1906 Intercalated Games
The 1906 Intercalated Games or 1906 Olympic Games was an international multi-sport event, celebrated in Athens, Greece. They were at the time considered to be Olympic Games and were referred to as the "Second International Olympic Games in Athens" by the International Olympic Committee. Whilst medals were distributed to the participants during these games, the medals are not recognized by the IOC today and are not displayed with the collection of Olympic medals at the Olympic Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland; the first Intercalated Games had been scheduled by the International Olympic Committee in 1901 as part of a new schedule, where every four years, in between the internationally organized games, there would be intermediate games held in Athens. This was a compromise: after the successful games of Athens 1896, the Greeks suggested they could organize the games every four years. Since they had the accommodation and had proven they could hold well-organized games, they received some support.
However, Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the International Olympic Committee, opposed this. Coubertin had intended the first games to be in Paris in 1900. After Paris lost the premiere Olympics, Coubertin did not want the games to be permanently hosted elsewhere; when the 1900 Olympic Games failed to meet expectations and were overshadowed by the Exposition Universelle, the IOC supported the Greek idea by granting them a second series of quadrennial games in between the first series. All of the games would be International Olympic Games; this was a departure from the ancient schedule, but it was expected that, if the ancient Greeks could keep a four-year schedule, the modern Olympic Movement could keep a two-year schedule. As 1902 was now too close, Greece experienced internal difficulties, the 2nd Olympic Games in Athens were scheduled for 1906; the IOC as a whole gave the Greek NOC full support for the organization. The 1906 games were quite successful. Unlike the 1900, 1904 or 1908 games, they were neither stretched out over months nor overshadowed by an international exhibition.
Their crisp format was most instrumental in the continued existence of the games. These Games were the first games to have all athlete registration go through the NOCs, they were the first to have the Opening of the Games as a separate event: an event at which for the first time the athletes marched into the stadium in national teams, each following its national flag. They were the first with an Olympic Village, at the Zappeion, they introduced the closing ceremony, the raising of national flags for the victors, several less visible changes now accepted as tradition. The Games were held from 22 April to 2 May 1906, in Greece, they took place in the Panathenaic Stadium, which had hosted the 1896 Games and the earlier Zappas Olympics of 1870 and 1875. The games excluded several disciplines. Added to the program were the javelin throw and the pentathlon; the games included a real opening ceremony, watched by a large crowd. The athletes, for the first time, entered the stadium as national teams, marching behind their flags.
The official opening of the games was done by King George I. There were only two standing jump events in Athens, but Ray Ewry defended his titles in both of them, bringing his total up to 8 gold medals. In 1908 he would defend them one last time for a total of 10 Olympic titles, a feat unparalleled until 2008 when Michael Phelps pushed his Olympic gold medal total to 14. Paul Pilgrim won both the 400 and 800 metres, a feat, first repeated during Montreal 1976 by Alberto Juantorena. Canadian Billy Sherring lived in Greece for two months, his efforts paid off. Prince George accompanied him on the final lap. Finland made its Olympic debut, won a gold medal, as Verner Järvinen won the Discus event. Peter O'Connor of Ireland won gold in the hop and jump and silver in the long jump. In protest at being put on the British team, O'Connor scaled the flagpole and hoisted the Irish flag, while the pole was guarded by Irish and American athletes and supporters. Martin Sheridan of the Irish American Athletic Club, competing for the U.
S. team, won gold in the 16-pound Shot put and the Freestyle Discus throw and silver in the Standing high jump, Standing long jump and Stone throw. He scored the greatest number of points of any athlete at the Games. For his accomplishments he was presented with a ceremonial javelin by King Georgios I; this javelin is still on display in a local pub near Sheridan's hometown in Bohola, County Mayo, Ireland. Six thousand schoolchildren took part in the first Olympic closing ceremony. 854 athletes, 848 men and 6 women, from 20 countries, competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games. 78 events in 14 disciplines, comprising 12 sports, were part of the 1906 Games. These medals are no longer recognized by the International Olympic Committee. * Host nation The mixed team medal is for Belgian/Greek athletes in the Coxed Pairs 1 mile rowing event. In the football event, the silver medal for the team from Smyrna was won by footballers from various nationalities, while the bronze medal for the team from Thessalonica was won by ethnic Greeks competing for Greece, despite both cities being Ottoman possessions at the time.
The only country that did not win medals—Egypt. IOC co
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Football League; the Premier League is a corporation. Seasons run from August to May with each team playing 38 matches. Most games are played on Sunday afternoons; the Premier League has featured 47 English and two Welsh clubs since its inception, making it a cross-border league. The competition was formed as the FA Premier League on 20 February 1992 following the decision of clubs in the Football League First Division to break away from the Football League, founded in 1888, take advantage of a lucrative television rights deal; the deal was worth £1 billion a year domestically as of 2013–14, with BSkyB and BT Group securing the domestic rights to broadcast 116 and 38 games respectively. The league generates € 2.2 billion per year in international television rights. Clubs were apportioned revenues of £2.4 billion in 2016–17. The Premier League is the most-watched sports league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people.
In the 2014–15 season, the average Premier League match attendance exceeded 36,000, second highest of any professional football league behind the Bundesliga's 43,500. Most stadium occupancies are near capacity; the Premier League ranks second in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons, as of 2018. Forty-nine clubs have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 1992. Six of them have won the title since then: Manchester United, Arsenal, Manchester City, Blackburn Rovers, Leicester City; the record of most points in a Premier League season is 100, set by Manchester City in 2017–18. Despite significant European success in the 1970s and early 1980s, the late 1980s marked a low point for English football. Stadiums were crumbling, supporters endured poor facilities, hooliganism was rife, English clubs were banned from European competition for five years following the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985; the Football League First Division, the top level of English football since 1888, was behind leagues such as Italy's Serie A and Spain's La Liga in attendances and revenues, several top English players had moved abroad.
By the turn of the 1990s the downward trend was starting to reverse: at the 1990 FIFA World Cup, England reached the semi-finals. In the 1980s, major English clubs had begun to transform into business ventures, applying commercial principles to club administration to maximise revenue. Martin Edwards of Manchester United, Irving Scholar of Tottenham Hotspur, David Dein of Arsenal were among the leaders in this transformation, it gave the top clubs more power. By threatening to break away, clubs in Division One managed to increase their voting power, they took a 50% share of all television and sponsorship income in 1986. Revenue from television became more important: the Football League received £6.3 million for a two-year agreement in 1986, but by 1988, in a deal agreed with ITV, the price rose to £44 million over four years with the leading clubs taking 75% of the cash. According to Scholar, involved in the negotiations of television deals, each of the First Division clubs received only around £25,000 per year from television rights before 1986, this increased to around £50,000 in the 1986 negotiation to £600,000 in 1988.
The 1988 negotiations were conducted under the threat of ten clubs leaving to form a "super league", but they were persuaded to stay with the top clubs taking the lion share of the deal. As stadiums improved and match attendance and revenues rose, the country's top teams again considered leaving the Football League in order to capitalise on the influx of money into the sport. In 1990, the managing director of London Weekend Television, Greg Dyke, met with the representatives of the "big five" football clubs in England over a dinner; the meeting was to pave the way for a break away from The Football League. Dyke believed that it would be more lucrative for LWT if only the larger clubs in the country were featured on national television and wanted to establish whether the clubs would be interested in a larger share of television rights money; the five clubs decided to press ahead with it. The FA did not enjoy an amicable relationship with the Football League at the time and considered it as a way to weaken the Football League's position.
At the close of the 1991 season, a proposal was tabled for the establishment of a new league that would bring more money into the game overall. The Founder Members Agreement, signed on 17 July 1991 by the game's top-flight clubs, established the basic principles for setting up the FA Premier League; the newly formed top division would have commercial independence from The Football Association and the Football League, giving the FA Premier League licence to negotiate
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr
Lance Edward Armstrong is an American former professional road racing cyclist, infamous for the biggest doping scandal in cycling history. At age 16, Armstrong began competing as a triathlete and was a national sprint-course triathlon champion in 1989 and 1990. In 1992, Armstrong began his career as a professional cyclist with the Motorola team, he had notable success between 1993 and 1996 with the World Championship in 1993, the Clásica de San Sebastián in 1995, Tour DuPont in 1995 and 1996, a handful of stage victories in Europe, including stage 8 of the 1993 Tour de France and stage 18 of the 1995 Tour de France. Armstrong began doping in late Spring of 1995. In 1996, he was diagnosed with a fatal metastatic testicular cancer. After his recovery, he founded the Lance Armstrong Foundation to assist other cancer survivors. Returning to cycling in 1998, he was a member of the US Postal/Discovery team between 1998 and 2005, when he won his Tour de France titles, as well as a bronze medal in the 2000 Summer Olympics.
Armstrong retired from racing at the end of the 2005 Tour de France, but returned to competitive cycling with the Astana team in January 2009, finishing third in the 2009 Tour de France that year. Between 2010 and 2011, he raced with the UCI ProTeam he helped found, he retired for a second time in 2011. Armstrong had been the subject of doping allegations since winning the 1999 Tour de France. In 2012, a United States Anti-Doping Agency investigation concluded that Armstrong had used performance-enhancing drugs over the course of his career and named him as the ringleader of "the most sophisticated and successful doping program that sport has seen." Armstrong chose not to contest the charges. As a result, he was stripped of all of his achievements from August 1998 onward, including his seven Tour de France titles, he received a lifetime ban from all sports that follow the World Anti-Doping Code—ending his competitive career. The International Cycling Union upheld USADA's decision and decided that his stripped wins would not be allocated to other riders.
Armstrong chose not to appeal the decision to the Court of Arbitration for Sport. In a 2013 interview, Armstrong confessed, he declined to testify about the full extent of his use of the drugs. In the aftermath of his fall from grace, a CNN article wrote that "The epic downfall of cycling's star, once an idolized icon of millions around the globe, stands out in the history of professional sports." In a 2015 interview with BBC News, Armstrong stated that if it was still 1995, he would "probably do it again". In April 2018, Armstrong settled a civil lawsuit with the United States Department of Justice and agreed to pay US$5 million to the U. S. Government after whistleblower proceedings were commenced by a former team member, it was alleged that Armstrong violated his contract with the United States Postal Service and committed fraud when he denied using performance-enhancing drugs. Armstrong was born Lance Edward Gunderson on September 18, 1971, at Methodist Hospital in Plano, the son of Linda Gayle, a secretary, Eddie Charles Gunderson, a route manager for The Dallas Morning News.
He is of Canadian and Norwegian descent. He was named after a Dallas Cowboys wide receiver, his parents divorced in 1973. The next year, his mother married Terry Keith Armstrong, a wholesale salesman, who adopted Lance that year. At the age of 12, Armstrong started his sporting career as a swimmer at the City of Plano Swim Club and finished fourth in Texas state 1,500-meter freestyle, he stopped swimming-only races after seeing a poster for a junior triathlon, called the Iron Kids Triathlon, which he won at age 13. In the 1987–1988 Tri-Fed/Texas, Armstrong was ranked the number-one triathlete in the 19-and-under group. Armstrong's total points in 1987 as an amateur were better than those of five professionals ranked higher than he was that year. At 16, Lance Armstrong became a professional triathlete and became national sprint-course triathlon champion in 1989 and 1990 at 18 and 19, respectively. In 1992 Armstrong turned professional with the Motorola Cycling Team, the successor of 7-Eleven team.
In 1993, Armstrong won 10 one-day events and stage races, but his breakthrough victory was the World Road Race Championship held in Norway. Before his World Championships win, he took his first win at the Tour de France, in the stage from Châlons-sur-Marne to Verdun, he was 97th in the general classification when he retired after stage 12. He collected the Thrift Drug Triple Crown of Cycling: the Thrift Drug Classic in Pittsburgh, the K-Mart West Virginia Classic, the CoreStates USPRO national championship in Philadelphia, he is alleged by another cyclist competing in the CoreStates Road Race to have bribed that cyclist so that he would not compete with Armstrong for the win. In 1994, he again won the Thrift Drug Classic and came second in the Tour DuPont in the United States, his successes in Europe occurred when he placed second in Liège–Bastogne–Liège and the Clásica de San Sebastián, where just two years before, he had finished in last place as his first all-pro event in Europe. In a 2016 speech to University of Colorado, Boulder professor Roger A. Pielke, Jr.'s Introduction to Sports Governance class, Armstrong stated he began doping in "late Spring of 1995".
He won the Clásica de San Sebastián in 1995, followed by an overall victory in the penultimate Tou
Paolo Francesco Radmilovic was a Welsh water polo player and competitive swimmer of Croatian and Irish origin who represented Great Britain at four Summer Olympics. He won four Olympic titles in a 22-year Olympic career, he won four gold medals across three successive Olympic Games, a record which stood for a Great Britain Olympic athlete until broken by Sir Steve Redgrave when he won his fifth gold medal at Sydney in 2000. In 1928, he was the first person to compete for Britain at five Olympic Games, a record that would remain until surpassed by fencer Bill Hoskyns in 1976. Radmilovic was born in the Tiger Bay area of Cardiff, the third son of Antun Radmilović, a native of Dubrovnik who relocated to Cardiff in 1860s and became the landlord of the Glastonbury Arms pub in Bute Street, his mother was born in the daughter of Irish immigrants. Radmilovics were the landlords of the Bute Dock Tavern in Bute Street, his paternal ancestors were from Makarska. Radmilovic made his debut for the Wales national water polo team at the age of 15 in 1901 and at the time was the youngest international player in the history of the sport.
He competed in international swimming and water polo for nearly 30 years and was still an active swimmer well into his seventies. He was a competent golfer and footballer, he won his first Amateur Swimming Association title in 1907 when victorious in the open water 5 mile race in the River Thames. His noted versatility came to the fore two years when he won the 100 yards freestyle, he won the English Long Distance Championships in 1907 and 1925, the latter at age 39. A year he won the English One Mile Championship at age 40. A reporter for the'Swimming Times' wrote of his 1925 victory: Until last year he had never held the 1 mile championship of England, but at the East India docks he had quite a comfortable win. "Raddy" believes in careful and systematic training so that before the race, he has some idea as to what the final result would be. Before the mile championship, he is credited with saying: "I shall beat 24 minutes, 30 seconds." He won in 24.22. How many of the younger generation could demonstrate such judgment of pace over a distance?
In all he won nine titles over a 19-year span at tremendously varying distances. His victories at the Welsh national championship took place over an ever-greater timespan. A 100 yards title at the age of 15 in 1901 and a 440 yards victory at the age of 43 in 1929 book-ending his career, his Olympic career began as a swimmer at the 1906 Intercalated Games where he finished 4th in 100 metres freestyle and 5th in the 400 metres event. In the 1 mile event he did not finish. In 1908 he won a gold medal as part of the British water polo team that defeated Belgium 9–2 in the final. Radmilovic scored twice in the final. Two days he was drafted into the 4×200 metre relay squad when another swimmer withdrew due to illness and swam the second leg of a dramatic race. Hungary appeared to be cruising to victory when anchor leg swimmer Zoltán Halmay began to lose consciousness in the water. Halmay struggled to the finish but Henry Taylor had touched four seconds earlier to give the British victory. Radmilovic competed in three individual freestyle events but failed to make a final.
Radmilovic moved to Weston-super-Mare in 1904 and all Olympic successes were gained whilst a resident of this Somerset resort and where he was an ardent member of the local swimming and water polo clubs. He won his third career gold as part of the British water polo team at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm; the Austrians were defeated 8–0 in the final. Radmilovic's fourth and final gold came at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp albeit in eventful circumstances. Great Britain and Belgium had impressed in reaching the final and the game itself was a tight one decided when Radmilovic scored to put the British 3–2 ahead. On the final whistle incensed Belgian spectators attempted to attack the British players. Armed police guarded the team, he competed as a member of the British team in both the 1924 and 1928 Olympic water polo tournaments without medal success. He was 42 years old, his record of four gold medals was unrivalled by any British Olympian until Sir Steve Redgrave equalled and broke it by winning his fifth title in the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney If one includes the 1906 Intercalated Games, he competed at six Olympic Games.
It would only be in 1976 when another athlete, fencer Bill Hoskyns, would compete at six Games for Great Britain. He ran the Imperial Hotel in Weston-super-Mare, England for many years, was still swimming 400 m a day at age seventy-eight. In 1967, he was inducted in the International Swimming Hall of Fame, he was the third Briton to be inducted. Radmilovic died in Weston-super-Mare, England, in 1968 and is buried in Weston Cemetery on Milton Road, his son took over the running of the hotel and continued to display his father's vast trophy collection. He was inducted into the Welsh Sports Hall of Fame in 1993. To celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of his 1908 double-gold Olympic performance, a plaque was placed on the Cardiff International Pool to honour him, paid for by the 2012 London Olympics Committee and the Welsh Assembly. A blue plaque was unveiled by the Mayor of Weston-super-Mare, Cllr Alan Peak, Paulo Radmilovic's grandson, Simon Siddall on the wall of The Imperial, South Parade, Weston-super-Mare on 30 March 2017.
List of athletes with the most appearances at Olympic Games List of multiple Olympic gold medalists List of Olymp
Manresa is the capital of the Comarca of Bages, located in the geographic centre of Catalonia and crossed by the river Cardener. It is an industrial area with textile and glass industries; the houses of Manresa are arranged around the basilica of Santa Maria de la Seu. Saint Ignatius of Loyola stopped to pray in the town on his way back from Montserrat in 1522, he read in solitude in a cave near the town for a year, which contributed to the formulation of his Spiritual Exercises. As such, the town is a place of pilgrimage for Catholics, it is believed the comarcal name "Bages" comes from a corruption of the Latin "Bacchus" due to the extensive production of wine in the area. The wine was grown in terraced vineyards, many of these old terraces can be seen today. Wine ceased to be the main product of the area as a consequence of phylloxera, but is still a important part of the Manresa/Bages economy. During the Napoleonic invasion, the volunteer troops of Manresa defeated the French troops in the Bruch Pass, but the retreating French burned and demolished much of the town.
After the expulsion of Napoleon's troops, Manresans rebuilt the town using the rubble. In 1892 the Unió Catalanista, a confederation of Catalan centres approved the Bases de Manresa the first draft statute of self-government for Catalonia and laid the essential conditions for a Catalan Regional Constitution. Bases propositions included: Catalan should be the sole official language in Catalonia Public order be under the jurisdiction of the Catalan government which should control finance and taxation Catalans only should be eligible for public office in Catalonia Military service was to be replaced by a volunteer corps As prior to 1714, there should be no appeal from decisions of the Catalan high court; the Bases called for the composition of a Catalan Parliament, to be elected by ‘all heads of family, grouped together in classes based on manual work, technical skill or professional careers and on property and commerce, as far as possible through the corresponding guild organizations’ The 1408 Liber Manifesti of Manresa is an influential historical document that lets us peer into Renaissance practice of slavery.
The Liber Manifesti designates slaves as distinct from other servants and provides us with basic but prior elusive figures like the total number of slaves in the town, the proportion of slaves to free people, the percentage of households who owned slaves, the proportion of women and children amongst slaves, the market value of female and child slaves. In the 12th century Manresa was said to have contained 500 Jewish families, most of whom lived in a narrow lane called "Grau dels Jueus," near the town hall. In the 13th and 14th centuries the Jews there were engaged in manufacturing, money-lending, in the cultivation of their vineyards and estates; the hostility of the Christians towards the Jews, which prevailed throughout Catalonia, was manifested in Manresa. In 1325 the Christian inhabitants of the town tried to prevent the Jews from baking their Passover bread, so that the latter were obliged to appeal to the King for protection; the Jews in Manresa did not escape the general persecution of 1391, many of them professed to accept Christianity.
After 1414 comparatively few Jews remained in the town, in 1492 they sold their property for whatever they could get, left the country. At the beginning of the 15th century Manresa had 30,000 inhabitants. Several members of the Zabarra family lived in Manresa; the town is not mentioned in the "Shebeṭ Yehudah." Manresa has a humid subtropical, with cold winters and hot, moderately dry summers, while the rainiest seasons are spring and autumn. Three bridges cross the Cardener River; the 14th-century basilica of Santa Maria de la Seu stands on a rock above the oldest bridge. La Seu is the principal monument of Manresa; the church we can see today was designed by Berenguer de Montagut who designed Santa Maria del Mar, Barcelona. The architectural style is characteristic of Catalan Gothic; the work began in 1325. The municipal museum is housed in the cloisters of the 17th-century church of Sant Ignasi; this church is part of the Sanctuary Cave of Saint Ignatius, built over a cave in which Saint Ignatius of Loyola is said to have prayed and meditated.
Industry in the town covers textile-making and glass manufacture. The Fira Mediterrania in Manresa is held the first complete weekend in November every year, it is the main meeting point and trade fair of the mediterranean world and roots artists with distributors, agencies, export offices, instrument makers and dealers and other professionals. The original building dates back to the 19th century. Remodeling was agreed to be needed due to the old building's impractical use in Modern times. At the end of 2004, a competition was held to remodel the building with the aim of easing its disabled circulation; the Barcelona-based Add + Arquitectura was selected and the project was completed in 2008. Add partners Manuel Bailo and Rosa Rull were responsible for the design. Bailo and Rull's key move was to demolish and extend the rear south-west wall of the town hall in order to implant a new circulation core The front of the building maintained its traditional structure but at the rear of the building, the elevator and staircase are encased
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti