriano Rivas Cherif.

He was secretary of the Ateneo de Madrid, becoming its president in 1930. He lost on both occasions. In 1926 he founded the Acción Republicana party with José Giral. A strong critic of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, Azaña published a stirring manifesto against the dictator and King Alfonso XIII in 1924. In 1930, he was a signatory of the "Pact of San Sebastián", which united all the republican and regionalist parties in Spain against Primo de Rivera and the King. On 12 April 1931, republican candidates swept the municipal elections; this was seen as repudiation of the monarchy. Two days the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed. Niceto Alcalá-Zamora, prime minister of the provisional government of the Republic, named Azaña Minister of War on 14 April. Alcalá-Zamora resigned in October, Azaña replaced him as prime minister; when the new constitution was adopted on 9 December, Azaña continued as prime minister, leading a coalition of left-wing parties, including his own Acción Republicana and the Socialists, while Alcalá-Zamora became President of the Republic.

Azaña pursued some of the major reforms anticipated by the republican program. He introduced work accident insurance, reduced the size of the Spanish Army, removed some monarchist officers, he moved to reduce the power and influence of the Roman Catholic Church, abolishing Church-operated schools and charities, expanding state-operated secular schools. The Spanish legislature, the Cortes enacted an agrarian reform program, under which large private landholdings were to be confiscated and distributed among the rural poor. However, Azaña was a "middle-class republican", not a socialist, he and his followers were not enthusiastic for this program. The agrarian law did not include state-funded collective farms, as the Socialists wanted, was not enacted until late 1932, it was clumsily written, threatened many small landholders more than the latifundists. The Azaña government did little to carry it out: only 12,000 families received land in the first two years. In addition, Azaña did little to reform the taxation system to shift the burden of government onto the wealthy.

The government continued to support the owners of industry against wildcat strikes or attempted takeovers by militant workers the anarcho-syndicalists of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo. Confrontation with the CNT erupted in bloody violence at Casas Viejas and Arnedo. Meanwhile, Azaña's extreme anti-clerical program alienated many moderates. In local elections held in early 1933, most of the seats went to centrist parties. Elections to the "Tribunal of Constitutional Guarantees" followed this pattern, thus Azaña came into conflict with both the right and far left. He called a vote of confidence, but two-thirds of the Cortes abstained, Alcalá-Zamora ordered Azaña's resignation on 8 September 1933. New elections were held on 19 November 1933; these elections were won by the right-wing Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas and the centrist Radical Republican Party. Radical leader Alejandro Lerroux became prime minister. Azaña temporarily returned to literary activity. Azaña's self-imposed political retreat lasted only a short while.


Tumbaga is the name for a non-specific alloy of gold and copper given by Spanish Conquistadors to metals composed of these elements found in widespread use in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica in North America and South America. The term is believed to be a borrowing from Malay tembaga, meaning "copper" or "brass", which in turn is from Prakrit, it has been spelled tumbago in literature. Tumbaga is an alloy composed of gold and copper, it has a lower melting point than gold or copper alone. It maintains malleability after being pounded. Tumbaga can be treated like citric acid, to dissolve copper off the surface. What remains is a shiny layer of nearly pure gold on top of a harder, more durable copper-gold alloy sheet; this process is referred to as depletion gilding. Tumbaga was used by the pre-Columbian cultures of South and Central America to make religious objects. Like most gold alloys, tumbaga was versatile and could be cast, hammered, soldered, plated, annealed, engraved and inlaid; the proportion of gold to copper in artifacts varies widely.

Some tumbaga has been found to be composed of metals besides gold and copper, up to 18% of the total mass of the tumbaga. Tumbaga objects were made using a combination of the lost wax technique and depletion gilding. An alloy of varying proportions of copper and gold was cast. After removal it was burned, turning surface copper into copper oxide, mechanically removed The object was placed in an oxidizing solution composed of sodium chloride and ferric sulfate; this dissolved the silver from the surface. When viewed through a microscope, voids appear where the silver had been. In 1992 200 silver "tumbaga" bars were recovered in wreckage off Grand Bahama Island, they were composed of silver and gold plundered by the Spaniards during the conquests of Cortés and hastily melted into bars of tumbaga for transport across the Atlantic. Such bars were melted back into their constituent metals in Spain. Shipwreck recovered right after the conquest of Cortés with tumbaga gold bars The "Tumbaga" Saga: Treasure of the Conquistadors.

Book about Tumbaga Bars The Art of Precolumbian Gold: The Jan Mitchell Collection, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Tumbaga

Explorer 51

Explorer 51 called as AE-C, was a NASA scientific satellite belonging to series Atmosphere Explorer, being launched on December 16, 1973 from Vandenberg AFB board a Delta 1900 rocket. The purpose of the Explorer 51 mission was to investigate the thermosphere, with emphasis on the energy transfer and processes that govern its state; the study of photochemical processes accompanying the absorption of solar UV radiation in the earth's atmosphere was accomplished by making coordinated measurements of reacting constituents and the solar input. The data from Explorer 51 served, among other things, to obtain the angular load distribution around the satellite and compare it with the data of Explorer 31 and model the hydroxyl ion emissions in the Earth's atmosphere; the satellite carried instruments to measure ultraviolet solar radiation, temperature and density of the positive ions, of the neutral particles and of the electrons, to measure atmospheric glow emissions, the energy spectra of the photoelectrons and the protons and electrons flows with energies up to 25 keV

1997 Wisconsin Badgers football team

The 1997 Wisconsin Badgers football team represented the University of Wisconsin during the 1997 Big Ten Conference football season. They were led by eight year head coach Barry Alvarez and participated as members of the Big Ten Conference; the Badgers played their home games at Camp Randall Stadium in Wisconsin. After suffering a humiliating loss at the hands of Donovan McNabb and the Syracuse Orangemen in their season opener, the Wisconsin Badgers sprang back to win eight of their next nine games. After defeating Boise State, San Jose State, San Diego State, the Badgers won consecutive games with field goals as time expired against Indiana and Northwestern. In the course of this streak, the Badgers snapped a long losing streak at the hands of the Iowa Hawkeyes with a 13–10 win, the first Wisconsin win over a Hayden Fry-coached team ever. After defeating Iowa, Barry Alvarez's team fell apart down the stretch, losing to eventual national champion Michigan, Penn State, Georgia in the Outback Bowl.

While the Badgers suffered a 3-game losing streak to close out the year, the 1997 campaign set the stage for the successful 1998 season. Source

Alexey Eybozhenko

Alexey Sergeevich Eybozhenko was a Soviet film and theater actor. He both was died in Moscow; this actor is best known for his role in the mini-series For the Rest of His Life, a film about Commissioner Danilov. It was based on the novel by Vera Panova, Satellites. Alexey Eybozhenko became an orphan, when he was 7 years old, his father was deceased in the Battle of Kursk. And soon his mother died because of her grief. In 1957, he graduated from the Mikhail Shchepkin Higher Theatre School. Soon after, he transferred to the Koltsov Drama Theatre in Voronezh, he worked there for two years, moved to Moscow again to work at the Taganka Theatre. In 1964, he was accepted into the Mayakovsky Theatre. Three years he moved to the Maly Theatre, where he served until his death and played more than 20 roles. Alexey Eybozhenko died of hypertension 26 December 1980, he was buried at the Vagankovo Cemetery at the 58th site, next to his father-in-law, Vladimir Kenigson. A Simple Story as secretary Third Тime as Lemeshko Silence as episode I Was Nineteen as Sascha Ziganjuk Seventeen Moments of Spring as Husmann For the Rest of His Life as Commissar Danilov Trust as Nikolai Krylenko Alexey Eybozhenko on IMDb «Любовь Яровая».

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Brad Montell

W. Brad Montell is an American politician and was a Republican member of the Kentucky House of Representatives representing District 58 from January 2003 to October 2016, when he resigned his seat to accept a position with Governor Matt Bevin's administration. Montell earned his MA from Western Kentucky University. 2002: With District 58 incumbent Representative Gary Tapp ran for Kentucky Senate, Montell was unopposed for the 2002 Republican Primary and won the November 5, 2002 General election with 7,154 votes against Democratic nominee David Eaton. 2004: Montell and returning 2002 Democratic opponent David Eaton both won their 2004 primaries, setting up a rematch. 2006: Montell was unopposed for the 2006 Republican Primary and won the November 7, 2006 General election with 9,377 votes against Democratic nominee Bill Young. 2008: Montell and returning 2006 Democratic challenger Bill Young were both unopposed for their 2008 primaries, setting up a rematch. 2010: Montell ran unopposed for both the May 18, 2010 Republican Primary and the November 2, 2010 General election, winning with 15,592 votes.

2012: Montell again ran unopposed for both the May 22, 2012 Republican Primary and the November 6, 2012 General election, winning with 19,491 votes. Official page at the Kentucky General Assembly Profile at Vote Smart W. Brad Montell at Ballotpedia Brad Montell at the National Institute on Money in State Politics