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Manuel Castells

Manuel Castells Oliván is a Spanish sociologist associated with research on the information society and globalization. In January 2020, he was appointed Minister of Universities in the Sánchez II Government of Spain, he is Full Professor of Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, in Barcelona. He is as well University Professor and the Wallis Annenberg Chair Professor of Communication Technology and Society at the Annenberg School of Communication, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, he is Professor Emeritus of Sociology, Professor Emeritus of City and Regional Planning at the University of California, where he taught for 24 years. He is a fellow of University of Cambridge. Professor Castells hold the chair of Collège d'Études Mondiales, Paris; the 2000–2014 research survey of the Social Sciences Citation Index ranks him as the world's fifth most-cited social science scholar, the foremost-cited communication scholar. He was awarded the 2012 Holberg Prize, for having "shaped our understanding of the political dynamics of urban and global economies in the network society."

In 2013 he was awarded the Balzan Prize for Sociology. Manuel Castells was raised in La Mancha but he moved to Barcelona, where he studied Law and Economics. From a conservative family, Castells says: My parents were good parents, it was a conservative family — strongly conservative family. But I would say that the main thing that shaped my character besides my parents was the fact that I grew up in fascist Spain. It's difficult for people of the younger generation to realize what that means for the Spanish younger generation. You had to resist the whole environment, to be yourself, you had to fight and to politicize yourself from the age of fifteen or sixteen". Castells was politically active in the student anti-Franco movement, an adolescent political activism that forced him to flee Spain for France. In Paris, at the age of 20, he completed his degree studies progressed to the University of Paris, where he earned a doctorate in sociology. Castells graduated from the Sorbonne in 1964 and received his Ph.

D from the University of Paris in 1967. At the age of twenty-four, Castells became an instructor in several Parisian universities from 1967 to 1979. In 1979, the University of California, Berkeley appointed him as professor of sociology, professor of city and regional planning. In 2001, he was a research professor at the UOC-Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona. In 2003, he joined the University of Southern California Annenberg School for Communication, as a professor of communication and the first Wallis Annenberg-endowed Chair of Communication and Technology. Castells is a founding member of the USC Center on Public Diplomacy, a senior member of the diplomacy center's Faculty Advisory Council. Castells divides his residence between Spain and the US. Since 2008 he has been a member of the governing board of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, he is Minister of Universities in Spain since January 2020. He has two grand-children; the sociological work of Manuel Castells synthesises empirical research literature with combinations of urban sociology, organization studies, internet studies, social movements, sociology of culture, political economy.

About the origins of the network society, he posits that changes to the network form of enterprise predate the electronic internet technologies associated with network organization forms. Moreover, he coined the term "The Fourth World", denoting the sub-population excluded from the global society. Castells maintains that the Information Age can "unleash the power of the mind", which would increase the productivity of individuals and lead to greater leisure, allowing individuals to achieve "greater spiritual depth and more environmental consciousness"; such change would be positive, he argues. The Information Age, The Age of Consumption, The Network Society are all perspectives attempting to describe modern life as known in the present and to depict the future of society; as Castells suggests, contemporary society may be described as "replacing the antiquated metaphor of the machine with that of the network". In the 1970s, following the path of Alain Touraine, Castells was a key developer of the variety of Marxist urban sociology that emphasises the role of social movements in the conflictive transformation of the city.

He introduced the concept of "collective consumption" comprehending a wide range of social struggles—displaced from the economic stratum to the political stratum via state intervention. Transcending Marxist structures in the early 1980s, he concentrated upon the role of new technologies in the restructuring of an economy. In 1989, he introduced the concept of the "space of flows", the material and immaterial components of global information networks used for the real-time, long-distance co-ordination of the economy. In the 1990s, he combined his two research strands in The Information Age: Economy and Cul

Turkish Psychological Association

The Turkish Psychological Association was founded in 1976. Their headquarters is in Turkey; the Turkish Psychological Association follows several main objectives: Providing help to psychologists and psychology organizations to reach contemporary level. Protecting the professional rights of Psychologists and solving their problems in Turkey. Facilitating union and cooperation between psychologists in Turkey. Facilitating the contribution of psychology science to the public benefit. Identifying the ethical standards for the profession and maintaining these standards in the highest level, their Code of Ethics was adopted in 2004. It was created by Yesim Korkut, Serra Muderrisoglu, Melis Tanik in Istanbul. In June 2014, the TPD launched a special unit to protect LGBT citizens from homophobia and other forms of discrimination in society that LGBT individuals face; this unit is called the LGBTI Force. The unit hosts fundraisers and meetings to spread awareness of the discrimination and promote a stance against conversion of LGBT citizens.

Their first meeting was 29 June 2014. Following the suicide of Turkish transgender sex worker Eylül Cansın on 5 January 2015, the LGBTI Force released a concerned announcement of how one broadcast suicide leads to more suicides among adolescents and young adults. At their young age and suicidal thoughts and/or actions are considered "contagious," in a way, they encouraged media to avoid detailed descriptions of Eylül's suicide as to prevent the cultivation of ideas in any of the viewers minds

Democracy in Marxism

In Marxist theory, a new democratic society will arise through the organised actions of an international working class enfranchising the entire population and freeing up humans to act without being bound by the labour market. There would be little, if any, need for a state, the goal of, to enforce the alienation. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels stated in The Communist Manifesto and works that "the first step in the revolution by the working class, is to raise the proletariat to the position of ruling class, to win the battle for democracy" and universal suffrage, being "one of the first and most important tasks of the militant proletariat"; as Marx wrote in his Critique of the Gotha Program, "between capitalist and communist society there lies the period of the revolutionary transformation of the one into the other. Corresponding to this is a political transition period in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat", he allowed for the possibility of peaceful transition in some countries with strong democratic institutional structures, but suggested that in other countries in which workers can not "attain their goal by peaceful means" the "lever of our revolution must be force", stating that the working people had the right to revolt if they were denied political expression.

In response to the question "What will be the course of this revolution?" in Principles of Communism, Friedrich Engels wrote: Above all, it will establish a democratic constitution, through this, the direct or indirect dominance of the proletariat. While Marxists propose replacing the bourgeois state with a proletarian semi-state through revolution, which would wither away, anarchists warn that the state must be abolished along with capitalism. Nonetheless, the desired end results, a stateless, communal society, are the same. In the 19th century, The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels called for the international political unification of the European working classes in order to achieve a Communist revolution. Marxist social democracy was strongest in Germany throughout the 19th century, the Social Democratic Party of Germany inspired Lenin and other Russian Marxists. During the revolutionary ferment of the Russian Revolution of 1905 and 1917, there arose working-class grassroots attempts of direct democracy with Soviets.

According to Lenin and other theorists of the Soviet Union, the soviets represent the democratic will of the working class and are thus the embodiment of the dictatorship of the proletariat. Lenin and the Bolsheviks saw the soviet as the basic organizing unit of society in a communist system and supported this form of democracy. Thus, the results of the long-awaited Constituent Assembly election in 1917, which Lenin's Bolshevik Party lost to the Socialist Revolutionary Party, were nullified when the Constituent Assembly was disbanded in January 1918. Functionally, the Leninist vanguard party was to provide the working class with the political consciousness and revolutionary leadership necessary to depose capitalism in Imperial Russia. After the October Revolution of 1917, Leninism was the dominant version of Marxism in Russia, and, in establishing soviet democracy, the Bolshevik régime suppressed socialists who opposed the revolution, such as the Mensheviks and factions of the Socialist Revolutionary Party.

In November 1917, Lenin issued the Decree on Workers' Control, which called on the workers of each enterprise to establish an elected committee to monitor their enterprise's management. That month they issued an order requisitioning the country's gold, nationalised the banks, which Lenin saw as a major step toward socialism. In December, Sovnarkom established a Supreme Council of the National Economy, which had authority over industry, banking and trade; the factory committees were subordinate to the trade unions. In early 1918, Sovnarkom refused to pay interest owed on them. In April 1918, it nationalised foreign trade, establishing a state monopoly on exports. In June 1918, it decreed nationalisation of public utilities, engineering, textiles and mining, although these were state-owned in name only. Full-scale nationalisation did not take place until November 1920, when small-scale industrial enterprises were brought under state control. A faction of the Bolsheviks known as the "Left Communists" criticised Sovnarkom's economic policy as too moderate.

Lenin believed that this was impractical at that stage, that the government should only nationalise Russia's large-scale capitalist enterprises, such as the banks, larger landed estates, larger factories and mines, allowing smaller businesses to operate until they grew large enough to be nationalised. Lenin disagreed with the Left Communists about economic organisation. Adopting a left libertarian perspective, both the Left Communists and other factions in the Communist Party critiqued th

Lithuanian football standings (1951–60)

These are the Lithuanian football standings from 1951-1960. A Klase 1 Inkaras Kaunas 21 19 1 1 90- 13 77 39 2 Elnias Siauliai 21 13 3 5 51- 20 31 29 3 Kauno audiniai 21 13 2 6 55- 29 26 28 4 Lituanika Kaunas 21 12 3 6 61- 35 26 27 5 Dinamo Vilnius 21 10 2 9 68- 33 35 22 6 Audra Klaipeda 21 10 1 10 36- 34 2 21 7 ASK Kaunas 21 8 5 8 32- 36 -4 21 8 Saliutas Vilnius 11 6 4 1 36- 17 19 16 9 Zalgiris Panevezys 21 4 5 12 28- 64 -36 13 10 Zalgiris Kybartai 21 4 3 14 30- 59 -29 11 11 Dinamo Utena 21 3 2 16 22- 94 -72 8 12 Zalgiris Ukmerge 21 3 1 17 20- 95 -75 7 Promotion Gubernija Siauliai Lima Kaunas CUP SemiFinal Inkaras Kaunas - Dinamo Utena 3:0 Elnias Siauliai - Lima Kaunas 3:0 Final Inkaras Kaunas - Elnias Siauliai 2:0 A Klase 1 KN Vilnius 22 15 5 2 54- 14 40 35 2 Inkaras Kaunas 22 16 1 5 66- 27 39 33 3 Elnias Siauliai 22 13 3 6 50- 26 24 29 4 Lima Kaunas 22 12 3 7 48- 27 21 27 5 Lituanika Kaunas 22 10 6 6 35- 40 -5 26 6 Dinamo Vilnius 22 8 7 7 31- 20 11 23 7 Kauno audiniai 22 8 5 9 32- 33 -1 21 8 Gubernija Siauliai 22 7 6 9 28- 50 -22 20 9 KPI Kaunas 22 8 3 11 21- 34 -13 19 10 Triniciai Klaipeda 22 4 8 10 34- 36 -2 16 11 Zalgiris Panevezys 22 3 3 16 29- 65 -36 9 12 GSK Kybartai 22 1 4 17 21- 77 -56 6 Promotion JJPF Kaunas Spartakas Plunge CUP SemiFinal KN Vilnius - Eidukeviciaus fab.

Vilnius 3:0 Dinamo Vilnius - Kauno audiniai 2:1 Final KN Vilnius - Dinamo Vilnius 1:0 A Klase 1 Elnias Siauliai 21 15 4 2 45- 20 25 34 2 Inkaras Kaunas 21 14 4 3 58- 15 43 32 3 Lima Kaunas 21 12 3 6 41- 26 15 27 4 KPI Kaunas 21 9 6 6 32- 25 7 24 5 JJPF Kaunas 21 9 4 8 24- 30 -6 22 6 Lituanika Kaunas 21 8 4 9 40- 43 -3 20 7 Dinamo Vilnius 21 8 3 10 26- 33 -7 19 8 Triniciai Klaipeda 21 8 2 11 34- 47 -13 18 9 Spartakas Plunge 21 6 4 11 27- 38 -11 16 10 Gubernija Siauliai 21 5 3 13 14- 33 -19 13 11 Elfa Vilnius 11 5 2 4 16- 13 3 12 12 Kauno audiniai 21 2 1 18 11- 45 -34 5 KN Vilnius 11 5 2 4 24- 8 16 12 Promotion KN Vilnius Raud. Spalis Kaunas CUP SemiFinal Lima Kaunas - Elnias Siauliai 3:2 Triniciai Klaipeda - Spartakas Plunge 1:0 Final Lima Kaunas - Triniciai Klaipeda 4:2 A Klase 1 Inkaras Kaunas 19 17 1 1 44- 18 26 35 2 Lima Kaunas 19 12 1 6 27- 26 1 25 3 Elnias Siauliai 19 11 1 7 57- 28 29 23 4 Raud. Spalis Kaunas 20 10 3 7 35- 33 2 23 5 KPI Kaunas 19 8 6 5 32- 26 6 22 6 Spartakas Vilnius 19 7 4 8 39- 32 7 18 7 JJPF Kaunas 19 5 4 10 28- 38 -10 14 8 Trinyciai Klaipeda 19 5 2 12 26- 41 -15 12 9 Elfa Vilnius 19 4 4 11 24- 46 -22 12 10 Karin.

Namai Vilnius 11 4 3 4 13- 11 2 11 11 Gubernija Siauliai 19 2 3 14 18- 44 -26 7 12 Dinamo Vilnius Promotion MSK Panevezys CUP SemiFinal Inkaras Kaunas - Lima Kaunas 2:1 KPI Kaunas - KN Vilnius 2:0 Final Inkaras Kaunas - KPI Kaunas 4:0 A Klase 1 Lima Kaunas 20 11 7 2 38- 16 22 29 2 Raud. Spalis Kaunas 20 14 1 5 49- 23 26 29 3 Elfa Vilnius 20 12 4 4 35- 26 9 28 4 Inkaras Kaunas 20 9 6 5 39- 31 8 24 5 KPI Kaunas 20 10 4 6 33- 30 3 24 6 Spartakas Vilnius 20 11 1 8 50- 38 12 23 7 MSK Panevezys 20 8 4 8 44- 38 6 20 8 Elnias Siauliai 20 5 5 10 34- 44 -10 15 9 Trinyciai Klaipeda 20 5 3 12 29- 25 4 13 10 Gubernija Siauliai 20 4 2 14 20- 62 -42 10 11 JJPF Kaunas 20 2 1 17 18- 56 -38 5 Final Lima Kaunas - Raud. Spalis Kaunas 3:0 Promotion Linu audiniai Plunge Raud. zvaigzde Vilnius CUP SemiFinal Linu audiniai Plunge - Inkaras Kaunas 3:1 KPI Kaunas - MSK Panevezys 3:1 Final KPI Kaunas - Linu audiniai Plunge 2:0 A Klase 1 Linu audiniai Plunge 22 16 4 2 42- 13 29 36 2 Elnias Siauliai 22 15 3 4 71- 22 49 33 3 MSK Panevezys 22 15 0 7 54- 47 7 30 4 KPI Kaunas 22 13 2 7 42- 38 4 28 5 Spartakas Vilnius 22 11 5 6 53- 34 19 27 6 Inkaras Kaunas 22 8 8 6 38- 28 10 24 7 Raud.

Spalis Kaunas 22 8 5 9 52- 44 8 21 8 Elfa Vilnius 22 9 2 11 44- 32 12 20 9 Lima Kaunas 22 7 3 12 40- 39 1 17 10 Raud. zvaigzde Vilnius 22 7 3 12 27- 41 -14 17 11 Svyturys Klaipeda 22 3 3 16 23- 76 -53 9 12 Gubernija Siauliai 22 0 2 20 8- 80 -72 2 Promotion Nemunas Vilkaviskis CUP SemiFinal Raud. Zvaigzde Vilnius - Elfa Vilnius 3:1 Raud. Spalis Kaunas - KPI Kaunas 1:1 4:0 Final Raud. Spalis Kaunas - Raud. Zvaigzde Vilnius 3:0 A Klase 1 Elnias Siauliai 26 20 5 1 73- 11 62 45 2 Inkaras Kaunas 26 18 5 3 59- 26 33 41 3 Linu audiniai Plunge 26 13 8 5 37- 30 7 34 4 Elfa Vilnius 26 14 4 8 59- 25 34 32 5 MSK Panevezys 26 11 8 7 60- 48 12 30 6 Spartakas Vilnius 26 13 4 9 52- 41 11 30 7 Raud. Spalis Kaunas 26 14 1 11 62- 45 17 29 8 Lima Kaunas 26 11 6 9 40- 33 7 28 9 KPI Kaunas 26 12 3 11 37- 37 0 27 10 Raud. zvaigzde Vilnius 26 8 5 13 27- 32 -5 21 11 Spartakas Kaunas 26 5 3 18 15- 55 -40 13 12 Svyturys Klaipeda 26 5 2 19 2

Thomas S. Sprague House

The Thomas S. Sprague House was a private residence located at 80 West Palmer Avenue in Midtown Detroit, Michigan, it was subsequently demolished. William Scott & Company constructed this house for Thomas S. Sprague, a Detroit real estate developer. Sprague himself lived in the house from 1884 to 1901, when Detroit Evening News editorial writer Arthur D. Welton moved into the house. Arthur Patriache, a manager for the Pere Marquette Railroad, lived in the house from 1905 to 1916. Restaurateur Michael Guarnieri purchased the house in 1916, it remained in the Guarnieri family possession until 1977, when Wayne State University purchased the property; the house was demolished in 1994. The Thomas S. Sprague House was a 2-1/2 story Queen Anne / Shingle style house; the front facade had a variety of projecting and receding elements, a variety of surface treatments, creating an asymmetric composition with rich texture. A one-story hipped roof porch covered the center entrance, wrapped around a corner octagonal turret.

To the side of the entrance was a triple window surmounted with stained glass. Double hung first floor windows in the turret were topped by arched stained glass sections; the turret was topped with a gable. Another bay window was set into the opposite side of the facade; the interior of the house was maintained in nearly original form for 100 years. The interior contained combination gas-electric chandeliers, stained glass windows, patterned hearth tiles, a radiator with a glass door warming oven. A unique asymmetrical butternut fireplace with mantelpiece was in the parlor

Truss rod

The truss rod is component of a guitar or other fretted, stringed-instruments that stabilizes the lengthwise forward curvature, of the neck. It is a steel bar or rod that runs inside the neck, beneath the fingerboard; some are non-adjustable, but most modern truss rods have a nut at one or both ends that adjusts its tension. The first truss rod patent was applied for by Thaddeus McHugh, an employee of the Gibson company, in 1921, though the idea of a "truss rod" appears in patents as early as 1908. A guitar neck made of wood is prone to bending due to atmospheric changes, the pull created by changing to a different gauge of guitar strings and/or different tuning. A truss rod keeps the neck straight by countering the pull of the strings and natural tendencies in the wood; when the truss rod is loosened, the neck bends in response to the tension of the strings. When tightened, the truss rod straightens the neck by resisting string tension. Guitar technicians adjust a guitar neck to have a slight relief to achieve reasonably low action in high fretboard positions, while letting strings ring in low positions.

A lower action in the high fret positions facilitates more accurate intonation with less compensation at the bridge. Relief achieved through the truss rod combines with the height of the bridge to affect the playability of the instrument; the two should be adjusted in concert with each other. Too much relief can make a neck feel floppy and lifeless—while too little can make the strings buzz on the frets. Relief is measured as the distance between the string and the 7th fret while holding down the first and last fret; the amount of relief many guitar manufacturers prefer for an electric guitar is about.007 inches at the 7th fret. Truss rods are required for instruments with steel strings. Without a truss rod, the guitar's wooden neck would warp beyond repair due to applied high tension; such devices are not needed on instruments with lower tension strings, such as the classical guitar, which uses nylon strings. Truss rods allow builders to make instrument necks from less rigid materials, such as cheaper grade of wood, or man-made composites.

Without a truss rod, many of these materials would be unable to properly handle string tension at normal neck dimensions. The neck can be made thinner, which may improve playability. In fact, the 1923 patent touts the possibility of using cheaper materials as an advantage of the truss rod. Before truss rods, builders had to make the neck out of a rigid wood, achieve relief by laboriously planing the fingerboard; the truss rod is not for adjusting intonation or action though adjusting it can make an instrument more playable. Truss rods are made out of steel, though graphite and other materials are sometimes used; the truss rod can be adjusted to compensate for expansion or contraction in the neck wood due to changes in humidity or temperature, or to compensate for changes in the tension of the strings or using different tunings. The truss rod of a brand-new instrument is adjusted by the manufacturer before sale. Turning the truss rod's adjustment bolt clockwise tightens it, counteracting the tension of the strings and straightening the neck or creating a backward bow.

Turning the bolt counter-clockwise loosens it, allowing string tension to act on the neck and creating a forward bow. Some guitars come with dual truss rods that are more stable and not affected by seasonal climate changes; these rods are regarded as being more difficult to adjust. The truss rod tension is controlled using an adjustment bolt. Depending on the model of guitar, this bolt can be located: On older Fender-style electric guitars with bolt-on necks — on the heel of the neck. Adjustment of such truss rods can be done by a Phillips screwdriver and requires prior removal of the guitar's pickguard or neck. On newer Fender-style electric guitars — behind the nut and can be adjusted by a 1/8" Allen wrench. On Fender American Elite Series — an adjustment wheel at the base of the neck on the top of the instrument. On set-neck electrics — under a cover-plate behind the nut. Gibson & Epiphone guitars have their truss rod bolt covered with a signature bell-shaped plate. Most Gibson electrics have a 5/16” or a 1/4" hex adjustable truss rod nut that can be adjusted with a hex box spanner wrench.

On acoustic guitars — inside the guitar body, accessible through the sound hole, or on the headstock. Martins use Gibson uses the same as for the Gibson electrics above. Modern designs include adjustment from the side of the heel of a bolt-on neck; when looking from the body of the guitar to the head, counterclockwise adjustment decreases the truss rod tension and clockwise adjustment increases the truss rod tension. Installing a truss rod in a newly constructed guitar requires woodworking capabilities. Special tools are required including a router with a variety of bits and ability to work with metals. Completed truss rods can be purchased through suppliers or manufactured according to specifications given in literature. A dual action truss rod is a more modern design and it is being used by some luthiers in lieu of the vintage single truss rod; the dual action rod is installed in a straight ch