A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, in some nations' air forces or marines. The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank, it originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank; however different countries use other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations; the various grades of general officer are at the top of the military rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in land-centric military forces are known as field officers or field-grade officers, below them are company-grade officers. There are two common systems of general ranks used worldwide.
In addition, there is a third system, the Arab system of ranks, used throughout the Middle East and North Africa but is not used elsewhere in the world. Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe, it is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth and the United States of America. The general officer ranks are named by prefixing "general", as an adjective, with field officer ranks, although in some countries the highest general officers are titled field marshal, marshal, or captain general; the other is derived from the French Revolution, where generals' ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a colonel general rank; the rank of field marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank, while in other countries it was used as a divisional or brigade rank. Many countries used two brigade command ranks, why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia. Mexico and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks.
In some nations, the equivalent to brigadier general is brigadier, not always considered by these armies to be a general officer rank, although it is always treated as equivalent to the rank of brigadier general for comparative purposes. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major; the serjeant major was the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general and lieutenant general. The distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was dropped from both rank titles, creating the modern rank titles. Serjeant major as a senior rank of non-commissioned officer was a creation; the armies of Arab countries use traditional Arabic titles. These were formalized in their current system to replace the Turkish system, in use in the Arab world and the Turco-Egyptian ranks in Egypt. Other nomenclatures for general officers include the titles and ranks: Adjutant general Commandant-general Inspector general General-in-chief General of the Army General of the Air Force General of the Armies of the United States, a title created for General John J. Pershing, subsequently granted posthumously to George Washington Generaladmiral Air general and aviation general Wing general and group general General-potpukovnik Director general Director general of national defence Controller general Prefect general Master-General of the Ordnance – senior British military position.
Police Director General. Commissioner Admiral In addition to militarily educated generals, there are generals in medicine and engineering; the rank of the most senior chaplain, is usually considered to be a general officer rank. In the old European system, a general, without prefix or suffix, is the most senior type of general, above lieutenant general and directly below field marshal as a four-star rank, it is the most senior peacetime rank, with more senior ranks being used only in wartime or as honorary titles. In some armies, the rank of captain general, general of the army, army general or colonel general occupied or occupies this position. Depending on circumstances and the army in question, these ranks may be considered to be equivalent to a "full" general or to a field marshal; the rank of general came about as a "captain-general", the captain of an army in general (i.e. th
Caracas Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela, centre of the Greater Caracas Area. Caracas is located along the Guaire River in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range. Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 1,140 m above sea level, although there is some settlement above this range; the valley is close to the Caribbean Sea, separated from the coast by a steep 2,200-metre-high mountain range, Cerro El Ávila. The Metropolitan Region of Caracas has an estimated population of 4,923,201. Speaking, the centre of the city is still "Catedral", located near Bolívar Square though it is assumed that it is Plaza Venezuela, located in the Los Caobos neighbourhood. Chacaíto area, Luis Brión Square and El Rosal neighborhood are considered the geographic center of the Metropolitan Region of Caracas called "Greater Caracas". Businesses in the city include service companies and malls.
Caracas has a service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area. The Caracas Stock Exchange and Petróleos de Venezuela are headquartered in Caracas. PDVSA is the largest company in Venezuela. Caracas is Venezuela's cultural capital, with many restaurants, theaters and shopping centers; some of the tallest skyscrapers in Latin America are located in Caracas. Caracas has been considered one of the most important cultural, tourist and economic centers of Latin America; the Museum of Contemporary Art of Caracas is one of the most important in South America. The Museum of Fine Arts and the National Art Gallery of Caracas are noteworthy; the National Art Gallery is projected to be the largest museum in Latin America, according to its architect Carlos Gómez De Llarena. Caracas is home to two of the tallest skyscrapers in South America: the Parque Central Towers, it has a nominal GDP of 91,988 million dollars, a nominal GDP per capita of 18,992 and a PPP GDP per capita of 32,710 dollars.
Being the seventh city in GDP and the seventh metropolitan area in population of Latin America. Caracas has the highest per capita murder rate in the world, with 111.19 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. At the time of the founding of the city in 1567, the valley of Caracas was populated by indigenous peoples. Francisco Fajardo, the son of a Spanish captain and a Guaiqueri cacica, attempted to establish a plantation in the valley in 1562 after founding a series of coastal towns. Fajardo's settlement did not last long, it was destroyed by natives of the region led by Guaicaipuro. This was the last rebellion on the part of the natives. On 25 July 1567, Captain Diego de Losada laid the foundations of the city of Santiago de León de Caracas; the foundation − 1567 – "I take possession of this land in the name of God and the King" These were the words of Don Diego de Losada in founding the city of Caracas on 25 July 1567. In 1577, Caracas became the capital of the Spanish Empire's Venezuela Province under Governor Juan de Pimentel.
During the 17th century, the coast of Venezuela was raided by pirates. With the coastal mountains as a barrier, Caracas was immune to such attacks. However, in 1595, around 200 English privateers including George Sommers and Amyas Preston crossed the mountains through a little-used pass while the town's defenders were guarding the more often-used one. Encountering little resistance, the invaders sacked and set fire to the town after a failed ransom negotiation; as the cocoa cultivation and exports under the Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas grew in importance, the city expanded. In 1777, Caracas became the capital of the Captaincy General of Venezuela. José María España and Manuel Gual led an attempted revolution aimed at independence, but the rebellion was put down on 13 July 1797. Caracas was the site of the signing of a Declaration of independence on 17 August 1811. In 1812, an earthquake destroyed Caracas; the independentist war continued until 24 June 1821, when Bolívar defeated royalists in the Battle of Carabobo.
Caracas grew in economic importance during Venezuela's oil boom in the early 20th century. During the 1950s, Caracas began an intensive modernization program which continued throughout the 1960s and early 1970s; the Universidad Central de Venezuela, designed by modernist architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva and declared World Heritage by UNESCO, was built. New working- and middle-class residential districts sprouted in the valley, extending the urban area toward the east and southeast. Joining El Silencio designed by Villanueva, were several workers' housing districts, 23 de Enero and Simon Rodriguez. Middle-class developments include Bello Monte, Los Palos Grandes, El Cafetal; the dramatic change in the economic structure of the country, which went from being agricultural to dependent on oil production, stimulated the fast development of Caracas, made it a magnet for people in rural communities who migrated to the capital city in an unplanned fashion searching for greater economic opportunity. This migration created the rancho belt of the valley of Caracas.
The flag of Caracas consists of a burgundy red field with the version of the Coat of Arms of the City. The red field symbolises the blood spilt by Caraquenian people in favour of independence and the highest ideals of the Venezuelan Nation. In the year 1994 as a result of the change of municipal authorities, it was decided to increase the size of the Caracas coat of arms and move it to the centre of the field; this version
Puerto Cabello is a city on the north coast of Venezuela. It is located in Carabobo State, about 210 km west of Caracas; as of 2011, the city had a population of around 182,400. The city is home to the largest and busiest port in the country and is thus a vital cog in the country's vast oil industry; the word'cabello' translates to'hair'. The Spaniards took to saying that the sea was so calm there that a ship could be secured to the dock by tying it with a single hair. Puerto Cabello's location made it an easy prey to buccaneers and was a popular trading post for Dutch smugglers during the 17th century. Most of the contraband trade consisted of cocoa with neighboring island Curaçao, colonized by the Dutch. Puerto Cabello was at that time under Dutch control, it was not until 1730 that the Spanish took over the port, after the Real Compañía Guipuzcoana had moved in. This company built wharves and an array of forts to protect the harbor. During the War of Jenkins' Ear, Puerto Cabello was the careening port of the Company, whose ships had rendered great assistance to the Spanish navy in carrying troops, arms and ammunition from Spain to her colonies, its destruction was a severe blow to both the Company and the Spanish government.
The commodore Charles Knowles at command of the 70-gun HMS Suffolk in 1743 received orders to carry out attacks on the Spanish settlements at Puerto Cabello and La Guaira. The Spanish governor Gabriel de Zuluaga, well informed of the plans, recruited extra defenders and acquired gunpowder by the Dutch. An attack on La Guaira, on 18 February 1743, the English fleet was beaten off by the defenders. Knowles withdrew his force and refitted at Curaçao before attempting an assault on Puerto Cabello on April 15, again on April 24, but both assaults were beaten back. Knowles returned to Jamaica. By the 1770s, Puerto Cabello came to be the most fortified town on the Venezuelan coast; the San Felipe castle and the Solano fortress remain from the period. The frigate Santa Cecilia, under the command of Captain Don Ramon de Chalas, sat in Puerto Cabello until Captain Edward Hamilton, aboard HMS Surprise, cut her out of the harbour on October 25, 1799; the Spanish casualties included 120 dead. Eleven of Hamilton's men were injured, four but none were killed.
Hamilton himself was wounded. The forces of the First Republic of Venezuela held San Felipe castle. In 1812 Simón Bolívar a colonel in the independist forces, was appointed commandante of Puerto Cabello, he left. In 1821 the Spanish retreated to the castle after their defeat at the decisive Battle of Carabobo. Puerto Cabello was the last Spanish royalist stronghold during Venezuela's war for independence, it was captured by José Antonio Páez on November 8, 1823; the harbour came under Anglo-German attack in the Venezuelan crisis of 1902–03 and according to press reports was left in ruins. In 1962, Puerto Cabello was the site of an uprising, known as El Porteñazo, by pro-Fidel Castro naval officers and members of the FALN. Although loyalist naval forces were able to take back the base and arrest the rebels, they were unable to prevent the marines from occupying the city and arming pro-Castro forces. Despite ambushes and bloody house-to-house fighting, loyal National Guard and mechanized regular forces were able to retake Puerto Cabello.
With the ongoing crisis amid food shortages on 23 February 2019 that coupled with economic damages, the aid, supposed to arrive to the port was turned away by the Bolivarian Navy of Venezuela, threatening to "open fire" at it, forcing the aid to redirect back to Puerto Rico. Protestants Graveyard. Solano Fortress San Felipe Castle. Long Island. Puente de Los Españoles. Teatro Municipal Carlos Zambrano, professional baseball player for the Miami Marlins, was born here. Pablo Sandoval, professional baseball player for the San Francisco Giants, was born here. Fernando Nieve, professional baseball player for the New York Mets, was born here. Victor Moreno, professional baseball player, was born here. Félix Doubront, professional baseball player for the Chicago Cubs, was born here. Willson Contreras, professional baseball player for the Chicago Cubs, was born here. Bartolome Salom, heroe of independence war. José Altuve, professional baseball player for the Houston Astros was born here. Puerto Cabello is served by a station on the Instituto de Ferrocarriles del Estado network.
The UCOCAR shipyards are in Puerto Cabello and have been awarded contracts to construct patrol vessels for the Venezuela Coast Guard. Despite the Puerto Cabello's once bustling port, port traffic disappeared when the price of oil collapsed, which affected the country, dependent on imports paid for with the high price of oil; as part of the Venezuelan crisis, many of the poorer citizens in "shantytowns" in Puerto Cabello now struggle for food. Citizens wait in long lines to buy government-mandated priced groceries and the current experienced nearly 64% depreciation as of May, 2017; as of August 2017, the depreciation percentage was as much as 94%. Venezuela Carabobo State List of cities in Venezuela Railway stations in Venezuela World Press Photo of the Year award winner from 1962 rebellion
José Francisco Bermúdez
José Francisco Bermúdez was a Venezuelan who fought in the Venezuelan War of Independence, reaching the rank of General. He is buried in the National Pantheon of Venezuela. A municipality and an airport, both in his native Sucre State, are named in his honour
La Guaira is the capital city of the Venezuelan state of Vargas and the country's main port. It was founded in 1577 as an outlet for 30 kilometres to the southeast; the town and the port were badly damaged during the December 1999 floods and mudslides that affected much of the region. The city hosts its own professional baseball team in the Venezuelan Professional Baseball League, the Tiburones de La Guaira, they have won seven national championships since their founding in 1962. After the founding of Caracas by Spanish in 1567, toward the turn of the 16th century, the Port of La Guaira emerged on the coast and, since that time, has been the gateway to Caracas; this coastal city without land to develop and bathed by the Caribbean Sea, became an important harbour during the 18th century. Attacked by buccaneers and by the English and French armadas, La Guaira was transformed into a fortified, walled city. During the War of Jenkins' Ear, the first attack of the Royal Navy took place on La Guaira.
This period saw the trading monopoly of the Royal Gipuzkoan Company of Caracas, which controlled the major ports of La Guaira and Puerto Cabello and was instrumental in the development of large-scale cocoa production along the valleys of the coast. The English frigate HMS Hermione was delivered to the Spanish authorities at La Guaira after her crew mutinied in 1797. Another small naval battle was fought off La Guaira in 1812, between privateers of the United States and the United Kingdom. Now La Guaira is the second port by importance in Venezuela after Puerto Cabello. La Guaira Bank is an underwater ridge, 12 miles off the coast from the city of La Guaira; the bank is 12 miles long from east to west and 4 miles wide from north to south, it rises from 50 fathoms in the surrounding area to 140 fathoms. The area provides the structure to deep-sea animals, other organisms such as gorgonians and coral, that require ocean currents to bring their food to them. Westerly currents flow off the coast of Venezuela, the bank acts as a barrier to the current, creating an upwelling of nutrients to the ocean surface from deep-water stockpiles.
These nutrients fuel an explosion of planktonic plant and animal growth, attract larger animals such as whales, porpoises and large pelagics such as tuna, wahoo, dolphin fish, four different types of marlin. It is considered one of the top sport fishing destinations in the world due to the unusually high numbers of Atlantic blue marlin, white marlin and spearfish that congregate at different seasons, are available year round
Willemstad is the capital city of Curaçao, an island in the southern Caribbean Sea that forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The capital of the Netherlands Antilles prior to its dissolution in 2010, it has an estimated population of 150,000; the historic centre of the city consists of four quarters: the Punda and Otrobanda, which are separated by the Sint Anna Bay, an inlet that leads into the large natural harbour called the Schottegat, as well as the Scharloo and Pietermaai Smal quarters, which are across from each other on the smaller Waaigat harbour. Willemstad is home to the oldest surviving synagogue in the Americas; the city centre, with its unique architecture and harbour entry, has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Punda was established in 1634; the original name of Punda was de punt in Dutch. Otrobanda, founded in 1707, is the newer section of the city and is considered to be the cultural centre of Willemstad, its name originated from the Papiamentu otro banda, which means "the other side."The Curaçao synagogue was built by Sephardic Portuguese Jews from Amsterdam and Recife, Brazil.
Insel Air, the national airline of Curaçao, has its corporate head office in Maduro Plaza. Tourism is a major industry and the city has several casinos; the city centre of Willemstad has an array of colonial architecture, influenced by Dutch styles. Archaeological research has been developed there. Owing to its location near the Venezuelan oilfields, its political stability and its natural deep water harbour, Willemstad became the site of an important seaport and refinery. Willemstad's harbour is one of the largest oil handling ports in the Caribbean; the refinery, at one point the largest in the world, was built and owned by Royal Dutch Shell in 1915. The four companies comprising the Royal Dutch Shell refining operation. Schlumberger, the world's largest oil field services company is incorporated in Willemstad. Numerous financial institutions are incorporated in Willemstad due to Curaçao's favourable tax policies; the Avalon University School of Medicine is located in Willemstad. The Caribbean Medical University is located in Willemstad, close to the city centre.
Major League Baseball players Jair Jurrjens, Wladimir Balentien, Jurickson Profar, Andruw Jones, Ozzie Albies, Kenley Jansen and Jonathan Schoop are from Willemstad. Pabao Little League has appeared in five Little League World Series, winning in 2004. In 2008, another Pabao Little League team won the Junior League World Series, after winning the Latin America Region defeating the Asia-Pacific Region and Mexico Region champions to become the International champion, defeating the U. S. champion, Hilo American/National LL, 5-2. Willemstad is served by Curaçao International Airport, located 12 kilometres north of the city, annually used by about two million passengers. Punda and Otrobanda are connected by a long pontoon bridge. Although it is still in use, these days most road traffic now uses the Queen Juliana Bridge built in 1967 which arches high over the bay further inland. Nearby is the now non-functioning Queen Wilhelmina drawbridge. Willemstad has a tropical savannah climate. Major League Baseball players Andruw Jones, Jonathan Schoop, Kenley Jansen, Ozzie Albies were born in Willemstad.
Tennis player Jean-Julien Rojer was born in Willemstad. Footballer Kemy Agustien was born in Willemstad. Footballer Vurnon Anita was born in Willemstad. Footballer for Manchester United Tahith Chong born in Willemstad. Curaçao